Skip to main content

Full text of "A Study Guide In General Science And Biology For The Smithsonian Scientific Series"

See other formats


s Volume is for 
RENCE USE ONLY 




** 



A Study Guide 

IN GENERAL SCIENCE 
AND BIOLOGY 

FOR THE SMITHSONIAN 
SCIENTIFIC SERIES 



PREPARED BY 

MORRIS ME1STER, Ph.D. 

SCIENCE SUPERVISOR, NEW YORK CITY SCHOOLS 

LOUIS E1SMAN, B.S. 

TEACHER OF BIOLOGY, JAMES MADISON HIGH SCHOOL 

ALEXANDER JOSEPH, M.S. 

TEACHER OF GENERAL SCIENCE, 
HAAREN HIGH SCHOOL 




COPYRIGHT 1936 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION SERIES, 
PRINTED IN U. S. A. 



FOREWORD 



The Smithsonian Scientific Series 

This series of twelve, beautifully printed and illus 
trated volumes is a unique and successful effort to bring to 
the layman the simple story of man's progress in the sciences. 
The story is told by specialists who can speak with authority. 
Their work is recognized by the whole world, as is also the 
institution by whom they are sponsored. 

Because the audience to which the different authors 
have addressed themselves is meant to be the average intel 
ligent citizen, the books are admirably suited for boys and 
girls in secondary schools. Teachers of science have long 
been searching for adequate supplementary reading for 
their pupils. There is a great need for material that is vivid 
enough to hold the attention of adolescents, scientifically 
accurate so as to command their respect, and sufficiently 
non-technical to be within their level of comprehension. All 
of this the Series achieves, in a framework which coincides 
with the modern courses of study in General Science and 
Biology. 

In the words of Dr. Charles Greeley Abbot, world- 
renowned scientist and Editor of the Series, "These volumes 
do not represent an attempt to summarize all science, or 
even all branches of science on which the Smithsonian can 
speak with authority. They will, however, acquaint the 
reader with the organization, history, and activities of the 
scientific institution which has grown up with the nation and 
fostered the nation's scientific activities; they will introduce 
him to the workings and achievements of the scientific 
method over a large field, and open doors to some branches 
of science to which he will not find the key elsewhere." 
Thus, the Series is quite different from a textbook or an 
encyclopedia of information. Too often, in school work, we 



are disappointed at pupil reactions to the text or to the 
reference volume. They will not read it; yet they devour 
the Sunday Science Supplement and the extravagantly writ 
ten science magazines. In the Smithsonian Scientific Series, 
the teacher of science will find a center of pupil interest. 
The books will be read because they have human appeal. 
Since they do not attempt to cover all science topics with 
uniform completeness, they are better adapted to the needs 
of different science classes and different pupils. 

Ideas Underlying the Study Outline 

First, the material of the twelve volumes was carefully 
scrutinized for the contributions it may make to the science 
education of boys and girls in grades seven to ten, inclusive. 
For these age groups, the school curriculum includes a 
course in General Science, followed by another in General 
Biology. Courses of study in these subjects differ somewhat 
from each other in different localities ; but the trend every 
where has been toward an integrated and articulated se 
quence of science studies through the grades. This sequence 
aims to develop an ever-growing understanding of the 
science environment in terms of the important generaliza 
tions or u big ideas*' of science. 

Secondly, a Study Outline was developed to include the 
important ideas and generalizations usually found in courses 
in General Science and Biology. For the sake of convenience 
in use by the teacher and pupil, the two courses have been 
treated as one. The Units of the Outline are progressively 
graded in the matter of difficulty and are presented in a 
teaching sequence which is well-adapted to a variety of con 
ditions. The materials of the twelve volumes are organized 
around the Outline as a framework. 

Thirdly, the Outline is replete with suggestions for 
teaching procedures based upon modern educational prac 
tice. It is assumed that the pupil learns most effectively 
when he is getting real experiences. Reading is an experi 
ence ; so is an experiment, a construction project, a field trip, 
a museum visit, a class report, or a class discussion. All of 
these are indicated by the Outline. 

C'V] 



In the belief that genuine pupil effort follows genuine 
interest and that interest-stimulated effort results in the 
most effective learning, the Outline suggests thousands of 
thought-challenging problems based on readings in the 
Series and offers clues to the solutions. Thus, the pupil is 
shown how to read with a purpose ; the teacher can see at a 
glance what are the "high points" of a given chapter or 
volume. 

How the Study Outline is Arranged: 

The Outline presents twenty-four Units of study cov 
ering the generally accepted syllabus in General Science and 
Biology. The Units are arranged in a logical teaching se 
quence ; but each Unit may be used independently. The Out 
line as a whole is presented in the Table of Contents on 
pages v to xxyii. Following this, the Outline is repeated in 
the Study Guide proper, with the various page references 
and challenging questions indicated for each sub-topic. A 
consistent plan for teaching procedures is followed through 
out. Each Unit closes with a list of 'Things to Do", "Class 
Discussions", "Pupil Reports", and "Self-Test Exercises." 

How to Use the Study Outline: 

1. For Supplementary Reading. 

Locate the Units in the Outline which are included in 
the course which you follow. The Series references will 
guide you at once to material which supplements and ampli 
fies your text. These references will furnish opportunities 
for caring for individual differences among pupils. They 
will provide outlets for interests generated by your class 
work, 

2. For Assignments. 

The Series is so helpful in the development of numer 
ous ideas and concepts in science that the teacher can fre 
quently assign readings on topics which are inadequately 
treated by the text, 

3. For Pupil Reports, 

Whenever a pupil shows a special interest, ask him to 
read the reference indicated by the Outline and give him an 
opportunity to report to the class. 



4- For Class Discussion. 

Many of the thought-provoking questions listed at the 
close of each Unit are admirably suited for class discussions 
after the Unit has been taught. Such discussions are excel 
lent means of review. 

5. For Projects and Experiments. 

The pupil who likes to build things and to perform 
experiments may be referred to the 'Things to Do" section 
to be found in each of the twenty-four Units. Class work 
should be organized so as to provide time for demonstrating 
and explaining to the group the various projects built and 
experiments performed. 

6. For Outgrowth Activities. 

Each science lesson should result in a variety of out 
growth activities for different members of the class. The 
Outline gives many suggestions along this line. Attention 
is called to the various field and museum trips that correlate 
with the reading material furnished by the Series in many 
of the Outline Units. 

7. For Independent Study. 

Pupils that need special help and those that wish to 
forge ahead may be guided by the Outline to do independent 
work. 

8. For Self -Testing. 

Each Unit closes with one or two interesting tests. The 
type of questions used are those which experienced teachers 
have found to be attractive to pupils* Some of the tests are 
completion exercises; others are puzzles, anagrams, match 
ing devices and "code" problems. Pupils enjoy testing 
themselves on the readings they have done. The tests may 
also be used for review. 

9. For Topic References. 

Occasionally a problem or a topic arises in class on 
which information is needed. The combined Index on pages 
397 to 463 will serve as a ready means of reference. 

10, To Help in Teacher Presentations* 

The teacher is helped by the Outline to plan his lessons. 
Suggestions for motivation and demonstrations are given in 
many of the Units. 



CONTENTS 



/. The Earth in Space I 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters I, u, 12, 13, 
14; Vol. Ill all of Part One; Vol. VII, 
Chapter i ) 

A. Our Place in The Universe I 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters n, 14 and Ap 
pendix; Vol. Ill, Chapters i, 4; Vol. VII, 
Chapter i) 

B. The Earth in The Solar System. . 2 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters n, 14 and Ap 
pendix; Vol. Ill, Chapters i, 4; Vol. VII, 
Chapter i) 

C. Meteors 3 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7> 8) 

D. Movements of The Earth 6 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters 12, 13) 

E. Changing Seasons and Different Climates. . 7 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 7; Vol. IV, 
Chapter 3; Vol. VII, Chapter n) 

Pupil and Class Activities 9 

A. Things To Do 9 

B. Class Discussions 9 

C. Pupil Reports 10 

D. Self-Test Exercises 1 1 

//. The Earth's Atmosphere 13 

A. An Invisible Ocean *3 

[Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 3; Vol. VII, 
Chapter i) 

v 



CONTENTS 

B. Air and Fire 13 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part i, Chapters i, 2, 3, 
5; Vol. IV, Chapters 3, 7; Vol. V, Chapter 
10; Vol. VII, Chapters 10, u; Vol. XII, 
Chapter 7) 

C. Air and Living Things 14 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 4, 9, 10; Vol. 
VII, Chapter 3; Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapter 
3; Part 2, Chapters 2, 3, 4; Vol. IX, Part 
2, Chapter 1 1 ; Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter I ) 

D. Why Our Air Supply Lasts 15 

(Consult Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter i) 

E. How Living Things Breathe i $ 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter i, 4; Vol. X, 
Chapters 2, 4) 

F. Hearing Through the Air 16 

(Consult Vol. II, Appendix; Vol. V, Chap 
ters 2, 7; Vol. VII, Chapter 10; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapter 3; Vol. IX, Part I, Chapter 
9; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 4, 5) 

Pupil and Class Activities l& 

A. Things To Do 18 

B. Pupil Reports , 1 8 

C. Self-Test Exercises 19 



///. Water on the Earth ..... . .............. 23 

A. Water and Living Things .............. 23 

(Consult Vol. 11, Chapters 10, 13; Vol. 
VIII, Part i, Chapters, i, 2, 3, 5, 8; Part 2, 
Chapters i, 2, 3, 4; Vol. IX, Part i, Chap 
ter 7; Part 2, Chapter u; Vol. X, Part i, 
Chapters 3, 7; Part 2, Chapters 2, 3; Vol. 
XI, Part i, Chapter i; Part 6, Chapters 



v 



CONTENTS 

B. The Changing Forms of Water 26 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 5; Vol. Ill, Part 
2, Chapter 2; Vol. VII, Chapter 10; Vol. 
XII, Chapter 3) 

C. Water The Great Dissolver 27 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapters 2, 4; 
Vol. VI, Chapter 20; Vol. XII, Chapter 9) 

D. Water Power 27 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapter 7) 

Pupil and Class Activities 29 

A. Things To Do 29 

B. Pupil Reports 30 

C. Self-Test Exercises 30 

IV. The Surface of the Earth 33 

A. Examining the Surface of the Earth 33 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapters i, 2; Vol. VII, 
Chapter 5 ; Vol. VIII, Part 2, Chapter I ; 
Vol. IX, Part 2, Chapters i, 2, 8, 10; Vol. 

X, Part i, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7; Vol. 

XI, Part i, Chapter 5; Part 5, Chapter i) 

B. Change in the Surface of the Earth 35 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters i, 2, 5, n, 15, 
17; Vol. X, Part i, Chapters i, 3, 4, 7; Vol. 
XI, Part 4, Chapter 2; Vol. XII, Chapter 
8) 

Pupil and Class Activities 39 

A. Things To Do 39 

B. Class Discussions 39 

C. Self-Test Exercises 40 

V. Living Things on The Earth 43 

A. Kinds of Living Things 43 

vii 



CONTENTS 

1. Plants 43 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 2; Vol. X, 
Part i, Chapters 4, 7; Vol. XI, Part I, 
Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Part 2, Chapter 
2 ; Part 3, Chapter 2 ; Part 4, Chapter i ; 
Part 7, Chapter I ; Part 8, Chapter 2) 

2. Mollusks , 45 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 2; Vol. X, 
Part 3, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5) 

3. Crustaceans 46 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 2; Vol. X, 
Part 2, Chapters i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8) 

4. Insects 48 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 13; Vol. V, 
Chapters i, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10; Vol. VII, 
Chapter 2; Vol. IX, Chapter 3) 

5. Fish 50 

(Consult Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapters i, 

2, 3>5> 8) 

6. Amphibians 52 

(Consult Vol. VIII, Part I, Chapter i; 
Part 2, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4; Vol. X, Part 
i, Chapter 6) 

7. Reptiles 53 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 21; Vol. 

VIII, Part 2, Chapter i ; Part 3, Chap 
ters i, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12) 

8. Birds . - . 55 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 20; Vol. IX, 
Part i, Chapters x, 2, 3, 6, xo, 12) 

9. Mammals 57 

(Consult VoL VI, Chapters i, 3, 4, 9, 
n, 12, 13, 15, 19; VoL VII, Chapters 2, 
6, 1 1 ; VoL IX, Part 2, Chapters 3, 4, 5, 
6, 8, 9, 10, 11) 

viii 



CONTENTS 

B. Needs of Living Things 62 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 4, 10; Vol. VI, 
Chapters 10, n, 13; Vol. VIII, Part i, 
Chapter 3; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapter 3; Vol. 
XI, Part i, Chapters i, 6; Part 6, Chapter 
O 

C. Living Things in Their Surroundings 63 

1. Plants in Their Surroundings 63 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter n; Vol. XI, 
Part i, Chapters i, 5, 6; Part 3, Chapter 

i ; Part 7, Chapter i ; Part 8, Chapter 2) 

2. Animals and Their Need for Air and 

Water 64 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4; 
Vol. V, Chapter 10; Vol. VI, Chapters 
10, 21 ; Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapter i; 
Part 2, Chapter 4; Part 3, Chapters 9, 
12, Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 2, 3) 

3. Animals in Relation to Temperature. . . 65 
(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 5, 10; Vol. 

VI, Chapters 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, 14; Vol. 
VIII, Part i, Chapters 5, 8; Part 3, 
Chapters 8, 9, 12; Vol. IX, Part I, 
Chapter i ; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 3, 
4) 

4. The Need for Food 67 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapter i; Vol. V, 
Chapters 9, 10; Vol. VI, Chapters 20, 
21 ; Vol. VIII, Part I, Chapter i; Vol. 
X, Part 2, Chapters i, 3, 4) 

5. The Need for Shelter 68 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 5, 7 ; Vol. VI, ' 
Chapters 5, 8, 17, 20; Vol. IX, Part i, 
Chapters i, 8; Part 2, Chapter n; Vol. 

X, Part 2, Chapter 4; Part 3, Chapters i, 
*, 4) 



IX 



CONTENTS 

6. Living Together 69 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 5) 

D. Man's Relation to Other Living Things. . . 69 

1. Our Food and Living Things 69 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4; 
Vol. V, Chapters i, 2, 3, 6, 10; Vol. VI, 
Chapters I, 4, 5, n, 15, 19, 20; Vol. 
VII, Chapter 17; Vol. VIII, Part I, 
Chapter 5; Part 3, Chapter 9; Vol. IX, 
Part i, Chapters I, $ : 6, 10, n, 12; Vol. 

X, Part 2, Chapters i, 3, 4, 8, 9; Vol. 

XI, Part i, Chapters i, 6; Part 2, Chap 
ter 2) 

2. Our Health and Living Things 74 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 10; Vol. VI, 
Chapters 4, 16, 21; VoL VIII, Part 3, 
Chapters n, 12; VoL X, Part 2, Chap 
ters 3, 8, 9 ; Part 3, Chapters 4, 5) 

3. Controlling Our Enemies 76 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters i, 6) 

'4. Ascendancy of Man Over Other Living 

Things 76 

(Consult VoL IV, Chapters I, 3; VoL 
VI, Chapters n, 13, 17; VoL VII, Chap 
ters 4, 10, it, 12, 13, 14, 15, i6;Vol. X, 
Part i, Chapter 7; VoL XI, Part 4, 
Chapter i ) 

5. General Relationships 78 

(Consult VoL III, Part 2, Chapter 4; 
Vol. V, Chapters 5, 7; VoL VI, Chapters 
i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 1 1, 12, 21 ; VoL VII, Chap 
ter 13; VoL VIII, Part 2, Chapter 3; 
Part 3, Chapters 10, 1 1 ; VoL X, Part I, 
Chapter 7; Part 2, Chapters 3, 7; Part 
3, Chapters i, 2, 3, 5; VoL XI, Part t, 
Chapters i, 3) 



CONTENTS 

Pupil and Class Activities 8 1 

A. Things To Do 81 

B. Class Discussions 85 

C Pupil Reports 87 

D. Experiments 88 

E. Excursions 88 

F. Self-Test Exercises 89 

VI. The Composition of Living Things 93 

A. The Chemical Substances in Living Things . 93 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter n; Vol. V. 
Chapter 4; Vol. VII, Chapter 3; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapter 3; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapter 
7; Vol. X, Part i, Chapter 2) 

B. Protoplasm 93 

(Consult Vol. V. Chapter 4; Vol. VII, 
Chapter 3; Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter i) 

C. Cells 94 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 4, 95 Vol. VII, 
Chapter 3; Vol. XI, Part 6, Chapter j) 

D. Tissues and Organs 94 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 4, 8, 9 ; Vol. VII, 
Chapter 3; Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapter 3; 
Vol. IX, Part i, Chapter 2 ; Vol. X, Part 2, 
Chapter 2; Part 3, Chapter 5; Vol. XI, 
Part i, Chapter i ; Part 4, Chapter 2) 

E. How Living Things Grow 96 

Consult Vol. VIII, Part 2, Chapter 2; Part 
3, Chapters 2, 5, 10, 12; Vol. IX, Part i, 
Chapters 7, 8; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 2, 
3; Part 3, Chapters 2, 5; Vol. XI, Part I, 
Chapter i ; Part 6, Chapter 2 ) 

F. How Living Things Respond 98 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 4, 9; Vol. VIII, 
Part 3, Chapters n, 12; Vol. X, Part 2, 
Chapter 2; Part 3, Chapters 2, 4, 5 ; Vol. 
XI, Part i, Chapter 3; Part 5, Chapter i; 
Part 6, Chapters 2, 3) 



XI 



CONTENTS 

Pupil and Class Activities 101 

A. Things To Do 101 

B. Class Discussions 101 

C. Pupil Reports : 102 

D. Self-Test Exercises 102 



VII. Light and Heat from the Sun ........... 105 

A. The Sun's Heat ...................... 105 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 9, n, 12, 14, Appendix; Vol. VII, Chap 
ters i, 2, 5, 9; Vol. XI, Part 6, Chapter i ; 
Vol. II, Chapters 2, 9) 

B. The Sun's Light ...................... 107 

(Consult Vol. II, 'Chapters 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 
13, 14, Appendix; Vol. VII, Chapter i; 
Vol. XI, Part 6, Chapter i ) 

C. Where Food Comes From .............. 109 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 10; Vol. V, Chap 
ter 4; Vol. VII, Chapter i ; Vol. XI, Part i, 
Chapters I, 6; Part 2, Chapter 2; Part 6, 
Chapter i) 

D. How Man Helps The Plant ............ n i 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7; 
Vol. VII, Chapters 2, n, 12, 13, 15, 16, 



E. Interdependence of Living Things ........ 113 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 6; Vol. X, Part i, 
Chapters 4, 6, 7; Vol. XI, Part I, Chapters 

i, 3, 6; Part 3, Chapter 3) 

F. Plant Products ....................... 114 

(Consult Vol. XI, Part i, Chapters 6, 7; 
Part 3, Chapter 3; Part 4, Chapter 2; Vol. 
XII, Chapter 10) 

xii 



CONTENTS 

Pupil and Class Activities 116 

A. Things To Do 1 1 6 

B. Class Discussions 117 

C. Pupil Reports 117 

D. Self-Test Exercises 1 1 8 

VIII. Food for Living Things 121 

A. What is Food for Plants and Animals .... 121 
(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 4; Vol. XI, Part 

i, Chapters I, 3, 4, 6; Part 3, Chapter 3; 
Part 4, Chapter I ; Part 6, Chapter I ; Part 
7, Chapter i) 

B. Enemies of Animal Food Supply 122 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters i, 6, 9, 10; Vol. 
X, Part 2, Chapters 3, 9) 

C. Eating Habits of Animals 124 

1. Crustaceans and Mollusks 124 

(Consult Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters i, 2, 
3; Part 3, Chapters 2, 4, 5) 

2. Insects 125 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 

7, 8, 9, 10 ; Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter 3) 

3. Fish 127 

(Consult Vol. VIII, Part I, Chapters i, 

3, 4, 5, 6; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapter 3; 
Part 3, Chapter 5; Vol. XI, Part 3, 
Chapter 3) 

4. Reptiles and Amphibians 129 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 21 ; Vol. VIII, 
Part 2, Chapters 2, 3, 4; Part 3, Chap 
ters 9, 12) 

5. Birds 130 

(Consult Vol. IX, Part i, Chapters 3, 8, 
10, n, 12; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapter 4) 

xiii 



CONTENTS 

6. Mammals 133 

(Consult Vol. IX, Part i, Chapters 5, 
n; Part 2, Chapters 6, 10, n; Vol. X, 
Part 2, Chapter 3) 

D. Food For Human Beings 133 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 10; Vol. IV, 
Chapter 6; Vol. VI, Chapter 21 ; Vol. VII, 
Chapter 17; Vol. VIII, Part I, Chapter 2; 
Part 2, Chapters 3, 10, 12; Vol. X, Part 2, 
Chapters 3, 4, 8, Part 3, Chapters 2, 4, 5; 
Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter 7; Part 4, Chap 
ters i, 2; Part 5, Chapter 3; Part 7, Chap 
ter i; Part 8, Chapters I, 2; Vol. XII, 
Chapter 9 ) 

Pupil and Class Activities . . 136 

A. Things To Do 136 

B. Class Discussions 137 

C. Pupil Reports 137 

D. Self-Test Exercises 138 

IX. Adaptations by Living Things 141 

A. To Air 141 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10; Vol. 
VIII, Part i, Chapter 3; Part 2, Chapters 
2, 4, it ; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapters 2, 9, 12; 
Part 2, Chapters 10, n; Vol. XI, Part i, 
Chapter i) 

B. To Water 144 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapters 8, 11; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapters i, 2, 3, 7; Part 2, Chapter 
3; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapter 12; Part 2, 
Chapters 6, 1 1 ; Vol. X, Part 3, Chapters 2, 
4, 5 ; Vol. XI, Part i, Chapters i, 2; Part 3, 
Chapter i ; Part 5, Chapter 3) 

C. To The Need for Food 147 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 3, 4, 5, 8, 9; Vol. 
VI, Chapters 7, 8, 10; Vol. VIII, Part I, 



xiv 



CONTENTS 

Chapters i, 3; Part 2, Chapter 3; Part 3, 
Chapters n, 12; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapters 
ii, 12 ; Part 2, Chapters 6, 1 1 ; Vol. X, Part 

2, Chapter 2; Part 3, Chapters 2, 4, 5) 

D. To Light 150 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 9; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapter 3; Vol. X, Part 2, Chap 
ters 3, 6; Part 3, Chapter 5; Vol. XI, Part 
i, Chapters i, 2, 4; Part 6, Chapters 1,2) 

E. To Heat . 151 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 13; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapter 3; Part 2, Chapter 4; Part 

3, Chapter 10; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapter 2; 
Vol. X, Part 2, Chapter 3) 

F. To The Need for Protection 152 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 8; Vol. VI, Chap 
ters 5, 21 ; Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapter 3; 
Part 3, Chapters 10, n, 12; Vol. IX, Part 
i, Chapter 3; Part 2, Chapter n; Vol. X, 
Part i, Chapters 2, 4, 5, 6; Part 2, Chap 
ters 2, 3, 6, 7; Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter 4) 

G. To The Need for Reproduction 155 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters i, 2, 8, 9; Vol. 
VIII, Part i, Chapter 4; Vol. IX, Part i, 
Chapters 7, 8; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 2, 

3; Vol. Ill, Chapter i; Vol. XI, Part i, 
Chapter 3) 

H. To The Earth 158 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 7; Vol. X, Part 
3, Chapter 2; VoL XI, Part i, Chapter i) 

L Migration 158 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapter i ; VoL V, Chap 
ter i ; VoL VI, Chapter 20; VoL VII, Chap 
ters 2, 1 1 ; VoL VIII, Part i, Chapters 3, 5 ; 
VoL IX, Part i, Chapters i, 5; Part 2, 
Chapter n ; VoL IX, Part i, Chapters i, 5; 
Part 2, Chapter 1 1 ) 

xv 



CONTENTS 

Pupil and Class Activities 162 

A. Things To Do 162 

B. Class Discussions 1 63 

C. Self-Test Exercises 164 

X. Reproduction in Living Things , . 167 

A. The Life Cycle 167 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10 ; Vol. VIII, Part 2, Chapters 3, 4; Vol. 
X, Part 2, Chapter 3; Part 3, Chapter 2) 

B. Parents And Offspring 170 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 4, 5, 9 ; Vol. VII, 
Chapters 3, 8; Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapter 
4; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapters 7, 8, 12; Part 
2, Chapter 10; Vol. XI, Part i, Chapters 
3.6) 

C. The Continuity of Life 172 

1. In Plants 172 

(Consult Vol. XI, Part i, Chapters 3, 6; 
Part 6, Chapter 2) 

2. In Mollusks 176 

(Consult Vol. X, Part 3, Chapters i, 2, 

4,5) 

3. In Crustaceans 176 

(Consult Vol. X, Part I, Chapter 5; 
Part 2, Chapters 2, 3, 8) 

4. In Insects 177 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

6, 7) 8, 9, 10) 

5. In Fish 181 

(Consult Vol. VIII, Part i, Chapters 4, 
5>6) 

6. In Amphibians 183 

(Consult Vol. VIII, Part 2, Chapters 2, 

3, 4) 

xvi 



CONTENTS 

7. In Reptiles 184 

(Consult Vol. VIII, Part 3, Chapters 2, 

7,9) 

8. In Birds 184 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 20; VII, 
Chapter 3; Vol. IX, Part i, Chapters 3, 

6, 7, 9> I2 ) 

9. In Mammals 1 86 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapters 10, 12, 15, 
18; Vol. VII, Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 

9, 10, ii ; Vol. IX, Part 2, Chapters 9, 

10, n) 

Pupil and Class Activities 1 88 

. A. Things To Do 188 

B. Class Discussions 191 

C. Pupil Reports 191 

D. Excursions 192 

E. Self-Test Exercises 192 

XI. Good Health for Living Things 195 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 10; Vol. IV, 
Chapters I, 2; Vol. V, Chapter 10; Vol. 
VII, Chapters 10, n; Vol. XI, Part i, 
Chapters i, 6) 

Pupil and Class Activities 197 

A. Things To Do 197 

B. Class Discussions 19? 

C Self-Test Exercises 19? 



XII. Changing Weather 199 

A. How The Weather Changes 199 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, 7; 
Vol. VII, Chapter 5 ; Vol. X, Chapters 2, 4) 

xvii 



CONTENTS 

B. Predicting The Weather 200 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters 2, 3, 7, Ap 
pendix) 

Pupil and Class Activities 201 

A. Things To Do 201 

B. Class Discussions 201 

C. Pupil Reports 201 

D. Self-Test Exercises 202 

XIII. Seeking Shelter 205 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7; 
Vol. VII, Chapters 10, n, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
17; Vol. XI, Part 7, Chapter 2) 

Pupil and Class Activities 208 

A. Things To Do 208 

B. Self-Test Exercises 208 

XIV. Energy 211 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 7; Vol. Ill, Part 
i, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4; Vol. VII, Chapters i, 
n, 12, 13; Vol. XII, Chapters 2, 7, 8) 

Pupil and Class Activities 214 

A. Things To Do 214 

B. Class Discussions 214 

C. Pupil Reports 215 

D. Self-Test Exercises 215 

XV. Man's Use and Control of Heat Energy . . . 219 

A. Heat Energy from Fuels 219 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 9 ; Vol. VI, Chap 
ter n, Vol. XI, Part 6, Chapter i; Vol. 
XII, Chapters 7, 10) 

B. Heat Operated Engines 220 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters 2, 7, 8) 

xviii 



1 JLiN 1 b 

C. Refrigeration 223 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapter 9) 

Pupil and Class Activities . 225 

A. Things To Do 225 

B. Class Discussions 226 

C. Self-Test Exercises 226 

XFI. Man's Use and Control of Light Energy . . 229 

A. The Structure And Function of The Eye. . . 229 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 9 ; Vol. VIII, Part 
i, Chapter 3; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapter 2; 
Part 3, Chapters 2, 4, 5) 

B. How Pictures Are Made 229 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part i, Chapter i; Vol. 
XII, Chapters 6, n) 

C. Helping The Eye to See 230 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters 4, 5, 13, 14, Ap 
pendix; Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapters 2, 7; Vol. 
IV, Chapter 3; Vol. XII, Chapters 7, 10) 

D. What Is Color 232 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 2, 4, 5, 12, 

13, 14, Appendix; Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chap 
ters 3, 4; Vol. VII, Chapter i; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapters 3, 4; Vol. X, Part i, 
Chapters 6, 8 ; Vol. XI, Part 6, Chapter 2 ; 
Vol. XII, Chapters 3,11) 

Pupil and Class Activities . . . . 235 

A. Things To Do 235 

B. Class Discussions 235 

C. Pupil Reports 235 

D. Experiments 236 

E. Self-Test Exercises 236 

XVII. Man's Use and Control of Electrical 

Energy 239 

xix 



CONTENTS 

A. How Magnets Push and Pull 239 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters 4, 12; Vol. XII, 
Chapters i, 2, 8) 

B. Electricity from Chemical Action 240 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter i; Vol. XII, 
Chapters i, 6) 

C. Electricity from Moving Magnets 240 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters i, 2, 6, 7) 

D. The Flow of Electricity 242 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4) 

E. Electricity for Light And Heat 244 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters 2, 3, 6) 

F. Doing The Work of The World with Elec 

tricity 246 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters 2, 4) 

Pupil and Class Activities 247 

A. Things To Do 247 

B. Class Discussions 248 

C. Pupil Reports 249 

D. Experiments 250 

E. Excursions 251 

F. Self-Test Exercises 25 1 

XVIII. Energy For Communication 255 

A. The Telegraph 255 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters 4, 6) 

B. The Telephone 257 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapter 4) 

C. Radio 258 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters 3, 4, 5, 8) 

D. X-Rays 261 

(Consult Vol. II, Appendix; Vol. XII, 
Chapter 3) 

xx 



CONTENTS 

Pupil and Class Activities 262 

A. Things To Do 262 

B. Class Discussions 262 

C. Pupil Reports 263 

D. Experiments 263 

E. Self-Test Exercises 263 

XIX. Energy For Transportation 267 

A. Early Means of Transportation 267 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters 3, 4, 7; Vol. 
VII, Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17) 

B. On Land; Railroads and Automobiles 268 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters 2, 7, 8) 

C. On Water; Steamships 270 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 14; Vol. XII, 
Chapters 7, 8) 

D. In the Air; Airplanes 272 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapters) 

Pupil and Class Activities 274 

A. Things To Dp 274 

B. Class Discussions 275 

C. Pupil Reports 275 

D. Excursions 275 

E. Self-Test Exercises 276 



XX. Improved Ways of Using Materials 279 

A. Clothing Materials 279 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters 2, 3; Vol. VII, 
Chapters n, 13; Vol. XII, Chapter 9) 

B. Building Materials 281 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters 3, 7; Vol. XI, 
Part 4, Chapter 2) 

xxi 



CONTENTS 

C. Metals 281 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part i, Chapter 8; Vol. 
IV, Chapters 2, 5 ; Vol. VII, Chapters 3, 4, 
7, 10, 13, 14, I5 *7; Vo1 - XII > Chapter 
10) 

D. Writing Materials 284 

(Consult Vol. XII, Chapter 10) 

E. Gems and Precious Stones 284 

1. Nature of Crystals 284 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapters i, 

2, 3> 4> 5 7) 

2. Precious Stones 286 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapters 4, 5 ) 

3. Well-Known Semi-Precious Stones 288 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4) 

4. Uncommon Semi-Precious Stones 290 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4) 

5. Ornamental Stones 292 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4) 

6. How Gems Are Cut 294 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapters 3, 7) 

7. Gems in History 295 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapters 3, 

4, 6, 7) 

Pupil and Class Activities 297 

A. Things To Do 297 

B. Class Discussions 297 

C. Pupil Reports 298 

D. Excursions 299 

E. Self-Test Exercises 299 

XXI. Conserving Life 303 

A, Animals That Are Becoming And Have Be 
come Extinct 303 

xxii 



CONTENTS 

1. Sea Animals 303 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 4; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapter 6; Part 3, Chapter 10; 
Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 3, 8) 

2. Birds 003 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 20; Vol. IX, 
Part i, Chapters i, 4, 7, n) 

3. Mammals 304 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters 3, 5; Vol. 

VI, Chapters 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 17; Vol. 
IX, Chapter 10) 

B. Improving Plant Life 305 

(Consult Vol. XI, Part i, Chapter 3; Part 

4. Chapter i ; Part 7, Chapters 1,2) 

C. Improving Domestic Animals 308 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 5 ; Vol. VI, Chap 
ters 13, 17, 20; Vol. IX, Chapter i) 

D. Conserving Wild Animal Life 308 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapters i, 3, 12; Vol. 

X, Part 2, Chapter 8) 

E. Conserving The Health of Human Beings. 309 
(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 10; Vol. VI, 
Chapters 4, 16, 21; Vol. VIII, Part 3, 
Chapters n, 12; Vol. X, Part 2, Chapters 

3, 8, 9; Part 3, Chapters 4, 5; Vol. XI, 
Part i, Chapters i, 6) 

Pupil and Class Activities 312 

A. Things To Do 312 

B. Class Discussions 312 

C. Self-Test Exercises 313 

XXII. The Nature of Matter 317 

A. Atoms and Molecules 317 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 14; Vol. VII, 
Chapter I ; Vol. XII, Chapter 3) 

xxiii 



CONTENTS 

B. Elements and Compounds 317 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 3, 10, 12, 14; 
Vol. Ill, Part i, Chapter 5; Part 2, Chap 
ters i, 2, 3, 4, 5; Vol. VII, Chapter i; 
Vol. XII, Chapter 10) 

C. Electrons and Protons 320 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter i; Vol. XII, 
Chapter 3) 

D. Matter and Energy 321 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapters i, 14; Vol. VII, 
Chapter i ; Vol. XII, Chapter 3) 

Pupil and Class Activities 322 

A. Class Discussions 322 

B. Pupil Reports 322 

C. Self-Test Exercises 323 

XXIII. Origin And Evolution Of Living Things 327 
A. The Records in The Rocks 327 

1. Age of The Earth 327 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter i ; Vol. IX, 
Part 2, Chapter 7; Vol. X, Part i, Chap 
ters i, 7) 

2. Fossils 328 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 14; Vol. 
VIII, Part 3, Chapter 5; Vol. IX, Part 
2, Chapters 5, 10; Vol. X, Part i, Chap 
ters i, 2, 4) 

3. The Importance of Fossil Study 329 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 4; Vol. VIII, 
Part 3, Chapter 6; Vol. IX, Part i, 
Chapter 4; Part 2, Chapters 4, 5, 10; 
Vol. X, Part i, Chapters 2, 3, 7) 

4. Life on The Earth During Different Pe 

riods of Its History 331 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4; 



XXIV 



CONTENTS 

Vol. VII, Chapters i, 2, 4, 5; Vol. X, 
Part i, Chapters i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7) 

5. The Record of Invertebrates in the 

Rocks 336 

(Consult Vol. V, Chapters 2, 3, 10; Vol. 

VII, Chapter 2; Vol. X, Part i, Chap 
ters 5, 6, 7; Part 2, Chapter 8; Part 3, 
Chapter 5) 

6. The Record of Early Vertebrates and 

Fishes 33 8 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter i, 2; Vol. 

VIII, Part i, Chapters i, 2, 3; Vol. X, 
Part i, Chapter 6) 

7. The Record of Amphibians 339 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 2 ; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapters i, 2; Part 2, Chapters 

i, 3, 4; Part 3, Chapter 3; Vol. X, Part 

1, Chapters 2, 6) 

8. The Record of Dinosaurs and Other 

Reptiles 340 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 2 ; Vol. VIII, 
Part i, Chapter I ; Part III, Chapters i, 

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 1 1 ; Vol. X, Part i, Chap 
ter 7) 

9. The Record of Birds 344 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 2; Vol. IX, 
Part I, Chapters i, 2, 4; Vol. X, Part I, 
Chapter 7) 

10. The Record of Mammals 345 

(Consult Vol. VI, Chapter 5; Vol. VII, 
Chapter 2; Vol. IX, Part 2, Chapters i, 
2, 8, ii ; Vol. X, Part i, Chapter 7) 

n. The Record of Plants in the Rocks. . . . 346 
(Consult Vol. V, Chapter 3; Vol. VII, 
Chapters i, 2; Vol. X, Part i, Chapter 
7; Vol. XI, Part 5, Chapter 2) 

XXV 



CONTENTS 

B. The Record of Man in the Rocks ........ 34** 

1. Early Man's History ............... 34 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters i, 2, 3, 4, 

6, 9; Vol. IX, Part 2, Chapter 11; Vol. 
X, Part i, Chapter 7) 

2. Old Stone Age .................... 35 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 4, 5, 6, 

7, 8, 9, 10, n, 12, 17) 

3. The Ice Age ..................... - 35<5 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 4, 5, 6, 1 1 ) 

4. Middle Stone Age .................. 357 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 4, 6, 12) 

5. New Stone and Bronze Ages .......... 357 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 13, 14, 16) 

6. Development of Man ............... 35 8 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 3, 4, 7, 

8, 9, 10, n, 14) 



Pupil and Class Activities ............. 

A. Things To Do ................... 3^3 

B. Class Discussions ................. 3^3 

C. Pupil Reports ................... 3 6 4 

D. Self-Test Exercises 



XXIV. Progress And History of Man ......... 369 

A. Evidence on Which the History Is Based. . 369 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 4, 10, n, 
12; Vol. XI, Part 7, Chapter i) 

B. Probable Origin of Man ............... 37 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 
10) 

C. Cave Dwellers ....................... 37 1 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 9, 10, 16) 

D. Old Stone Age ....................... 37 * 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 6, 7, 8, 10, 1 1 ) 



XXVI 



CONTENTS 

E. Middle Stone Age 375 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 12, 13, 15) 

F. New Stone Age 376 

1. New Stone Age Man 376 

(Consult Vol. II, Chapter 8; Vol. VII, 
Chapters 10, 13, 15, 16; Vol. XI, Part 4, 
Chapter I ; Part 7, Chapter I ) 

2. Egyptian and Related Cultural History 377 
(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 15) 

3. South and Central American Indians. . . 378 
(Consult Vol. VII, Chapter 17) 

4. Indians North of Mexico 379 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters i, 2, 5, 7, 9; 
Vol. VII, Chapter 17; Vol. XI, Part 7, 
Chapter 2) 

5. Important American Indian Tribes 381 

(Consult Vol. IV, Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 

6,7) 

G. Age of Bronze 383 

(Consult Vol. Ill, Part 2, Chapter 4; Vol. 
VII, Chapters 10, 14, 15, 16; Vol. XI, Part 
i, Chapter 7; Part 4, Chapter i; Part 7, 
Chapter i, 2) 

H. Age of Iron 385 

(Consult Vol. VII, Chapters 2, 4, 10, 15, 
16; Vol. XI, Part 7, Chapter i) 

Pupil and Class Activities 386 

A. Things To Do 386 

B. Class Discussions 388 

C. Pupil Reports 390 

D. Self -Test Exercises 391 

INDEX 395 

xxvii 



UNIT I 
THE EARTH IN SPACE 



A. Our Place in The Universe: 

1. What is meant by the Universe? VII, 4 

2. What exists outside of the Universe ? II, 294-295 

3. What does a nebula look like? II, 280 

4. Where are spiral nebulae found? II, 297 

5. How does a star originate? 11,299-301 

6. Why is the sun called a star? II, 287 

7. What is a double star? 11,291-292 

8. What is a variable star ? II, 290 

9. How are variable stars measured? 11,293-294 

10. What is the density of stars like Antares and 
Betelgeuse? 11,288-289 

1 1 . How does the color of a star indicate its tempera 
ture? II, 289 

12. How long does light take to reach us from the 
furthest galaxy? 11,6 

13. What other heavenly bodies are there like our 
sun? Ill, i 

14. How does the sun compare with other stars? 
VII, I 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

15. What was the earth before it assumed its present 
form? VII, 3 

1 6. What happens when two heavenly bodies come 
close to each other? 111,3 

17. How does man's energy compare with the energy 
of the Universe? VII, 4 

1 8. About how many stars are there in our galaxy? 
VII, 1-2 

19. How faraway from us are most stars? VII, i 

20. How many stars lie within 100 light years of the 
solar system? VII, i 

21. What may make a new star contract? VII, 7 

22. What are the colors of new and old stars ? VII, 8 

23. What happens to the density of a star which is 
forming? VII, 7 

24. What is believed to be a solar system in the mak 
ing? VII, 6 

B. The Earth in The Solar System: 

1 . What is the size of the earth ? VII, i 

2. What is the origin of the earth? VII, 8-9 

3. What are the names of the planets? II, 242 

4. What may be solar systems which are assuming 
form? VII, 6 

5. How may a solar system form? VII, 8 

6. What was the Yurok conception of the earth? 
IV, 198 

7. How did the solar system originate ? II, 299-300 

8. What is the evidence that some meteors come 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

from heavenly bodies of planetesimal size? Ill, 
60 

9. What is the temperature range on the moon? 
II, 246 

10. What is the appearance of the moon's surface? 
II, 244 

1 1. How do we know that the moon is uninhabited? 
II, 242 

12. Why is life impossible on Mercury? II, 248 

13. What is the temperature on Neptune? II, 249 

14. Why is life possible on Venus ? 11,252-253 

15. What is the size of Mars? 11,249-250 

1 6. What is the temperature on Saturn? II, 249 

17. What is the intensity of the sun's rays on Jupiter? 
II, 249 

1 8. Why is it impossible to see planets of other solar 
systems? Ill, 1-2 

C. Meteors: 

1. Why is it difficult to photograph shooting stars? 
111,6 

2. What meteor fall proved conclusively that mete 
ors fell from the sky? Ill, 26 

3. How much of the dust in the air is of cosmic 
origin? Ill, 6 1 

4. What is the estimated total weight of meteors 
which have fallen to the earth up to 1927? Ill, 

57 

5. What determines the shape of a meteorite? Ill, 

57 

[3] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. How can a meteor's size be computed? Ill, 55 

7. What were the early names for meteors ? Ill, 79 

8. What is the oldest meteorite ? Ill, 7-8 

9. How are meteors identified? Ill, 50 

10. Why do meteorites disintegrate easily? Ill, 5 i 

1 1. What happens to the meteor when it falls? Ill, 
15 

12. What is the tentative, accepted source of mete 
ors? Ill, 98 

13. Who proposed that meteors were shot at us by 
thernoon? Ill, 84 

14. What type of rock is entirely missing from mete 
ors? 111,69 

15. Where has cosmic dust been found? 111,62 

1 6. What is the cause of the famous dark days in his 
tory? Ill, 63 

17. Why do meteors lose their initial speed and fall 
at the speed of any falling body? Ill, 28 

1 8. What is the speed of a meteor falling in the direc 
tion opposite to the earth's rotation? Ill, 27-28 

19. What terrestrial stone approximates meteoric 
stone? Ill, 68-69 

20. What causes sunglow ? 111,83-87 

21. How does a falling meteor appear? Ill, 4-6 

22. If the earth had been built up by meteor showers, 
how long would it have taken to form ? Ill, 4 

23. How do we know that meteors strike the earth at 
rather slow speeds? 111,29-30 

24. When do meteors become visible? Ill, 2 

[4] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

25. Why are some meteors assumed to come from an 
oxygen-insufficient atmosphere? Ill, 65 

26. What is the weight of each type of meteor? Ill, 

6 7 

27. What are the names of the three divisions of 
shooting stars ? Ill, 79-81 

28. What is the composition of 90% of meteoric 
stones? Ill, 75 

29. What are the meteoric minerals? 111,66-67 

30. How many meteors enter the earth's atmos 
phere? 111,3,54 

31. What is a meteorite? Ill, 4 

32. What is a meteor? Ill, i 

33. What was the attitude of ancient peoples toward 
meteors? Ill, 37-38 

34. What are some of the great areas where meteors 
have fallen? Ill, 42 

35. Why is it difficult to locate the striking point of a 
meteor? Ill, 46-47 

36. What did the Greeks report about meteors ? Ill, 
6 

37. How far are meteoric disturbances heard or felt ? 
III,i6.i7 

38. What is the first satisfactory account of a meteor 
fall in the United States? Ill, 13-15 

39. What was the most remarkable meteor shower in 
the United States ? Ill, 19 

40. Why are the estimated twenty million meteors 
invisible? Ill, 4 

[5] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

41. What kind of earth rock do stony meteorites re 
semble? Ill, 74 

42. How are alloys interspersed in meteors? Ill, 70 

43. What precious stone may be found in meteors? 
Ill, 69 

44. How many meteors become shooting stars? Ill, 
54 

45. How many shooting stars reach the earth? Ill, 
54 

46. What alloys of nickel and iron are found in 
meteors? Ill, 70 

47. What description of a meteor fall is found in the 
scriptures? Ill, 6 

48. Are falling meteors dangerous to life on the 
earth? Ill, 36-37 

49. What was the most remarkable meteor found? 
Ill, 22-24 

50. What did early wise men say about meteors? Ill, 
25 

D. Movements of The Earth: 

1. What is the place of the earth in the solar sys 
tem? VII, i 

2. How does the sun rotate? II, 262 

3. How does an eclipse form? II, 265-267 

4. What holds the sun, earth, moon and other 
planets at their respective distances from each 
other? Ill, 3 

5. What is the velocity of the earth in space ? Ill, 3 

[6] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. What possibility exists for the belief that the 
earth is a meteorite? Ill, 76-77 

7. What is the speed of a meteor falling in the direc 
tion opposite to the earth's rotation? Ill, 27-28 

E. Changing Seasons and Different Climates: 

1. How may the variations of the sun's intensity 
cause climatic changes ? II, 4-5 

2. What is the effect of the variations of the solar 
radiation on the tropics? II, 157 

3. In which latitudes do changes caused by solar 
radiation variations begin to take place ? II, 157 

4. What were the climatic conditions on the earth 
when dinosaurs were alive? VIII, 214 

5. What is the temperature of the Arctic summer? 
IV, 67 

6. What may have caused the concentration of civili 
zation? VII, 189 

7. When did present European climatic conditions 
begin? VII, 232 

8. What was the climate of Europe in Solutrean 
times? VII, 207 

9. What two cultures were in simultaneous existence 
in Europe at the beginning of the "Great Cold" ? 
VII, 190 

10. What happened to many animals of Europe when 
the climate changed? VII, 232 

1 1. What was a big factor in population movement 
when the climate in Europe changed? VII, 232 

12. What climatic conditions caused changes in the 
Acheulian Epoch? VII, 188 

[7] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

13. What weather factor changes do the variations in 
sun cause? II, 4 

14. How does the sun affect the seasons? II, 5 



[8] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a chart of meteors which have fallen in or 
near your state. Use the lists given in III, 1 09-1 63 

2. Make a list of things to watch for, should you see 
a meteor fall. Ill, 98-99 

3. Make a meteoric map of the Arizona meteor 
crater. Ill, 23 

4. Construct a model of an eclipse, as follows: Paint 
a black spot, the size of a quarter, on a square of 
clear glass. Cut a hole, slightly larger than the 
black spot, in a piece of cardboard. Place a light 
behind the glass and cardboard and move the 
black ball across the opening. The black spot 
representing the moon eclipses the circle of light, 
representing the sun. 

B. Class Discussions: 

Note: The statements listed below must not be 
considered as either true or false. The 
volume and page references will help the 
class to assemble the supporting evidence 
and furnish the basis for discussion. A 
similar plan is followed in every unit. 

1. The earth is of meteoric origin. Ill, 1-5 

2. The earth is a meteorite. Ill, 76-78 

3. Meteors are cold when they land. Ill, 34-36 

[9] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. Meteors hit the earth at terrific speeds. Ill, 27-34 

5. Meteors fall in one piece. Ill, 4 2- 53 

6. Meteors come from other planets. Ill, 82-97 

7. Meteoric iron has never been put to use. Ill, 
100-106 

8. The earth is the center of the solar system. VII, 

1-2 

9. The planets were formed by the collision of the 
sun with another star. VII, 7-1 1 

10. Dark days are caused by eclipses of the sun by 

the moon. Ill, 62-63 

n. There is life on the other planets. II, 242-25 1 
12. The Arctic is warm in the summer. IV, 66-68 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. The composition or contents of the Universe. 
VII, 5-8 

2. Kinds of spiral nebulae. II, 296-300 

3. World Origin Learn and retell to your class or 
club the legend of the Cherokees, "How The 
World Was Made." IV, 218-220 

4. How eclipses take place. II, 265-267 

5. Early beliefs about meteors. Ill, 1-22 

6. Historic names of meteors. 111,79-81 

7. The composition of meteorites. Ill, 64-76 

8. Historic meteor falls. 111,27-41 

9. The work of Chladni proving that meteors are 
not magical objects. Ill, 25 

[10] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

D. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

1 . Give a four-letter word meaning "kind of heaven 
ly body of which the sun is an example." II, 5 

2. Give a four-letter word meaning u color of the 
hottest stars." II, 289 

3. Give a three-letter word meaning "heavenly body 
from which our solar system came." VII, 8 

4. Give a six-letter word meaning "shooting star." 
HI, 3-4 

5. Give a seven-letter word meaning "precious 
stones sometimes found in meteorites." Ill, 69 

6. Give a six-letter word meaning "kind of heavenly 
body of which the earth is an example." VII, I 

7. Give a six-letter word meaning "rays observed 
streaming from the sun during a total eclipse." 
II, 265 

8. Give a eleven-letter word meaning "force which 
holds the planets at their respective distances." 
111,3 

9. Give a six-letter word meaning "lens-shaped star 
cluster." VII, 2 

10. Give a twelve-letter word meaning "an instru 
ment which tells us what the sun is made of." II, 
257 

ANSWERS 

1. star 6. planet 

2. blue 7. corona 

3. sun 8. gravitation 

4. meteor 9. galaxy 

5. diamond 10. spectroscope 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

TEST II 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
olumn B. 



A 
sun II, 287 

hottest kind of stars II, 
289 

6 trillion miles VII, i 
billion stars VII, 2 

formed from the sun 
VII, 8 

shooting star III, 3 
eclipse of the sun II, 265 
speed of the earth 111,3 

Age of Dinosaurs VIII, 
214 

Solutrean Epoch VII, 
206, 207 



B 

1. one light year 

2. meteor 

3. planets 

4. 19.8 miles per second 

5. moist, semi-tropical 

world climate 

6. epicycles 

7. star nearest to the earth 

8. cold, dry climate 

9. moon 

10. blue stars 

1 1 . galaxies 



ANSWERS 



a 7 
b 10 
c i 
d ii 
+j 



f 2 

g 9 
h 4 

i 5 
j 8 



[12] 



UNIT II 
THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE 



A . An Invisible Ocean: 

1. How did the atmosphere, troposphere, and stra 
tosphere form? VII, 9 

2. How high is the atmosphere? II, 45 

3. What happens to the lighter gases in the atmos 
phere? 11,43-44 

4. What is the temperature of air at different levels ? 
11,44 

5 . What is the composition of the atmosphere at sea 
level? II, 44 

6. How many molecules does the atmosphere con 
tain? II, 102-103 

7. How do water molecules in high concentration 
act in the presence of dust?' II, 103 

8. How does air pressure change with altitude ? II, 
44 

B. Air and Fire: 

1 . How did Eskimos kindle a fire ? IV, 43 

2. How did Eskimos cook in the igloo ? IV, 43 

[13] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. How did ancient people maintain constant fires? 
VII, i?3 

4. Did man first learn to kindle fires or to keep fires 
alive? VII, 172 

5. When did man begin to use fire? VII, 172 

6. Before which epoch had man learned to kindle a 
fire? VII, 192 

7. How did the Pomas kindle a fire? IV, 185 

8. What is the Eskimo lamp? IV, 43 

9. Why do we assume that some meteors come from 
an atmosphere lacking in oxygen? Ill, 65 

icx How does a meteor's trail of light form? Ill, 
31-32 

1 1 . When do meteors become visible ? Ill, 2 

12. What effects of meteoric flights in air are found 
on a meteor's surface? Ill, 50 

C. Air and Living Things : 

1. Define respiration. V, 114 

2. What gives a caterpillar energy to transform it 
self into an adult? V, 292 

3. How does an insect get sufficient energy for fly 
ing? V, 116 

4. Are insects able to keep their bodily heat ? V, 1 1 6 

5. What is the evidence that insects release heat 
energy? V, 116 

6. What is the breathing rate of infants? VII, 35 

7. What is the cause of the whale's "spout"? IX, 
367 

[14] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

8. To what circumstance may amphibians owe their 
origin? VIII, 173 

9. Why is the bat a remarkable mammal? IX, 316 
* 10. Why are bats able to fly? IX, 317 

11. Where is there an exchange of gases in an insect's 
body? V, 115 

12. What is the purpose of the "knees" of cypress 
trees? XI, 10 

13. What is the purpose of stilt roots? XI, 10 

14. Why do roots die when they receive no air? XI, 
28 

15. Can plants drown? What happened to the trees 
which were flooded in Panama? XI, 9 

1 6. Why do large numbers of city trees often die? 
XI, 9 

D. Why Our Air Supply Lasts : 

1 . Should plants be removed from a sick-room ? XI, 
28-29 

2. What is the significance of bubbles coming off a 
water-plant in the sunshine ? XI, 27 

3. How do leaves breathe? XI, 24-25 

4. How do plants supply us with oxygen ? XI, 25-27 

5. How is carbon dioxide removed from the air? 
XI, 299-300 

6. What is the atmospheric make-up at sea level? 
11,44 

E. How Living Things Breathe: 

i. How does a grasshopper breathe without a nose ? 
V, 13, 114-116 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. How do insects get their air if they have no 
lungs? V, 114 

3. How does a mosquito larva breathe ? V, 332-333 

4. How do some fly larvae breathe? V, 326-327 

5. How does an insect breathe? V, 115 

6. What are spiracles? Where are they found? V, 
114-115 

7. Why can an insect's spiracles be compared with 
our nostrils? V, 114 

8. Which salamanders have neither gills nor lungs ? 
How can they breathe? What are their habits? 
VIII, 182-183 

9. What special power does the skin of an amphib 
ian possess? VIII, 175 

10. How do tadpoles breathe? VIII, 197 
n. How do fish breathe? IX, 368 

12. Why are the gills of fish similar to lungs? VIII, 
84 

13. What different types of gills are found among 
fishes? VIII, 84-85 

14. How are a fish's gills arranged? VIII, 65 

15. Why do fish suffocate in warm water? VIII, 86 

1 6. How does a mollusk get fresh water to its gills? 
X,2 5 8 

1 7. Discuss the breathing problems of land and water 
snails. X, 295-297 

1 8. How does a mollusk breathe ? X, 259 

F . Hearing Through the Air: 

i. What is the medium for transmitting sound? II, 
305 

[16] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. What is the velocity of sound? II, 305 

3. How do crickets sing? V, 56-58 

4. How do katydids produce their song? V, 33-37, 
39) 4i. 43-44, 47-49. 53 

5. When are cicadas heard? V, 184 

6. Can crustaceans make noises? What are some ex 
amples? X, 192-194 

7. How does the pistol crab make its sharp reports? 
X, 192-194 

8. Why do crabs make sounds? X, 197-199 

9. Can a fish hear? 111,73-74 

10. What is the purpose of a fish's ear? VIII, 73-74 

n. Which cicada sex produces music? How is this 
done? V, 199, 207-212 

12. How do birds inform other birds of danger, 
food, etc,? IX, 110-113 

13. What birds are able to imitate other birds? IX, 
107-109 

14. How do birds differ in their ability to make 
sounds? IX, 103-105 

15. What is the "syrinx" in birds? How is it used? 
IX, 103 

16. When do birds sing best? IX, 109-110 

17. How true is the belief that splitting a bird's 
tongue will improve its speech? IX, 108-109 

i8. t What bird roars like a lion? IX, 105 

19. What was the origin of the drum? VII, 258 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Using a broomstick and scrap wood, construct a 
fire drill. In the out-of-doors, on a dry day, kindle 
a fire using your fire drill. VII, 238 

2. Make a fire drill and start a fire. Use hard wood 
and dried cedar bark for tinder. VII, 172 

3. With clay or plaster make an Eskimo oil lamp. 
IV, 44 

4. Capture some katydids and put them into bottles. 
Listen to their music. Find out how katydids pro 
duce their music. Do the same with crickets. 

5. Find out where and how water enters the leaves 
of celery. Place fresh-cut stalks in red or green 
ink for a few hours. XI, 22-24 

6. Experiments : To find out the effect of lack of air 
on roots, place a potted geranium plant into a 
tank of water. Keep another potted geranium on 
the table, watering the earth as usual. Note the 
changes that take place. XI, 9-11 

7. Excursion: Visit and study the school's ventilat 
ing system. 

B. Pupil Reports: 

1. The atmosphere at different altitudes. II, 43-45 

2. How meteors get their light. Ill, 30-32, 50, 65 

[18] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 



3. Primitive methods of starting fires. 11,172-173 

4. How Eskimos get light and heat for their igloos. 
IV, 43 

5. Learn and tell your classmates and fellow club 
members the legend as to the origin of fire. IV, 
220-222 

6. How do lungless animals breathe? V, 113-114, 
116, X, 258, 295-297 

7. The different means that insects employ for get 
ting and using air for energy production. V, 114- 
116 

C. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B 



A 

a. respiration 

b. bat 

c: insect 

d. stomata 

e. cypress trees 

f. roots 

g. animals without gills or 
lungs 

h. fish 

i. reduced air supply 

j. mosquito larvae 



B 

1. salamander VIII, 182- 
183 

2. gills VIII, 86, 87 

3. warm water VIII, 86 

4. breathing aperture V, 
332-333 

5. absorb oxygen XI, 28 

6. flying mammal IX, 316 

7. exchange of gases V, 
114 

8. spiracles V, 114-115 

9. knees XI, 10 
10. leaves XI, 24-25 



[19] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

ANSWERS 

a 7 f 5 

b 6 g i 

c 8 h 2 

d 10 i 3 

e 9 j 4 

TEST II 

ODIUSTVXZ. Change the letters in this code word 
as follows : 

1. Change O to C if plants should be kept in sick rooms. 
If not, change to B. XI, 28-29 

2. Change D to R if water plants give off oxygen. If 
not, change to A. XI, 27 

3. Change I to R if the atmosphere is about i ,000 miles 
high. If the atmosphere is 150 miles high, change to E. II, 
45 

4. Change U to A if hydrogen can be found somewhere 
in the air. If not, change to P. II, 43-44 

5. Change S to E if the temperature of the air is the 
same at all levels above the earth. If not, change to T. 
11,44 

6. Change T to H if sea mollusks supply fresh sea water 
to their gills. If not, change to N. X, 258 

7. Change V to T if a grasshopper has a nose. If not, 
change to I. V, 13, 114-116 

8. Change X to E if insects use little oxygen when flying. 
If insects use a great deal of oxygen when flying, change to 
N. V, 116 

9. Change Z to R if the breathing rate of young infants 

[20] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

is slower than that of adults. If infant breathing rate is the 
same as that of adults, do not change. If the breathing rate 
of young infants is much faster than that of adults, change 
toG. VII, 35 

Note: When you have made all of the above changes 
correctly, you will have a word which represents one of the 
most important functions of life. What is the word? 

ANSWER: BREATHING 



[21] 



UNIT III 
WATER ON THE EARTH 



A. Water and Living Things: 

1. How much water does a square mile of hard 
wood forest consume in a season? II, 224 

2. How does root pressure help a plant to obtain 
water? XI, 5 

3. How does water flow through a plant? II, 226- 
227 

4. What is meant by the transpiration current ? XI, 
23 

5. What controls the amount of water a tree re 
ceives? XI, 22-23 

6. What causes wilting? XI, 25-26 

7. Why do trees shed their leaves in a dry season? 

XI, 21 

8. How can a leaf get carbon dioxide without losing 
too much water by evaporation? XI, 299-300 

9. How was it found that light can affect the amount 
of substance taken in by a plant? XI, 299 

10. How do plants give off water? II, 224 

11. How is evaporation from a leaf controlled? XI, 
25 

[23] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. How do plants control the amount of water 
vapor given off ? 11,226 

13. What are stomata? XI, 300 

14. What controls the opening and closing of 
stomata? XI, 300 

15. What happens to stomata at night? XI, 300 

1 6. What is the condition of substances taken in by 
plant cells? XI, 297 

17. What are the conditions necessary for substances 
to enter a cell? XI, 29 

1 8. Why do molecules diffuse or spread through a 
liquid? XI, 297 

19. Through what must molecules pass in order to 
enter a plant? XI, 297 

20. What controls the entrance of molecules of salts 
into a plant? XI, 297-298 

21. What causes the concentration of some molecules 
to be higher in a plant cell than in the surround 
ing soil water ? XI, 298 

22. How did irrigation cause the death of crops? XI, 
ii 

23. What had to be done to make alkali soil capable 
of growing crops ? XI, 1 1 

24. How is the water supply related to plant move 
ments? XI, 312-313 

25. Why is life on land more strenuous than in the 
sea? X, 74 

26. Why does a shallow sea like the Chesapeake Bay 
have such an abundance of life ? X, 34 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

27. What effect did the retreat of the seas have on 
trilobites and sea scorpions? X, 74 

28. What happens to Daphnia when they reach the 
surface film of water? X, 121 

29. Which crustaceans have eggs which can with 
stand a thorough drying? X, 114-115 

30. How long can the winter eggs of some crustaceans 
resist drying? X, 120 

3 1 . Where are a lobster's gills ? X, 1 07 

32. In what kinds of surroundings do fishes live? 

VIII, 2 

33. Where is one body of water that has no fish? 

VIII, 2 

34. Why have not the fishes varied as much as the 
land animals? VIII, 3-4 

35. What is the reason for the wide distribution of 
fishes? VIII, 2 

36. What effect have floods upon fishes? VIII, 131- 
132 

37. What theories try to account for the widespread 
distribution of some fishes? VIII, 150-151 

38. What is meant by "vertical distribution" of 
fishes? VIII, 153 

39. What is meant by "pelagic" fishes? VIII, 153- 
154 

40. What are littoral fishes ? VIII, 154 

41. How are deep-sea fishes different from other 
fishes? VIII, 154 

42. What fish hibernates in a mud cocoon? VIII, 4-5, 
19-40 

[251 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

43. What does the word "amphibians" mean? VIII, 
161 

44. Why do salamanders always avoid sunny places ? 

VIII, 180 

45. In development, tadpoles "race against death". 
What is the meaning of this statement? VIII, 
197 

46. Has it ever "rained frogs"? Can you explain 
this? VIII, 195 

47. Can amphibians live in saltwater? VIII, 173 

48. Wheremay we find salamanders? VIII, 179-180 

49. How do frogs react to salt water? VIII, 195 

50. How do baby grebes which are hatched in a nest 
over water take care of themselves after birth? 

IX, 93-94 

5 1 . Why can kangaroo rats live without water ? IX, 
334 

52. What caused the tremendous fossil deposits in a 
Colorado lake ? X, 80 

53. How did desert Indians get water in the desert? 
XI, 280 

The Changing Forms of Water: 

1. What forms of matter exist? XII, 49' 

2. Does water-vapor travel? II, 106 

3. Where do fogs form? II, 105 

4. What are the different kinds of clouds? II, 104- 
105 

5. How do rain particles form? II, 103 

6. What changes of water take place ? XII, 49 

[26] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. What is the importance of water in crystal forma 
tion? Ill, 174-175 

8. What does nature need to form crystals? Ill, 



9. What is formed by meteoric water? 111,174-175 

C. Water The Great Dissolver: 

1. How does ammonia dissolve in water? XII, 240 

2. What is the solubility of garnets ? Ill, 245 

3. What crystal does earth water produce? Ill, 175 

4. What bird loses its bright colors when wet? VI, 
251 

5. What is soil water? XI, 5-6 

6. What minerals must be dissolved in the soil for 
plant use? XI, 8 

7. How is water used in gem mining? Ill, 194, 
205-206 

D. Water Power: 

1. What is a Pelton wheel? XII, 150-151 

2. When are Pelton wheels used? XII, 151 

3. Why are water wheel buckets curved? XII, 151 

4. How is water pressure converted into mechanical 
energy? XII, 151 

5. How is the speed of a Pelton wheel controlled? 
XII, 152 

6. How is large quantity low pressure water power 
harnessed? XII, 151-152 

7. What is a Pelton wheel's efficiency? XII, 151- 
152 

[27] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

8. What is a reaction turbine ? XII, 152 

9. What type of water turbine is popular in the 
United States ? XII, 153 

10. Why are inward flow turbines preferred? XII, 



ii. What is the advantage and disadvantage of the 
vertical reaction turbine? XII, 153 



[28] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a simple Pelton water wheel using curved 
pieces of tin fastened to a wooden disk. Aim a 
stream of water from a rubber tube at the blades. 
XII, 150 

2. Build a water turbine wheel from wood as shown 
in plate 47. XII, 152 

3. Make a manometer to measure root pressure. 
XI, 6 

4. Perform the experiment showing the effect of 
evaporation from leaves. XI, 23 

5. Grow Mimosa from seeds obtained from a 
nursery. Tap its leaves and observe its move 
ments as described in XI, 72-74 

6. Examine the surfaces of different kinds of leaves 
for stomata. XI, 300 

7. Find a small sapling. Cut sections of the stem at 
intervals of an inch. Count the annual rings in 
each section and tell how old each is. Can you 
tell the kind of seasons, dry or wet, in which the 
plant did its growing? Check your results with 
the Weather Bureau. XI, 15-16 

8. Plant two evening primrose plants and expose 
one to sun for only 10 hours per day. Expose the 

[29] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

other for the full length of a day as described in 
II, 232. 

9. Experiment: To determine the effect of stomata 
on a leaf, cover the upper side of a rubber-plant 
leaf with vaseline and the underside of another 
rubber-plant leaf with vaseline. Pin them up on 
the bulletin board in your classroom for a few 
weeks. Note which leaf shrivels up first. Why 
did it do so? Use a microscope to verify your 
theory. XI, 24-25 

10. Excursions: 

a. Examine the school's sewage disposal system. 

b. Examine the school's water supply system. 

c. Visit a local water-works. Inspect the water 
purification plant. 

B. Pupil Reports: 

1. The movement of water in narrow channels. II, 

227 

2. The falling of leaves from tropical trees as com 
pared with trees of the temperate zones. XI, 21 

3. The Indian canteen for water. IV, 134 

C. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

1. Give a nine-letter word for u animals which can live 
on land and water." VIII, 161 

2. Give an eight-letter word for u a rat which can live a 
long time without water." IX, 334 

3. Give two five-letter words for u the composition of a 
cloud." II, 1 06 

[30] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

4. Give a four-letter word for "the material around 
which drops of rain form." II, 103 

5. Give a nine-letter word for "a bird that loses its color 
when wet." VI, 251 

6. Give a number for "the amount of ammonia which 
can dissolve in 100 Ibs. of water at 77 F." XII, 240 

7. Give a six-letter word for u the water wheel used for 
water falling great distances." XII, 150-151 

8. Give a ten-letter word for u the most popular water 
turbine in the United States." XII, 153 

9. Give two five-letter words which describe the means 
of converting water pressure into usable mechanical energy. 
XII, 151 

10. Give one five-letter word, one six-letter word and 
one three-letter word which represent the forms of matter. 
XII, 49 

ANSWERS 

1. amphibian 6. seventy-one Ibs. 

2. kangaroo 7. Pelton 

3. water-vapor 8. inward flow 

4. dust 9- water wheel 

5. touracous 10. solid, liquid, gas 

TEST II 

Rewrite the sentences which are not true so that a correct 
sentence results. 

1. In one season a hardwood forest consumes 10,000 
gallons of water. 11,224 

2. Water flows through plants by capillary action, II, 
226-227 

[31] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. The giving off of water to the air by plants is called 
osmosis. XI, 23 

4. Trees shed their leaves in a dry season to prevent 
further loss of water. XI, 2 1 

5. Tiny ventilators in leaves are of one constant size and 
do not permit the control of the intake of carbon dioxide 
and the release of water and oxygen. XI, 299-300 

6. Plants take in carbon dioxide from the air through 
small openings called stomata. XI, 300 

7. Substances cannot be taken in by plant cells unless 
they are in a solution. XI, 297 

8. Salt concentrations are always the same in plant cells 
as in the surrounding soil. XI, 298 

9. There are no fish in the Great Salt Lake. VIII, 2 
10. Fish are alike at all depths. VIII, 153 

ANSWERS 

1. In one season a hardwood forest consumes over a 
million tons of water. 

2. True 

3. Transpiration 

4. True 

5. Stoma openings vary in size in accordance with light 
and humidity. 

6. True 

7. True 

8. Salt concentrations are frequently greater in plant 
cells than in the surrounding soil. 

9. True 

10. Fish of different types are found at different depths. 

[32] 



UNIT IV 
THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH 



A. Examining The Surface of The Earth : 

1. How does a geologist measure time? IX, 255- 
259 

2. How does a paleontologist decide a region's 
ancient history? X, 17 

3. What are igneous rocks? How did they form? 
X, 9 

4. What happens to the mud that reaches the ocean 
beds? X, 34 

5. How many miles of sedimentary rock has been 
formed in the past? X, 8-9 

6. How many feet of sedimentary rock have been 
formed since the beginning of the earth? X, 2 

7. How are layers of rock made ? X, 1-2 

8. What is meant by sedimentary rocks ? X, 1-2 

9. What suggestion did Charles Darwin make in 
order to help decide how old the earth is ? X, 1-2 

10. What rock-forming process is going on today? 

X, 1-2 

11. How long does it take to form an inch layer of 
mud? X, 2 

[33] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. How are fossils exposed on a piece of rock? X, 
61 

13. What name has been given to the first sedimen 
tary rocks? X, 41 

14. What changes took place during the Proterozoic 
Era ? X, 44-49 

15. What happened during the Cambrian Period? 

x, 35-38 

1 6. What is meant by Pliocene and Pleistocene? X, 
Si 

17. When did the Alps and Himalaya Mountains 
form ? X, 79 

1 8. When were the Andes and the Rocky Mountains 
born? X, 78 

19. When did the Sierra Nevada Mountains form? 

X, 76-77 

20. How did the Appalachian Mountains form? X, 

72 

21. When do mountains reach "old age?" X, 3 

22. What process wears down many feet of sedimen 
tary rock? X, 3 

23. When did an ice sheet cover Europe and North 
America? X, 81-82 

24. What happened when the ice of the Ice Age 
melted? VII, 65 

25. What four glacial stages are found recorded in 
the Alps? VII, 65-66 

26. How were river terraces formed? VII, 65 

27. What present-day continents had land bridges? 
VII, 63-64 

[34] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

28. What proofs have we that Gibraltar and Africa 
were joined? VII, 65 

29. Where did the ocean's salts come from? X, 4 

30. What is loess? X, n 

31. What conditions exist in a desert? XI, 253-263 

32. When did vast deposits of diatoms form? X, 80 

33. Why are there so many marsupials in Australia? 

IX, 283 

34. Which continent first emerged from the sea ? X, 7 

35. What has shown us that the level of the ground 
continually changes? X, 30-31 

36. What has happened to the earth's surface in the 
past? X, 8 

37. What is the ancient history of the Badlands of 
South Dakota? Why are they important to scien 
tists? IX, 177-181, 188-191, 201, 204-206 

38. How do fossils indicate old land and water areas ? 

X, 18 

39. Why is Europe best for the study of more recent 
life? X, 8 

40. Why is North America best for the study of ex 
tremely ancient life ? VI, 7-8 

41. Which states were once covered by very large 
oceans? X, 37-38 

42. How did the seas form? VII, 65 

43. In what kind of world did the first amphibians 
live? VIII, 163 

B. Change in The Surface of The Earth: 

i. Why does the earth's crust move? VII, 9-10 

[35] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. How thick is the earth's crust? VII, 9-10 

3. What happened to the earth's crust when it 
formed? VII, 9-10 

4. What is the basis for believing the earth is at 
least 12 million years old? X, 2 

5 . How did the earth's surface form ? VII, 9 

6. When do mountains reach "old age ?" X, 3 

7. How long does it take to form an inch layer of 
mud? X, 2 

8. What process wears down many feet of sedimen 
tary rock? X, 3 

9. How do oceans, lakes and seas form? VII, 9 

10. What were the surface conditions of Europe dur 
ing the Magdalenian Epoch? VII, 214-215 

11. What changes took place during the Proterozoic 
Era? X, 44-49 

12. What happened during the Cambrian Period? 
X, 35-38 

13. What species were alive during the Permian 
Period? VII, 16 

14. What happens to the mud that reaches the ocean 
bed? X, 34 

15. What are strata? VII, 8-10 

1 6. When was the central part of North America 
covered by a sea from Alaska to the Gulf of 
Mexico? X, 77 

17. What states were once covered by very large 
oceans? X, 37-38 

1 8. What evidence is there of sea level changes? 
VII, 62 

[36] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

19. What has shown us continuous changes of the 
level of the land ? X, 30-3 1 

20. Why are some animal fossils common to the Brit 
ish Isles and Scandinavia also found in the Appa 
lachian Mountains? X, 37 

21. What caused the Sahara to become a desert? 
VII, 294 

22. Why does Southwestern Asia retain so many 
primitive traits? VII, 301 

23. What proofs are there for a New World connec 
tion to Asia? VII, 326 

24. Which country served as a highway between Af 
rica and Europe? VII, 227 

25. How did Cro-Magnon Man reach Europe? VII, 
198 

26. What happened to land surface elevation during 
the Glacial Period? VII, 61-62 

27. What was the effect of the glacier on surface 
vegetation? VII, 60 

28. What was the effect of the Glacial Period on sea 
water? VII, 62 

29. How do glaciers form? VII, 57 

30. When did an ice sheet cover Europe and North 
America? X, 81-82 

31. What was the Ice Age like? X, 81-82 

32. Where are there remains of the glacier today? 
VII, 57 

33. How much ice is calculated to have formed dur 
ing the Ice Age ? VII, 62 

34. What is loess ? VII, 6 1 

[37] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

35. What was the effect of the Ice Age on wind and 
soil? VII, 6 1 

36. What does loess tell us about the past? VII, 61- 
62 

37. What kind of land does loess come from? VII, 
61-62 

38. What caused the Colorado River to shift its 
course? XII, 209 

39. How does grass keep land from blowing away? 
XI, 226-227 



[38] 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a large chart showing the major divisions 
of geological time as given in X, 15-16 

2. Copy the geological time clock of the earth on a 
large chart for your classroom. X, 6 

3. Make clay models of animals alive during the 
time of Krapina Man. VII, 105 

4. Try to get some of the u core" materials brought 
up by an oil drill. Examine it for microscopic 
fossils. Preserve your slides for exhibition. X, 
19-25 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. Discuss the conditions of rainfall, heat, and kind 
of soil one may expect to find in a desert. XI, 
253-263 

2. Another Ice Age is possible. VII, 56-59 

3. Report: The Formation of Loess. VII, 60-6 1 

4. How the continents were once connected. VII, 

63 

5. Evidences of the land bridge between Asia and 
North America. VII, 326-328 

[39] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

C. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Below are 10 statements. Some are true ; some are false. 
On a sheet of paper rewrite each false statement in such a 
way that it becomes true. In doing this you may change or 
leave out any of the italicized words but you may not change 
or leave out any others. 

1. Mud that reaches the ocean beds finally becomes 
igneous rock. X, 8 

2. Since the beginning of the earth one thousand feet of 
sedimentary rock have been formed. X, 2 

3. Many feet of sedimentary rock have been worn away 
by earthworms. X, 3 

4. Salts found in the ocean have come from the rocks. 
X, 4 

5. The earth's crust is one mile thick. VII, 9-10 

6. The earth's crust bends, due to the weight of the 
air. VII, 9-10 

7. The Sahara Desert was never fertile and able to 
support life. VII, 302 

8. That North America once was joined to Asia is 
shown by the presence in both continents of men with copper 
colored skin. VII, 326 

9. The glaciers that covered large parts of North Amer 
ica and Europe changed forests into swamps. VII, 60 

10. An ice sheet 4,000 feet thick covered North Amer 
ica during the Paleozoic Era. X, 8 1 

ANSWERS 

1. sedimentary rock 3. erosion 

2. 350,000 4. rocks 

[40] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

5. 60 miles 8. men with copper colored 

skin 

6. detritus brought down 9. into tundras 
by rivers 

7. once fertile 10. Pleistocene 

TEST II 
Fill in the missing word so that a true statement results. 

1. A paleontologist decides the ancient history of a 
region by X, 17 

2. Rocks formed by heat action are called 

X >9 

3. Mud that reaches the ocean beds becomes 



4. Rocks formed by the accumulation of layers of debris 
are called .. X, 8-9 

5. The oldest rocks are X, 9 

6. In the Alps Mountains we find 

stages of glaciers recorded. VII, 65-66 

7. The present day continents which had land bridges 
are _ VII, 63-64 

8. An extremely fine soil formed by glacial action is 
called VII, 61 

9. The continent which first emerged from the sea is 
X, 7 

I o. Soil is prevented from blowing away by 

XI, 226-227 



ANSWERS 

1 . studying the kind of rocks in which remains are found 

2. igneous 

[41] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL! 



3. rocks 

4. sedimentary rocks 

5. igneous 

6. four 

7. Asia, North America, Africa, Europe 

8. loess 

9. North Autnerica 
10. grass 



[42] 



UNIT V 
LIVING THINGS ON THE EARTH 



A. Kinds of Living Things: 
i . PLANTS : 

1 . Why are plants classified ? XI, 1 48 

2. What was Linnaeus' contribution to science ? XI, 
142-144 

3. What is the practical importance of classifying 
plants? XI, 157-160 

4. How do students of plant classification do their 
work? XI, 157-160 

5. What is an herbarium? XI, 149-152 

6. How are plants dried and pressed? XI, 365-366 

7. How do students use an herbarium? XI, 153-155 

8. How is a specimen labelled on an herbarium 
sheet? XI, 153 

9. What do large plant collections teach us? XI, 
154-156 

*io. What makes us realize the natural groupings of 
plants? XI, 86 

II. Into what four great groups are plants put? XI, 
86 

[43] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 2. What are diatoms ? X, 80-8 1 

13. How many kinds of algae are there? XI, 175 

14. What are "calcareous" algae ? X, 46-4? 

15. What kinds of plants live in the sea? XI, 167 

1 6. What is meant by the ''Sargasso Sea"? XI, 88-89 

1 7. How long do some seaweeds grow ? XI, 8 8 

18. What are lichens ? How do they live ? XI, 92-93 

19. How are ferns different from mosses, algae, and 
fungi? XI, 93 

20. What are some relatives of the ferns? XI, 94 

21. What are gymnosperms? Give examples. XI, 
94-95 

22. What is the meaning of "angiosperm ?" XI, 95 

23. How are gymnosperms different from angio- 
sperms? XI, 95 

24. How many families of flowering plants are there ? 
XI, 96 

25. How are monocotyledons different from dicotyle 
dons? XI, 95-96 

26. What kind of plant is corn? XI, 213-214 

27. When did maize reach the old world? XI, 323 

28. Name some relatives of corn? XI, 331 

29. Why do forest floors remain bare? XI, 32 

30. Name some carnivorous plants? XI, 75 

31. Give some examples of hydrophytes, xerophytes, 
halophytes, and mesophytes. Why are these plants so 
classified? XI, 78-80 

32. How are mushrooms grown? XI, 92 

[44] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

33. Discuss some interesting facts about algae. XI, 



34. What are parasites and saprophytes ? XI, 89 
. MOLLUSKS: 

1. How many vertebrate and invertebrate species 
are known to exist? VII, 20 

2. Whatisamolhisk? X, 252-263 

3. How do shells of mollusks help us in classifying 
them? X, 254 

4. Name the four classes of mollusks. Give an ex 
ample of each. X, 255 

5. What did the Indians use to make wampum? X, 
275-276 

6. What mollusks were used as a basis for trade 
among North American Indians? X, 283 

7. To what animal group do shipworms belong? 
X, 269-270 

8. To what length may a shipworm grow ? X, 270 

9. What is a gastropod? X, 284-287 

10. What interests us in gastropods? X, 287 

11. What gastropod spins threads like a spider? X, 
261-262 

12. Which gastropods have no shell? X, 291 

13. What does "cephalopod" mean? X, 327 

14. Give some examples of cephalopods. X, 321 

15. In what group are the squid and octopus? X, 
251-252 

1 6. We sometimes read or hear reports of "sea ser 
pents" seen at sea. 
What animals may these have been? X, 348-349 

[45] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

17. What is the only cephalopod with a shell? X, 325 

1 8. What connects the mollusks with the lower verte 
brates? X, 252 

19. In what respects are mollusks considered the 
highest invertebrates ? X, 25 1 

20. How do mollusks differ from arthropods? X, 
252 

CRUSTACEANS : 

1. Why is an animal's structure rather than its way 
of living used in classification? V, 26 

2. What does "arthropod" mean? Give some com 
mon examples? V, 26 

3. What are crustaceans ? X, 90-9 1 

4. How many species of crustaceans are there? X, 
9i 

5. How are crustaceans classified? X, 113-114 

6. What are some common examples of crusta 
ceans ? X, 90-9 1 

7. Name the largest and smallest crustaceans? X, 

9 6 

8. How are crustaceans segmented? X, 98-99 

9. How do Crustacea larvae help us in identifying 
the adults? X, 128-129 

10. Who first began a scientific study of Crustacea? 
X, 94-95 

1 1 . Why was cy clops given its name ? X, 1 27 

12. What are fish lice? X, 129-130 

13. What are u water fleas ?" X, 118 

[46] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

14. Of what importance are water fleas in ponds and 
lakes? X, 118 

15. What makes the copepod the most beautiful thing 
in nature? X, 126 

1 6. Why are parasitic copepods so interesting? X, 
128-129 

17. What are some relatives of the Crustacea? X, 
91 

18. Has a crab a tail? Explain. X, 102 

19. What interesting habits has the robber crab? X, 
174-176 

20. Of what substance are the shells of crabs and lob 
sters made? X, 97-98 

21. Name some crabs that hold "conversations." X, 
192-199 

22. Where in the United States can we find a fresh 
water shrimp weighing 3 Ibs.? X, 173 

23. What are " fairy shrimp?" X, 115-116 

24. How many body regions has a shrimp ? X, 100 

25. How did the "glass" shrimp get its name? X, 
168 

26. What shrimp does "needlework" in building its 
house? X, 219-220 

27. What is the cause of luminescence in the sea ? X, 
200-201 

28. Why do crustaceans give out light? X, 200-203 

29. How long can the phosphorescent substance in 
crustaceans last? X, 203-204 

30. What kept twenty-five men of the Greely Arctic 
Expedition from starvation? X, 236-237 

[47] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3 1 . What chemical element is present in crustaceans ? 
X, 238 

32. What constellation has been named after a crusta 
cean? X, 92 

33. Where can we find the largest fresh-water cray 
fish? How long and heavy is it ? X, 173 

34. What is the giant among crustaceans? Give its 
measurements? X, 173 

35. How much may a large lobster weigh? X, 172 

3 6. To what group of Crustacea do barnacles belong ? 
X, 138 

37. Why did people have difficulty in finding out that 
barnacles were crustaceans ? X, 138-140 

38. What are rock barnacles? X, 138 

39. In what way are male and female barnacles differ 
ent? X, 143-144 

40. To what groups do pill bugs and sand flies be 
long? X, 157 

41. What important character distinguishes all crus 
taceans from insects? X, 100 

INSECTS : 

1. Why is an animal's structure rather than its way 
of living used in classification? V, 26 

2. What are arthropods? Give some common ex 
amples? V, 26 

3. Which arthropods have only six legs ? V, 28 

4. How many species of insects are known today? 
VII, 20 

5. Why do students of insects pay so much attention 
to wing structure? V, 83-84 

[48] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. What is meant by a segmented animal? Give ex 
amples. V, 12 

7. What kind of mouth parts has a house-fly? V, 
345-346 

8. How do the fly larvae differ from all other 
larvae? V, 324-325 

9. Name some flies that "bite." V, 320-321 

10. Why can not the house-fly "bite ? n ,322-323 

1 1 . What is the carrier of the germ of African sleep 
ing sickness and nagana ? V, 348-349 

12. Are all flies harmful? Explain. ,353 

13. What distinguishes flies and mosquitoes from all 
other insect groups? V, 315 

14. What distinguishes mosquitoes from other flies? 

V,335 

15. Name the three kinds of mosquitoes important to 
man. V, 331 

1 6. How are malaria larvae distinguished from 
Culex larvae? ,340-341 

17. How is a male mosquito distinguished from the 
female? ,335-336 

1 8. What is the reason for the name "wigglers" given 
to mosquito larvae? ,333 

19. What is the difference between the locust and the 
seventeen-year locust? V, 1-2 

20. Why is the term "seventeen-year locust" no 
longer used? ,182 

21. Give some common names of the cicada. What 
do you call it? ,184 

22. How many races of cicadas have we? ,215-217 

[49] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

23. Name some relatives of the cicadas ? V, 205 

24. What kind of insects visit tubular flowers? XI, 
51-52 

25. What are the cottony masses on apple twigs in 
late summer? V, 172 

26. What is the light efficiency of a Cuban firefly? II, 
270 

27. Why are some insects called "social" insects? V, 
128 

28. Name four kinds of social insects. V, 128 

29. Is it correct to call termites "white ants?" Why? 
V, 128 

30. Name the kinds of termites in a termite nest. V, 



31. What is the supposed relationship between the 
roach and the termite ? V, 145-146 

32. How did the roaches get their many common 
names? V, 77-79 

33. Name the kinds of roaches that you know. V, 
78-80 

34. Name some cricket relatives. V, 58-71 

35. Name some katydid relatives. V, 37-55 

36. How do locusts differ from katydids? How do 
they resemble each other? V, 3 

37. How does a katydid differ from a grasshopper? 
V, 32-33 

38. Name the chief characteristics of all grass 
hoppers. V, 28-29 

5. FlSH: 

i . What were the first backboned animals ? VIII, I 

[50] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. What is a fish? VIII, 4-5 

3. How many fish species have been named so far? 
VIII, 3 

4. What is the smallest fish? The largest? VIII, 3 

5. What fossil shark species is still living today? 
VIII, 13-14 

6. Why is the shark considered to be the forerunner 
of our modern fishes? VIII, 12-13 

7. What characterizes the ganoid fishes? VIII, 21- 
25 

8. How are bony fishes classified? VIII, 26-29 

9. What features do our modern bony fishes pos 
sess? VIII, 16-17, 2 5~ 2 6 

10. What variety of shapes may fishes have? VIII, 

5-7 

11. How are deep-sea fishes different from other 
fishes? VIII, 154 

12. What fishes possess electric organs ? VIII, 82-83 

13. What fish is more dreaded than the shark? VIII, 
57-59 

1 4. How do swordfish behave when attacked ? VIII, 
55-56 

15. What is meant by "vertical distribution" of 
fishes? VIII, 153 

1 6. What are "littoral" fishes? VIII, 154 

17. What is meant by "pelagic" fishes? VIII, 153- 
154 

1 8. Which fishes are thought to have been the an 
cestors of the amphibians ? VIII, 17-18 

[51] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

19. What outstanding things about the lungfishes 
seem to connect them with salamanders? VIII, 
18-19 

6. AMPHIBIANS: 

1. What does the word "amphibian" mean? VIII, 
161 

2. What are Amphibia ? X, 69 

3. Name some common Amphibia ? X, 70 

4. What are the ancestors of amphibians? VIII, 2 

5. How are amphibians distinguished from fishes? 

VIII, 1-2 

6. What characterizes the burrowing amphibians ? 
VIII, 177-179 

7. What salamander is four feet long ? Where does 
it live? VIII, 182 

8. Which salamander keeps its gills throughout its 
life? VIII, 188 

9. Describe the life and habits of the mudpuppy. 
Does it look like a dog? Is it poisonous? VIII, 
188-189 

10. What sort of reputation has the hellbender? 
VIII, 181-182 

11. Can salamanders live in a fire? How did this be 
lief originate ? VIII, 179 

12. What amphibian is frequently called a "lizard?" 
VIII, 179 . 

13. What salamander is commonly kept in aquaria at 
home? VIII, 187 

14. How are frogs and toads classified? VIII, 193 

52] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. What did ancient philosophers believe regarding 
the origin of frogs? VIII, 195 

1 6. In what way are bullfrog tadpoles different from 
frog tadpoles? How long do bullfrogs live? 
VIII, 203 

17. What truth is there in the belief that toads give 
you warts? VIII, 201 

1 8. Which were the first animals to have voices? 
VIII, 176 

19. Which is the biggest frog in the world? How do 
the natives treat it? VIII, 203 

7. REPTILES: 

1. Into what four large groups do all reptiles fall? 
VIII, 211-212 

2. What anatomical features are peculiar to rep 
tiles? VIII, 291-295 

3. Where do reptiles belong in relation to the other 
vertebrates? VIII, 291 

4. Where does the Sphenodon live? Describe a 
Sphenodon and its habits. VIII, 296-298 

5. How may a lizard be distinguished from a sala 
mander? VIII, 321 

6. How is a lizard without legs distinguished from a 
snake? VIII, 321 

7. How does a lizard's tongue help us to classify 
him? VIII, 321-322 

8. Which is the largest lizard in the world? VIII, 
336 

9. Which living lizard may have given rise to stories 
about dragons? VIII, 336 

[53] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

10. What gave the frilled lizard its name? VIII, 
327-328 

11. Describe a common American lizard and its 
habits. VIII, 329-336 

12. Is the name "horned toad" a good one? Why? 
VI, 263 

13. Is the "horned toad" a toad? How did it get its 
name? VIII, 331 

14. What is meant by the "glass snake ?" What mag 
ical powers do some people say it has ? How true 
is this? VIII, 334-335 

15. How do snakes range in size and shape? VIII, 
339-340 

1 6. They say a snake walks on its ribs. Is this true? 
Why? VIII, 342-343 

1 7. Which kind of snake is found in greatest numbers 
in North America? What does this kind eat? 
VIII, 346 

1 8. Which snake has the greatest length? VIII, 352 

19. Which burrowing snakes occur in the United 
States? How do they act when handled? VIII, 

345 

20. Which snakes are called "sting snakes" and 
"hoop snakes?" VIII, 345 

21. What are some interesting habits of the python? 
VIII, 352-353 

22. How does the puff adder behave when captured? 
VIII, 346 

23. What species of poisonous snakes are found in 
the United States? VIII, 346 

[54] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

24. Which snakes are called "pit vipers ?" Why was 
this name given to them ? VIII, 347 

25 . How many species of rattlesnake are found in the 
United States? VIII, 348 

26. What are some habits of the rattlesnake? VIII, 
349-350 

27. Why is the copperhead so-called? Where are 
copperheads found? VIII, 347 

28. Which reptile is the living representative of an 
ancient group active even before dinosaurs, birds 
or mammals appeared on earth? Why is it al 
most extinct now ? VI, 261-262 

29. How rapidly do alligators grow? How do alli 
gators escape from their enemies? VIII, 304 

30. How are crocodiles distinguished from alliga 
tors? Vin, 299 

31. How are turtles classified? VIII, 307 

32. What unusual structural features do turtles 
have? VIII, 306-307 

33. How do "leatherback" turtles differ from other 
turtles? How are they able to avoid enemies on 
land? VIII, 310-311 

34. How long can a Galapagos turtle live? VIII, 
3I3-3I4 

35. How can you tell the age of a box turtle? VIII, 

318 

36. What three classes of vertebrates are cold 
blooded? VIII, 161 

8. BIRDS: 

I. What characters are common to all birds? IX, I 

[55] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. What group of animals has the greatest brilliancy 
of color? IX, 25 

3. What strange forms may feathers take? IX, 24 

4. How many species of bird are there? IX, 143 

5. How are birds classified? IX, 143-166 

6. Name the orders of birds, giving an example of 
each order. IX, 143-166 

7. What group includes nearly half of the birds 
known to man? IX, 165-166 

8. How do people study birds? What name is given 
to the science of bird study? IX, 114-125 

9. How is information about birds obtained? IX, 

11-12 

io. How does the National Museum get some of its 
bird specimens? IX, 8 

n. Why do good museums have many duplicates of 
one kind of bird? IX, 7-8 

12. How are birds prepared for laboratory study? 
IX, 6-7 

13. What country has the greatest number of bird 
species for its area? IX, 2 

14. What group of birds Is the lowest In the scale of 
classification? IX, 144-145 

15. What kind of life do rheas live? IX, 145 

16. What is the "American ostrich?" IX, 145-146 

17. What are some habits of the ostrich? IX, 144- 
145 

1 8. What Is known about cassowaries and emus ? IX, 
146-147 

[56] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

19. What are some of the habits of the loon? IX, 
149 

20. What bird excavates a hole in a tree for its nest ? 
IX, 77 

2 1 . Which bird's speech is even more humanlike than 
the parrot's? 1,259-260 

22. Where was the last passenger pigeon in the wo rid 
kept before it died? How long did it live in cap 
tivity? VI, 250 

9. MAMMALS: 

1. How many species of mammal are there in the 
world? VII, 20; IX, 220 

2. What are the principles of classification as ap 
plied to the horse, monkey, and whale? IX, 25 1- 
254 

3. How did the word "mammal" originate? IX, 
218-219 

4. What characteristics are possessed by all mam 
mals? IX, 242-243 

5. What is meant by the "placental mammals?" IX, 
245-246 

6. How are placental mammals classified? Give an 
example of each group. IX, 246-255 

7. How many species of placental mammals are 
known today ? IX, 311 

8. What is meant by the science of mammalogy? 

IX, 2 I 9 

9. How are mammals collected? IX, 207-217 

10. What effect did the cyclone mouse trap have on 
our knowledge of small mammals? IX, 238-240 

[57] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

11. From what kind of ancestors did egg-laying mam 
mals come? IX, 269-270 

12. Name some mammals that lay eggs. IX, 244, 
269 

13. What interesting characteristics does the duckbill 
have? IX, 273-277 

14. Why was there some doubt that the duckbill is a 
mammal? IX, 272 

15. What are the habits and characteristics of the 
Echidna or spiny anteater? IX, 270-271 

1 6. What is a marsupial? Give an example. IX, 
244-245 

17. What kind of marsupials exist today? IX, 280 

1 8. Which marsupial is native to the United States? 
VI, 218 

19. How does the intelligence of marsupials compare 
with that of other mammals ? VI, 217 

20. What are some of the habits of the kangaroo? 
IX, 285-287 

21. Why is the "Tasmanian Devil" poorly named? 
VI, 217 

22. Which marsupial has developed along the same 
lines as the mole? IX, 308-310 

23. Which marsupials resemble flying squirrels ? IX, 
297-298 

24. Which marsupial is the size of a house-mouse? 
IX, 287 

25. Describe some marsupials and their habits. IX, 
280-310 

26. What are some characteristics of the insecti- 
vores ? IX, 3 1 3-3 1 6 

[58] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

27. Why are insectivores of great importance to 
scientists? IX, 315-316 

28. Which is the smallest mammal in the world ? VI, 
, 229 

29. What are "edentates?" Give an example. IX, 
250 

30. What interesting structure does the armadillo 
have? IX, 363 

3 1 . What are sloths ? How do they live ? IX, 362 

32. Isabatabird? Explain. IX, 243 

33. Why are "vampire" bats so named? How and 
what do they eat ? IX, 3 1 8 

34. What are rodents? How are their teeth kept 
sharp? IX, 249-250 

35. How are rodents distinguished from other mam 
mals? IX, 331 

36. Name some kinds of rodent? IX, 333-335 

37. In what respects are rodents superior to some 
other kinds of mammal? IX, 331-333 

38. How do rodent species vary in size? IX, 332 

39. To what group do porcupines belong? Name 
some close relatives of the porcupine and how 
they differ from each other? IX, 338-339 

40. How extensive is the rat and mouse tribe? IX, 
335 

41. What are the principal families of the carni 
vores? IX, 322-323 

42. What do we know about the ancestors of the dog? 
IX, 321-322 

[59] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

43. What do we know about the ancestors of the cat ? 
IX, 322 

44. Why is the tiger sometimes called a "snobbish 
aristocrat?'' VI, 79-80 

45. How large is a newborn bear? VI, 99 

46. What is the most important characteristic of the 
seal family? IX, 323-324 

47. To what family of mammals does the wolverine 
belong? VI, 226 

48. What evidence is there of the cleverness of the 
wolverine? Why is it becoming scarce? VI, 226- 
227 

49. Is the whale a fish? Explain. IX, 243 

50. Why are whales and porpoises classified as mam 
mals? IX, 367 

51. Describe the head of the sperm whale. Describe 
itsteeth. IX, 371-372 

52. How many kinds of whales are there? How did 
they get their names? IX, 370-371 

53. What whale can grunt under water ? IX, 374 

54. What animal, related to whales, has a twisted 
tusk from three to eight feet long? IX, 373-374 

5 5 . To what mammals are seacows related ? 1X5365 

5 6. What are ungulates ? IX, 340-34 1 

57. What different kinds of ungulates are there ? IX, 
342-343 

58. In what countries do pigs run about as do our 
dogs and cats? VI, 162 

59. Where are wart hogs found? Describe their 
habits. VI, 158 

[60] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

60. Where did the domestic camel originate? VI, 155 

6 1 . Where is the Dromedary camel found ? Where is 
the Bactrian camel found? VI, 155 

62. Name a relative of the camel in the Western 
Hemisphere. VI, 156 

63. Where is the reindeer found in large numbers? 
VI, 185 

64. Which ungulates have hollow horns ? Which have 
solid horns or antlers? IX, 343 

65. Which is the most dangerous of the larger mam 
mals? VI, 172 

66. Which quadruped existed in the greatest numbers 
before 1870? VI, 166 

67. When did man first see a bison ? VI, 1 65-1 66 

68. Which is probably the rarest animal in captivity? 

VI, 221 

69. How long can an elephant live? VI, 136 

70. What was the name of the most famous elephant 
in captivity? How much did he weigh? How did 
he die? Where is his skeleton now ? VI, 130-132 

7 1 . What are flying-lemurs ? IX, 3 1 6 

72. What kind of variation exists among the 
monkeys? IX, 326 

73. What are some of the mischievous things done by 
the rhesus monkey? VI, 45-46 

74. Where does the rhesus monkey live wild? VI, 
45-46 

75. What is meant by "primates" ? IX, 324 

76. Name some primates now living. IX, 325-330 

[61] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

77. What have scientists been learning recently from 
the apes? IX, 327-329 

78. Why are chimpanzees always kept caged when 
they grow old? VI, 31-33 

79. Describe a chimpanzee's table manners. VI, 30- 
33 

80. Give an example of a chimpanzee's intelligence. 
VI, 32-33 

Si. In what respects is the gorilla far beneath man? 

VI, 28-29 

82. To which group of animals does man belong? 

VII, 12 

B. Needs of Living Things: 

1. What is meant by u being alive" ? V, 101 

2. What do roots do for the plants ? XI, 3 

3. How did man discover just what fertilizers to 
use? XI, 296 

4. How successfully can plants grow without soil? 
XI, 296 

5. What may cause a lack of nitrogen in the soil? 
XI, 8 

6. How does a minute quantity of boron affect a 
tomato plant? XI, 297 

7. What elements in exceedingly small amounts are 
absolutely necessary for normal plant growth? 
XI, 297 

8. What happens to a plant that lacks potassium ? 
XI, 296 

9. What happens to a plant that lacks calcium? 
XI, 296 

[62] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

i o. What happens to a plant that lacks phosphorus ? 
XI, 296 

1 1 . What happens when plants lack iron ? XI, 8 

1 2. What element in the soil is necessary if a plant is 
to develop chlorophyll? XI, 290 

13. Name some elements essential to plant growth. 
XI, 296-298 

14. What is the matter with a pale plant? XI, 8 

" 15. What are the chemical formulas for chlorophyll 
AandB? XI, 290 

1 6. How are mushrooms grown ? XI, 92 

17. What happens to Daphnia when they reach the 
surface film of the water? X, 121 

1 8. Why do fiddler crabs build burrows ? X, 1 7 1 

1 9. Why does a mosquito pupa stay at the surface of 
the water? V, 334 

20. Has an insect any blood? What is it like? V, 

III-II2 

2 1 . Make a diagram of an insect's circulatory system. 
V, 112 

22. Describe the alimentary canal in fishes. VIII, 95- 
97 

23. What kind of blood circulation is found in fishes ? 
VIII, 97-98 

24. Describe the food of the Bactrian camel. VI, 155 

25. What is the yak's one great drawback? VI, 174 

C. Living Things in Their Surroundings: 
i . PLANTS IN THEIR SURROUNDINGS : 
i. Where do algae usually live? XI, 87 

[63] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Where do mosses live ? XI, 93 

3. Where do ferns live ? XI, 93 

4. What are the temperature ranges within which 
life is possible? 11,244 

5. What is the science of ecology? XI, 78 

6. Into what groups are all plants divided on the 
basis of environment? XI, 78 

7. What causes the distribution of plants? XI, 81- 
85 

8. Describe a typical plant-collecting trip in the 
tropics. XI, 363-376 

9. Describe conditions above the timberline in Co 
lombia. XI, 360-361 

10. Describe the temperate zone plants in Colombia. 
XI, 360 

11. Describe the plant life in a subtropical zone in 
Colombia. XI, 359-360 

12. Describe the plant life in a tropical zone in Co 
lombia. XI, 358-359 

13. Why do sea plants have less trouble in living 
throughout the year than do land plants? XI, 
168-169 

14. How far down in the ocean can plants live? XI, 
169-170 

15. What plant is typical of Old World agriculture? 
Of the New Wo rid? XI, 323 

ANIMALS AND THEIR NEED FOR AIR AND WATER: 

i. What can be said about the story that horned 
toads can live a long time sealed in a block of 
cement? VI, 263 

[64] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. At what depth are pearl-bearing mollusks found ? 
Ill, 218-219 

3. Where does Cyclops live? X, 127-128 

4. At what levels in the ocean can copepods live? 
X, 127 

5. How fast can a lobster move? X, 98 

6. What is a "wiggler" ? How do wigglers get into 
rain barrels? V, 329-331 

7. Why does a mosquito pupa stay at the surface of 
the water? V, 334 

8. In what kinds of surroundings do fishes live? 

VIII, 2 

9. Explain the reason for the wide distribution of 
fishes? VIII, 2 

10. Have you ever disturbed a frog near a pond? 
How does it behave? VIII, 202 

1 1 . Do any crocodiles live in salt water ? VIII, 302 

12. What snakes live in the ocean ? VIII, 354-355 

13. Why is a hippopotamus called a water horse? 
VI, 146 

1 4. How long can a hippopotamus stay under water ? 
VI, 147-148 

3. ANIMALS IN RELATION TO TEMPERATURE : 

1. List some temperatures which crustaceans can 
withstand. X, 185-186 

2. What crustacean lives in hot springs with a tem 
perature of 112 F.? X, 153-154 

3. Where are termites found in great numbers? V, 
129 

[65] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. Why is yellow fever a tropical disease ? V, 340 

5. Where do mosquitoes live during the winter? V, 
333 

6. Name some barriers that affect fish and their dis 
tribution. VIII, 149-150 

7. What factors prevent many fish from becoming 
cosmopolitan? VIII, 149 

8. Why do fishes leave the shallow water in the 
autumn to go to the deep sea ? VIII, 128 

9. Where does the tuatara or Sphenodon live ? De 
scribe a Sphenodon and its habits? VIII, 296- 
298 

10. Have we any native crocodiles ? Explain. VIII, 

3 2 -33 

1 1 . Where are the most dangerous crocodiles found ? 
VIII, 302 

12. Why are snakes most plentiful in the tropics? 
VIII, 339 

1 3. Where have snakes never been found ? VIII, 339 

14. In what part of the earth are birds most abun 
dant? IX, 2 

15. What country has the greatest number of bird 
Species for its area ? IX, 2 

1 6. Do bears seem to suffer from summer heat? VI, 
100 

17. Where do the pygmy hippos live wild? VI, 149 

1 8. Where do hippos live wild? VI, 149 

19. Where does the musk ox live? VI, 169 

20. Why does the presence of the musk ox in the 
Arctic surprise people? VI, 169 

[66] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

21. Where are giraffes abundant today? VI, 176 

22. Where does the rhesus monkey live wild? VI, 
45-46 

23. Do any monkeys live wild in the Western Hemis 
phere? Explain. VI, 51-53 

24. Where does the gorilla live? VI, 23-28 

4. THE NEED FOR FOOD : 

1. In what types of habitats do crustaceans live? 
X,8 9 

2. How deep in the ocean have crustaceans been 
found? X, 185-186 

3. Why do fiddler crabs build burrows? X, 171 

4. How does a fish parasite live ? X, 1 29- 1 3 1 

5. What are the activities of the true fish-lice in our 
fish tanks? X, 136-137 

6. On what portion of a fish's body may we find 
copepod parasites? X, 129-131 

7. Where can we find termites ? V, 128-129 

8. Where do the young stages of mosquitoes live? 
V, 331 

9. Where are most house-flies born? V, 343 

10. Where are the eggs of an apple tree tent moth 
found? V, 262-263 

11. Where can we find cocoons of the tent cater 
pillar? V, 282 

12. Where is one body of water which has no fish? 
VIII, 2 

13. How can one keep horned toads alive? VI, 263 

[67] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

14. What causes the usually rare snowy owl to be 
seenhere? VI, 257 

15. Why was the Indian population low in North 
America and high in South America ? IV, 5 

THE NEED FOR SHELTER: 

1. In what types of habitats may we find mollusks ? 
X, 254-255 

2. In what habitats do snails live? X, 284 

3. Name a bivalve which burrows into hard rocks. 
X, 269 

4. In what unusual places are crustaceans found? 
X, 186-187 

5. What part does seaweed play in spreading crusta 
ceans? X, 189 

6. What type of homes do termites have in the 
tropics? V, 146-148 

7. Where do cicadas live before we see them? 
V, 184 

8. How deep are the burrows of cicadas? V, 
187-189 

9. What are cicada huts ? Why are they built? V, 
192-193 

i o. Why have birds spread all over the world ? IX, i 

11. Name some out-of-the-way places where birds 
have been found. IX, 1-2 

12. What kind of home life do young hawks have? 
IX, 97 

13. What is the native land of the love birds ? VI, 255 

14. How do birds keep their nests clean? IX, 101 

[68] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. What birds foul their own nests? IX, 101 

1 6. What are a bat's habits? IX, 317-320 

17. In what kinds of habitat are rodents to be found ? 
IX, 332 

1 8. How do beavers go about building their homes? 
VI, 118-120 

19. How large may beaver dams be? IX, 334 

20. Where in Africa is the lion still abundant? Why 
is this? VI, 70 

21. Why are the true or mountain zebras now not 
extinct? VI, 213 

6. LIVING TOGETHER : 

1 . How do social animals live ? V, 1 2 8 

2. How do the majority of animals live? V, 127-128 

3. Is a termite colony democratic? V, 134 

4. What can we learn about the termite's way of 
living? V, 151 

5. Describe the home of a group of termites. V, 
128-129 

6. How does the termite queen get her food? V, 149 

7. Why do termites always seem to nibble or lick one 
another? V, 144 

D. Man's Relation to Other Living Things: 
i . OUR FOOD AND LIVING THINGS : 

1. What is meant by a "parasite"? Describe how 
one works. V, 19-25 

2. What sort of work is being done by plant stu 
dents? XI, 157-160 

[69] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. What is the work of bacteria? XI, 89 

4. How do some bacteria enrich the soil? XI, 27-28 

5. Are all bacteria harmful? Explain. XI, 28 

6. How much damage is due to smuts? XI, 91 

7. Name some fungus diseases. XI, 91 

8. How much of a menace to the coconut-growing 
industry is the robber crab? X, 178 

9. What place has the oyster in economics? X, 275 

10. How are mollusks harvested from the sea? Ill, 
219 

11. Are insects to blame for the damage they cause 
us? How is this explained? V, 152 

12. How are horses and cattle affected by the larvae 
of the botfly and the ox warble-fly ? V, 35 2 

13. Why are horn flies a menace to cattle? ,348 

14. Why do stable flies concern us? V, 347~348 

15. Name some enemies of the aphids. V, 173-181 

16. Why is the aphis-lion so useful to us? ,174-176 

17. How did the roaches get their many common 
names? V, 77-79 

1 8. "People who are not fond of roaches should pro 
tect centipedes. " Explain. ,82-83 

19. Why is the mantis said to be our friend? ,75 

20. Why should a ladybird beetle be protected? V, 



21. Why do crabs deserve the name of "ten-footed 
earthworms?" X, 244-245 

22. Where in the United States are the best shrimp 
fisheries? X, 232 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

23. What chemical element is present in crustaceans ? 
X,2 3 S 

24. What kept twenty-five men of the Greely Arctic 
Expedition from starvation? X, 234-237 

25. What kind of damage is done by pill-bugs? 
X, 245 

26. When were lobsters regarded as pests? X, 229 

27. In what way may crustaceans be pests ? X, 89 

28. Describe the damages crustaceans do to oysters. 
X, 245-247 

29. What damage do crayfish do to corn and cotton 
in the Mississippi delta? X, 244 

30. What damage do crabs cause tomato growers in 
Florida? X, 244 

31. Why have we difficulty in raising rice in Porto 
Rico? X, 243-244 

32. What crab destroys rice in Valencia, Spain? 
X, 243 

33. What effect have crabs on rice plantations in 
India? X, 241-242 

34. How do ships help spread crustaceans? X, 188 

35. How did the mountain crab get to Germany? 
X, 188 

36. How are robber crabs captured? X, 175-177 

37. How is the fishing industry dependent upon the 
spawning seasons ? VIII, 125-126 

38. What food habits of crocodiles and alligators 
make it possible for us to control them? VIII, 

35 

39. What is guano ? Why is it useful to man? IX, 139 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

40. How well do birds get rid of weed seeds ? IX, 1 29 

41. How many seeds of the water primrose did one 
duck have in its stomach? IX, 1 29 

42. How many tons of weed seeds are eaten by tree 
sparrows in Iowa in a single winter? IX, 129 

43. How long ago and by what people were falcons 
trained for hunting? IX, 5 

44. What birds build nests relished by the Chinese 
for a soup? IX, 77 

45. What birds have been domesticated for many 
centuries ? IX, 2-3 

46. Who domesticated the turkey? VII, 339 

47. In what manner did man learn how to domesti 
cate birds ? IX, 4-5 

48. What led to our having parrots and canaries for 
pets? IX, 4-5 

49. Where was the last passenger pigeon in the world 
kept before it died? How long did it live in cap 
tivity? VI, 250 

50. What parrot attacks and kills living sheep? 
IX, 1 60 

51. Why are the mountain parrots or keas being ex 
terminated? VI, 252 

52. How should we deal with birds which catch and 
eat fish? IX, 138-139 

53. What do hawks and owls eat? IX, 140-141 

54. What complaints have been made against the 
bobolinks and red-winged blackbirds? IX, 129- 
130 

[72] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

55. What birds of prey should be kept in check? 
IX, I4 i 

56. How are corn kernels treated to prevent crows 
from eating them ? IX, 131 

57. How did the National Zoological Park come into 
being? VI, 3-5 

58. How does the National Museum get some of its 
bird specimens? IX, 8 

59. What kind of work is done by "economic orni 
thologists ?" IX, 124-125 

60. Cite some examples which show how bird band 
ings give us information of a bird's travels. IX, 

65-67 

6 1. Why are birds' stomachs so carefully studied? 
IX, 125 

62. Why is the mongoose not allowed to be imported 
into the United States? VI, 222 

63. Which monkey is trained to climb coconut trees 
and throw down coconuts? VI, 49 

64. What were the female llamas used for? VI, 156 

65. How do people use reindeer? VI, 185 

66. What evidence is there of the cleverness of the 
wolverine? Why is it becoming scarce? VI, 
226-227 

67. Why is the African cheetah in such demand in 
India? VI, 90-91 

68. Why are leopards more dangerous than other 
"cats?" VI, 87 

69. Why are leopards killed and trapped so fre 
quently? VI, 85 

[733 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

OUR HEALTH AND LIVING THINGS : 

1. How do certain seaweeds aid the science of bac 
teriology? XI, 89 

2. Should plants be removed from a sick room? 
Explain. XI, 28-29 

3. Describe the damage done by some of the trypa- 
nosomes. V, 349 

4. In what way are gastropods sometimes danger 
ous to man ? X, 3 1 6 

5. What mollusk can kill a man? X, 293 

6. Why do the natives of New Guinea dread the 
bite of Conus, a snail? X, 301-302 

7. Do octopuses and squids really attack man? X, 
346-347 

8. Does the house-fly ever bite people? V, 347-348 

9. Why can a fly's bite cause a serious infection? 
V, 323 

10. What is the most effective method of fly control 
we have ? V, 343 

11. Why are mosquito bites painful? V, 338 

12. What is the only known carrier of the yellow- 
fever virus? V, 338-339 

13. Why has yellow fever occasionally broken out in 
northern cities ? ,340 

14. What damage may the "screw worm" cause to 
animals and man ? V, 352 

1 5 . What is the carrier of the germs of African sleep 
ing sickness and nagana ? V, 348-349 

1 6. What is the worst biting fly? V, 348 

[74] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 7. How are crabs an aid to sanitation in the tropics ? 



1 8. How do sand-fleas help mankind? X, 158 

19. What crab in Jamaica is used to "treat" deaf 
ness? X, 239 

20. What two species are the only poisonous lizards 
now known? 1,262-263 

2 1 . What lizard in the United States is as deadly as 

a rattlesnake? How does it inject its poison? 
VIII, 336 

22. Why are geckos unwelcome visitors in warm 
countries ? What interesting features do geckos 
have? VIII, 325-326 

23. How dangerous is the cobra ? How many people 

in India die each year from cobra bites? Why is 
not the cobra wiped out in India? VIII, 35 1-352 

24. Is it true that a spitting cobra can shoot its poison 
at one's eye? VI, 269 

25. Why is the mamba so feared? VIII, 354 

26. How old must a baby of a poisonous snake be be 
fore it can inflict harm upon us? VIII, 343 

27. How poisonous are copperheads? VIII, 348 

28. What rattlesnake is considered the. most danger 
ous in North America? What gives it its reputa 
tion? VIII, 349 

29. How is antivenin used and prepared? VIII, 35 1 

30. What monkey was used to teach ancient doctors 
anatomy? VI, 48 

31. What do the Chinese use a rhinoceros' u horn" 
for? VI, 207 

32. What is the rhinoceros' u horn" made of ? VI, 208 

[75] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. CONTROLLING OUR ENEMIES : 

1 . What is a "hopperdozer ?" How is it used ? V, 1 9 

2. Describe an effective poison for grasshoppers. 
V, 19 

3. What methods do we use to kill biting insects? 
V, 154 

4. What methods do we use to kill sucking insects? 
V, 154 

5. What is the most effective method of fly control? 
V, 343 

6. How can we use insects to fight other insects? 
V, 19-21 

4. ASCENDANCY OF MAN OVER OTHER 
LIVING THINGS : 

1 . What physical land conditions brought about the 
domestication of animals? VII, 250-251 

2. What one defect has the Eskimo dog? IV, 4 

3. What valuable sense do Eskimo dogs possess? 
IV, 50 

4. How are Eskimo dogs handled? IV, 47 

5. In what way were dogs useful to Mesolithicman? 
VII, 239 

6. How did dogs become domesticated animals? 
VII, 239 

7. What are the first evidences of domestic dogs? 
VII, 230-238 

8. What early evidence have we of the use of 
mounted horses? VII, 323 

[76] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

9. When were the horse and donkey introduced into 
Babylonia? VII, 305-306 

10. What effect did the horse have upon civilization? 
VII, 306 

11. How did the Egyptians come to use the camel? 
VII, 300 

1 2. What animal changed the course of history ? VII, 
286-287 

13. Why is the yak a useful animal in Central Asia? 
VI, 174 

14. What was the ancient Peruvian beast of burden? 
VI, 156 

15. Is a camel as patient as it is said to be? VI, 154 

1 6. When did the United States attempt to domesti 
cate camels? VI, 154 

17. In what country were camels successfully domesti 
cated? VI, 154-155 

18. How long has the camel been in use? VII, 275 

19. How did plow-oxen come into use ? VII, 261 

20. What led people to set aside some animals as 
sacred? VII, 251 

21. How did man come to use animals as beasts of 
burden? VII, 255-256 

22. What is believed to be the reason for animal 
drawings on walls of caves and weapons of an 
cient man? VII, 52, 202-203 

23. Why was man able to overcome creatures 
stronger than himself? VII, 170 

24. Why are forest people in Africa, New Guinea, 
and the Philippines so backward? XI, 204 

[77] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

25. How did Neanderthal Man overcome mam 
moths and other powerful animals? VII, 195 

26. How was man able to rise above the level of the 
animal? VII, 171 

27. Why are the true or mountain zebras not extinct 
yet? VI, 213 

28. What animal has become one of the chief forces 
of destruction of plant and animal life? X, 82 

, GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS : 

1. What probably caused the formation of our large 
oil deposits? X, 81 

2. What living things form iron ore today? XI, 
47-48 

3. How do roots damage pavements? XI, 6 

4. Name some important uses to which we put the 
shells of mollusks. X, 253 

5. What mollusks were used as a basis for trade 
among North American Indians ? X, 283 

6. What artist's pigment is obtained from squids? 
X, 76,335 

7. How is Tyrian purple obtained? X, 314-315 

8. What snails are used for dyes and ink? X, 314 

9. What is a pearl? Ill, 217-218 

10. How do pearls form in a mollusk? Ill, 218; 
X, 276-277 

1 1 . What mollusks produce valuable pearls ? Ill, 218 

12. Where are cultured pearls produced? Ill, 219 

13. How is a pearl removed from the mollusk? 
Ill, 220 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

14. What gives luster to pearl and mother-of-pearl? 
Ill, 218 

15. What different colors may pearls have? Ill, 219 

1 6. How may mollusks be forced to make pearls? 
Ill, 223-224 

17. How are pearl beds conserved? 111,219-220 

1 8. Where are pearls found in North and South 
America? Ill, 221 

19. Why are termites of economic importance to us? 
V, 129 

20. When do we first discover the damage done by 
termites? V, 129 

21. Describe some of the damage done by termites. 
V, 129 

22. What crustacean has injured submarine cables 
by its boring? X, 219 

23. How do barnacles injure shipping? X, 142-143 

24. How much damage did the shipworm do in San 
Francisco Bay in 1919-1920? X, 271 

25. What ancient people prized cicadas for their 
song? V, 183 

26. How can you feed red salamanders in captivity? 
VIII, 184 

27. How can you successfully keep spotted or mar 
bled salamanders in captivity? What can you 
feed them? VIII, 186 

28. What myths are centered around the turtle and 
the origin of the earth? VIII, 319 

29. Where do we get our tortoise shells? VIII, 312 

30. What economic value have lizards ? VIII, 338 

[79] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

31. How are pythons fed in a zoo? VI, 266 

32. Does man hunt animals only for food? Explain. 
VI, i-io 

33. How did bull fights originate ? VII, 252 

34. What monkey makes the best pet? VI, 54'55 

35. What is the commonest monkey pet in this coun 
try? VI, 45-46 

36. What kind of a pet does a pig make? VI, 162 

37. What is meant by "bear-baiting?" VI, 96-97 

38. Are bears safe pets? VI, 98 

39. How are lions trained for the circus? VI, 76-77 

40. What is "takia ?" Howisitused? VI, 157 

41. What camel relative is raised for its wool? 

vi, 157 

42. Why is a dead llama in Peru and Bolivia worth 
as much as a live one? VI, 157 



[so] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1 . Make a clay model of a dinosaur. VII, 14 

2. Make collections of mud from different types of 
streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, bays, or oceans. 
Examine them for diatoms. Preserve the diatoms 
as microscope exhibits. XI, 180-183 

3. Make a collection of seaweeds from the ocean. 
Dry the plants, label them, and hang them up in 
a corner of your room at school. XI, 167-180, 
184-190 

4. Make a collection of lichens for your own mu 
seum. XI, 92-93 

5 . Collect as many species of lichens as you can from 
your locality. Study them with a lens or a micro 
scope. Learn to identify them. 11,92-93 

6. Make a collection of diatoms. Study them under 
a microscope. Learn to photograph them with 
your camera and microscope. X, 80-8 1 

7. Learn to recognize some common algae found on 
tree trunks, flower pots, ponds, streams, sea 
shores, etc. Try to cultivate some in your school. 

n, 175 

8. By keeping such foods as bread, oranges, lemons, 
etc., in a dark place in covered bottles, grow va 
rious molds. Examine the filaments and spores 
under a microscope. XI, 39-40 

[81] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

9. Make soap models of some common mushrooms 
found in your locality. II, 93 

10. Make a collection of common mosses. Dry them 
and mount them in an herbarium. XI, 149-150, 

153-155 

1 1 . Collect the common ferns in your locality and 
learn to recognize them. II, 93-94 

12. Learn to identify twenty gymnosperms growing 
wild or cultivated in your community. XI, 94~95 

13. Collect such carnivorous plants as sundew, 
pitcher plant and Venus' fly-trap. Grow them in 
a terrarium. XI, 74-76 

14. Construct terraria showing examples of hydro 
phytes, xerophytes, halophytes and mesophytes. 
Take careful notes of the conditions they require 
for healthy living. XI, 78-80 

15. Organize a wild flower club in your school. Be 
ginning early in March, collect one plant in flower 
of each species ; dry them, mount on an herbarium 
sheet, and label accurately. XI, 96, 149-153. 
365-366 

1 6. Mount your pressed plants as shown in the pic 
ture opposite page 153, XI 

17. Make a collection of fifty common grasses in 
your vicinity. Identify them and place them in 
your herbarium. XI, 238-249 

1 8. Copy on a large chart the diagram of an ordinary 
seed plant shown in XI, 2 

19. Make a collection of winter twigs and buds. Iden 
tify each twig for your museum. XI, 19 

[82] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

20. Open fresh or salt-water mussels and examine the 
inside of the shells for pearls. X, 276-278 

21. Search the driftwood along the bay. or ocean- 
front for wood riddled by shipworms. Include 
these specimens in your museum exhibits. X, 
271-273 

22. Make a collection of land snails in your locality. 
Exhibit and label these for your own museum. 
X, 284-286 

23. Make a mollusk section for your club, home or 
school museum. Classify your specimens scientifi 
cally. On your labels state an interesting fact 
about each specimen. X, 25 1-356 

24. Get a half shell of the chambered nautilus from 
some supply house. By using diluted nitric acid 
dissolve the white and brown covering on the 
shell, until a pearly sheen is obtained. X, 328 

25. Ask some people who eat snails, for a recipe in 
preparing and cooking them. Buy some snails 
and cook them for yourself and friends. X, 284, 



26. Buy or catch a blue crab. Using the diagram 
shown in X, 101 identify the different parts. 

27. Follow directions given in X, 88 and study the 
luminescence of certain crustaceans. 

28. Hunt for fish-lice in an aquarium. Detach one 
from a fish and make a drawing of it. Try to 
photograph it through a low-powered micro 
scope. X, 12*9-137 

29. Buy some shrimp. Prepare and cook some for 
your friends. X, 232-233 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

30. Make an aquarium for water insects collected in 
a nearby pond. 

31. Make a collection of different kinds of grasshop 
pers in your locality. If possible, get in touch with 
people in other parts of the United States and 
exchange specimens in order to increase your col 
lection. V, 28-29 

32. Make a collection of as many kinds of grasshop 
pers as you can, in all stages of development. To 
kill them painlessly, use a wide-mouthed jar in 
which is a wad of absorbent cotton sprinkled with 
a few drops of carbon tetrachloride. Mount the 
identified insects on pins in cigar-boxes lined with 
sheet cork or soft corrugated paper. V, 1-25 

33. Make a collection of grasshopper relatives for 
your museum. Include the roaches. V, 28-84 

34. Try to find (in April) certain holes in the ground 
from which cicada nymphs emerge. Pour liquid 
plaster-of-Paris into some of the holes. Dig out 
the hardened casts of the underground chambers 
and exhibit them. V, 187-190 

35. Get a number of fish gills and hunt among the 
gills for parasitic copepods. Draw some of them. 
Preserve the rest as microscopic mounts. X, 
128-137 

36. Make a community tank of tropical fish. VIII, 

101 

37. Paint pictures of luminous fish on a dark back 
ground. For light organs use luminous paint. 
Exhibit in a darkened room. VIII, 80-8 1 

38. Build a terrarium of marsh or swamp plants. 
Place in it some of the smaller frogs. Feed them 
with small, live insects. VIII, 205-206 

[84] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

39. Learn to recognize the poisonous and non-poison 
ous snakes in your community. VIII, 339-355 

40. Collect and exhibit some skins shed by snakes. 

VIII, 343 

41. In your own museum at school, home or camp, 
build a "Live Snake Section." Have each cage 
properly labelled with an interesting fact or two 
about each kind of snake you exhibit. VI, 266-271 

42. Organize a bird club. Observe birds as often as 
possible and make a bird census of your locality. 

IX, 143 

43. By listening to, and observing the song birds, 
learn to recognize bird songs and calls even when 
you can not see the bird. IX, 103-1 13 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. The factors which today cause the geographical 
distribution of plants. XI, 80-85 

2. The history of our knowledge of plant life. XI, 



3. The part played by Linnaeus in advancing the 
cause of science. XI, 142-144 

4. The kind of activities engaged in by men who 
study plants. XI, 148-163 

5. Plants do not need oxygen in order to live and 
grow. II, 224-226 

6. Some interesting things about the group of plants 
known as algae. XI, 87-89 

7. The uses of algae by man. XI, 1 84-196 

8. Discuss the products man obtains from grasses. 
XI, 216-218 

[85] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

9, The effect of grasses on civilization. XI, 201-215 

10. The value of grasses as land builders. XI, 
226-229 

11. The uses of cacti to man. XI, 125-126 

12. A desert is bare of plant and animal life. XI, 
264-281 

13. What behavior of the termites entitles them to 
be called social insects. V, 125-151 

14. Some strange tales about octopuses and squids. 
X, 345-352 

15. The damage done by barnacles to the shipping in 
dustry. X, 142-143 

1 6. The fight of farmers against crustaceans. X, 
241-247 

17. The variety of homes built or occupied by crusta 
ceans. X, 210-228 

1 8. Luminescence among the crustaceans. X, 200-205 

19. Protective coloration among the crustaceans. X, 
205-207 

20. Toads, if handled, will give you warts. VIII, 201 

21. Keeping animals healthy in a zoo is one of the 
most difficult jobs in the world. VI, 277-283 

22. Man has been the greatest enemy of the bison. 
VI, 166-168 

23. Monkeys make excellent pets for the children. 
VI, 40-41 

24. The chimpanzee is the most intelligent ape. VI, 
29-32 

25. Gorillas are very human. VI, 21-29 

[86] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

26. "Man is the most destructive animal the world 
has even known." 

27. Dinasaurs were superior to mammals. VII, 16-17 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. How the National Zoological Park came into 
being. VI, 2-7 

2. The early forms of life on the earth. VII, 13-14 

3. The work of botanists on a collecting trip. XI, 



4. Write a report on the Sargasso Sea. Include in 
it the "Adventures of a Baby Eel in The'Sargasso 
Sea." XI, 88-89 

5. Report on the extent of the damage done by 
plagues of grasshoppers. V, 17-19 

6. Report on various methods used in destroying 
termites. V, 128-130 

7. How scientists study bird life in the field and in 
the laboratory. IX, 114-125 

8. How birds are classified. IX, 143-166 

9. How the scientific study of mammals began and 
grew. IX, 228-241 

10. How mammals are collected by scientists for 
study. IX, 207-217 

1 1 . How mammals are prepared for museum exhibi 
tion. IX, 218-227 

12. Characteristics of mammals as a group. IX, 
242-243 

13. The different kinds of mammals. IX, 243-255 

[87] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 4. Some mammals and what makes them interesting. 
IX, 311-375 

15. Some interesting facts about the marsupials. IX, 
280-310 

16. The case against the mongoose. 1,222-224 

17. How we know that the whale is not a fish. IX, 
366-375 

1 8. The most famous elephant in captivity. VI, 
130-133 

D. Experiments: 

1. Place germinated mustard seeds on cotton gauze 
over a jar filled with water. Let the roots grow 
into the water. Cover the jar with a box, except 
for an opening in the box which lets in a beam of 
sunlight. Observe the way the seedling grows. 
XI, 308 

2. Capture some fireflies at night and make records 
of the frequency of light flashes, II, 269-270 

3. To find out if toads will give you warts, let ten 
students handle a toad. Compare the results with 
ten students who do not handle it. VIII, 201 

E. Excursions: 

1. Make trips to the seashore and collect seaweeds 
of all kinds. Dry them in the sun and hang them 
up attractively in your schoolroom. XI, 88 

2, Make an excursion to the ocean waterfront or to 
salt-water rivers and inspect the sides of boats, 
the piles, and rocks. Take home a collection of 
barnacles from these sources. Take some photo 
graphs of these crustaceans. X, 142-143 

[88] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

3. Make an excursion to the ocean-front or bay at 
low tides. Observe some fiddler crabs and their 
habits. Put one into the water and see how it be 
haves. X, 168-172 

4. Go on a crab-hunting expedition in a boat among 
the piles of an ocean waterfront. Learn to cook 
the crabs. X, 101 

5. Visit a fish market regularly. Identify and record 
the various species of sea life that come to your 
city. 

6. Visit the reptile house at the zoo. VI, 261-276 

7. Visit the bird house in the local zoological park. 
What orders of birds are represented there? 
IX, 143-166; VI, 232-260 

8. Speak to the keeper of the bird house in the local 
zoological park. Ask him about the habits and 
behavior of unusual birds, such as the ostrich and 
the rhea. Report to your club or class. IX, 
144-145 

9. Visit the lion house at the zoo. VI, 68-93 

10. Visit the small mammal house at the zoo. VI, 
221-231 

11. Visit the elephants at the zoo or circus. VI, 
126-145 

12. Visit the bear dens at the zoo. VI, 94-106 

F. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

The letters of one word in each of the sentences below 
are jumbled. If you arrange these letters properly you will 
find that they spell a word which makes the sentence true, 

[89] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 . LEANCRABS are crustaceans and not mollusca. 
X, 138 

2. The only arthropods with six legs are called 
NESTICS. V, 28 

3. It is not true that STODA give you warts. VIII, 
201 

4. Among the longest snakes are the SHOTPNY. 
VIII, 352 

5. One characteristic common to all birds is their 
possession of RATSEEFH. IX, i 

6. A mammal which lays eggs like a bird is the 
DINEACH. IX, 269 

7. One mammal which carries its babies in a pouch, 
is the AKROOGNA. IX, 281-282 

8. An insect which spends the early period of its life 
in water, is the QUOTOSIM. V, 331 

9. The pigment sepia, used by artists, is obtained 
from the SIDUSQ. X, 76, 335 

10. Scientists believe that most of our petroleum was 
made by microscopic plants called SMADOTI. 
X, 81 

ANSWERS 

1. barnacles 6. echidna 

2. insects 7. kangaroo 

3. toads 8. mosquito 

4. pythons 9. squids 

5. feathers 10. diatoms 

[90] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 



TEST II 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B. 



a. Plant and animal classi 
fication XI, 142 

b. algae X, 80 

c. grass XI, 213 

d. mushroom XI, 92 

e. octopus X, 321 

f. barnacles X, 138-140 
g. flies and mosquitoes V, 

315 
h. termites V, 128 

i. fish VIII, i 

j. mammal IX, 242 



B 

1 . first backboned animal 

2. two wings 

3. warm - blooded verte 
brate 

4. coelenterate 

5. crustaceans 

6. social insects 

7. a plant which grows in 
the dark 



8. 

9- 

10. 



Linnaeus 

corn 

diatoms 



ii. cephalopods 



ANSWERS 



a 8 
b 10 
c 9 
d- 7 
e ii 



f r 

g 2 

h 6 
i i 
j 3 



[90 



UNIT VI 

THE COMPOSITION OF LIVING THINGS 



A. The Chemical Substances in Living Things: 

1. How are living things different from lifeless 
things? V, 99 

2. What are living things made of? VII, 25 

3. How much of the body is water? II, 244 

4. What does a bird's egg consist of? IX, 79 

5. Why do crabs of ten eat their discarded shell? X, 
106 

6. What causes the hardening of a crab's shell? X, 
105-106 

7. Of what materials are the skeletons of the differ 
ent fishes made? VIII, 6 1 

B. Protoplasm: 

1. What is meant by u being alive" ? V, 101 

2. What substance is possessed by all living things ? 
V, loo-ioi 

3. What is protoplasm? V, 100 

4. What is the living substance of a plant cell? XI, 



ii 



5 . What is the appearance of protoplasm ? XI, 1 2 
[93] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

C. Cells: 

1. What does a cell contain? VII, 26 

2. What are the functions of a cell? VII, 25-26 

3. Where in the plant or animal is energy released? 
V, 100-101 

4. Through what must molecules pass in order to 
enter a plant? XI, 297 

5. What two kinds of chromosomes are found in all 
cells except sperm and ovum cells? VII, 28 

6. Although daughter cells are always similar 
through generations, what may happen to certain 
cells when colonizing takes place? VII, 28 

7. What experiments have been conducted to influ 
ence basic cell changes? VII, 33 

8. What is the relationship between the quantity of 
yolk in eggs incubated inside and outside of an 
animal's body? VII, 30 

9. Describe a typical plant cell. XI, 11-12 

10. In what way are tall trees and small herbs alike? 
XI, 1 1 

11. What is a phagocyte? Of what use are pha 
gocytes to a developing insect? V, 301 

12. How is waste matter removed from an insect's 
cells and blood ? V, 1 1 6 

D. Tissues and Organs: 

1. Whatproduces woodin aplant? XI, 13-14 

2. How much of a tree trunk is alive ? XI, 14 

3. What structures have plants for transporting 
water from the roots? XI, 227-228 

[94] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

4. How can one tell the age of a tree? XI, 15 

5. Why does bark become furrowed? XI, 14 

6. What produces bark in a plant? XI, 13-14 

7. Why does "girdling" a tree kill it? XI, 14-15 

8. How do cells reproduce ? VII, 27 

9. Why is cleavage necessary in all cells ? VII, 26 

10. What does the endoderm develop into? VII, 30 

11. What does the mesoderm develop into? VII, 30 

1 2. What does the ectoderm of the embryo become ? 
VII, 29-30 

13. Into what categories do the cells of an embryo 
divide themselves? VII, 29 

14. How are embryos nourished? VII, 30 

15. Is it true that an insect's insides are a soft pulpy 
mass? Explain. V, 116-117 

1 6. What is the creamy pulp inside a pupa? V, 303- 
304 

1 7. How does a pupa differ from a larva ? V, 250 

1 8. What is histolysis ? Where and why does it occur ? 
V, 259-260 

19. How do fish scales grow? VIII, 34-35 

20. How do feathers grow? IX, 20 

* 

21. Do feathers on a bird grow haphazardly or in 
definite patterns ? IX, 20 

22. On what part of a bird do we find "contour 
feathers?" IX, 17 

23. What are "powder downs" and how are they 
used? IX, 18-19 

[95] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

24. How is a fish's spine constructed? VIII, 62 

25. Have fishes any ribs? What are they used for? 
VIII, 61-62 

26. Has an insect any blood? What is it like? V, 
112-113 

27. What is a "ganglion ?" V, 118 

28. Where is an insect's nerve cord? Is there any 
brain? Describe it. V, 117-119 

29. Can an octopus grow a new arm? Explain. X, 
330 

30. Do cast-off limbs on lobsters grow back? Give 
examples. X, 103 

31. Can a fish that has lost a fin replace it? Explain. 
VIII, 50 

32. How is an insect able to send its food all over its 
body? V, in 

33. Where is an insect's heart? Describe it and its 
position in the body. V, 1 1 2 

34. How does blood circulate in an insect? V, 1 1 2 

35. What kind of blood circulation is found in fishes ? 
VIII, 97-98 

36. How is a vertebrate's food sent to the cells? 
Compare this with an insect's method. V, 1 1 1 

37. Describe the alimentary canal in fishes. VIII, 95- 
97 

38. What kind of eye has a lobster? X, no 

E. How Living Things Grow: 

1. How are the rings in a tree trunk made? XI, 15 

2. How does a twig grow in thickness. XI, 13-14 

[96] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

3. How can trees tell us when ancient civilizations 
flourished? XI, 16 

4. How can one tell when seasons were rainy or dry 
by examining a cross-section of a tree trunk? XI, 
15-16 

5 . When does a twig grow most ? XI, 1 4 

6. How long do roots grow r ? XI, 6 

7. How do fence wires become embedded in a tree 
trunk after a time ? XI, 1 7 

8. During what part of the day do stems grow more 
rapidly? XI, 305 

9. Which part of a plant grows least in darkness? 
XI, 301 

i o. Which part of a plant grows longest in darkness ? 
XI, 301 

1 1 . How long may a squid grow ? X, 349 

12. How long can shipworms grow? X, 270 

13. What is molting? How is it done? X, 103-105 

14. Why do crustaceans molt? X, 103-104 

15. What is meant by a u soft-sheir crab? X, 105 

1 6. How often do crabs molt? X, 172 

17. Do amphibians molt? VIII, 175 

1 8. What is the rate of growth among reptiles ? VIII, 
230-231 

19. How do snakes shed their skins? VIII, 343 

20. How are rattles formed on a rattlesnake? Is it 
true that the age of a rattlesnake can be told from 
the number of rattles ? VIII, 35'35 J 

[97] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

21. How long may box turtles take until they reach 
maturity? How long can they live ? VIII, 318 

22. How does the interior of a bird's egg get fresh 
air? IX, 80 

23. Why do newly-hatched birds weigh much less 
than the freshly laid egg? IX, 92 

F. How Living Things Respond: 

1. What stimulates nerve cells to function? V, 1 19 

2. Are we saying something scientific when we use 
the word "instinct?" Explain, V, 120 

3. What is a "tropism?" How are tropisms related 
to instincts ? V, 1 2 1 

4. What evidence is there that gastropods have a 
keen sense of smell? X, 308-309 

5. How well can snails see ? X, 309-310 

6. How are snails able to respond to sound? X, 
311-312 

7. Have oysters any brain? Explain. X, 263 

8. What substance causes the octopus to cease cling 
ing to a rock when it is hunted by man? X, 

352-353 

9. What kind of a nervous system has a lobster? 
X, 107 

10. Which senses in a lobster are very keen? X, 1 10 

1 1 . What gives the lobster a keen sense of touch and 
smell? X, in 

12. How does a lobster do his "seeing" in the dark? 
X, no 

[98] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

13. What helps a lobster swim right side up? X, 

III-II2 

14. What is a "hormone ?" Have insects any? What 
activities of an insect might be caused by hor 
mones? V, 119 

15. Are insects conscious of what they do? Explain. 
V, 121 

1 6. Why can an insect with its head cut off still live 
for a while? ,118-119 

1 7. How does an insect control each segment ? V, 1 1 8 

1 8. Where and how large is the brain of the cater 
pillar? V, 285 

19. How does the glass snake escape its enemies? 
Why may a glass snake sometimes be found with 
three tail tips? VIII, 335-336 

20. How does the puff adder behave when captured ? 
VIII, 346 ' 

21. Why do geckos drop their tales? Is the tail lost 
forever? Explain. VIII, 326 

22. What is meant by "positively" or "negatively" 
phototropic? XI, 307-308 

23. What causes a plant to respond to light? XI, 
308-309 

24. In plant experiments what is used to lengthen the 
duration of light? XI, 303 

25. What other factor besides light intensity affects 
plant growth? XI, 302-303 

26. What does weak light do to a plant? XI, 302 

27. During what part of the growing season is good 
light most necessary to a plant? XI, 302 

[99] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

28. What are some of the factors which change the 
amount of light a plant gets? XI, 301 

29. How does light affect the shape of leaves in the 
bluebell plant? XI, 301-302 

30. Why do leaves turn to the light? XI, 307 

3 1 . Why do house plants have leaves facing the same 
way? XI, 307 

32. What is the response to light called? XI, 307 

33. What is the effect of high temperatures, as in des 
erts, upon living cells? XI, 259-262 

34. Why do roots grow downward? XI, 63 

35. What is meant by geotropism? XI, 63 

36. What evidence is there to show that the tips of 
plants send stimuli down to the base ? XI, 310 



[100] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Examine microscopic slides of woody stems and 
draw what you see. Locate the structures shown 
in XI, 13 

2. Mark a young leaf with small squares drawn in 
India ink. After each week observe and measure 
the rate of growth of the leaf. Report your find 
ings to your club. XI, 4 

3. Using India ink, mark a seedling's root with hori 
zontal lines. Place the seed on cotton gauze over 
a bottle of water containing earth, making sure 
the root is in the water. Observe the rate of 
growth every day. Report to your club. XI, 4 

4. Make a diagram of an insect's circulatory system. 
V, 112 

5. Examine a leaf of Elodea under the microscope. 
Note the movements of the chloroplasts, indicat 
ing the streaming of protoplasm. XI, 1 2 

6. Make a model of a plant cell out of suitable ma 
terials. XI, 11-12 

7. With a sharp razor, make thin slices of various 
plant materials and examine them under the mi 
croscope for cell structure. XI, 11-13 

B. Glass Discussions : 

i. Protoplasm is the physical basis of life. V, 11-12 

[101] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Stripping bark from a tree does not harm the 
tree. V, 14-15 

3. Changes in living things are dependent upon en 
vironment. VII, 20-22 

4. A human being's development is unique. VII, 
23-36 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. Mitosis the division of cells. VII, 26-28 

2. Describe an experiment to discover the effect of 
red and of blue light on a plant. XI, 313-314 

3. Describe an experiment to show the effect of du 
ration of light on a plant. XI, 303-304 

4. Describe an experiment to show how a root 
moves away from light. XI, 308 

5. Describe an experiment to discover how plants 
are able to turn toward the light. XI, 308-310 

Z). Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Complete the following sentences with a word or words 
that make the sentence correct. 

1 . The human body is made up of countless 

VII, 25 

2. The human body is % water. II, 244 

3. The living substance found in all cells is 

XI, ii 

4. In order to enter a plant, molecules must pass through 

XI, 297 



5. A plant tissue which produces wood is the 
XI, 13, 14 

[102] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. The part of a cell which is chiefly engaged in repro 
duction is the VII, 26, 27 

7. Small nerve masses are known as 

V, 118 

8. That part of a plant which grows longest in the dark 
is the XI, 301 

9. A substance which, thrown off by cells in one organ 

controls the action of another organ, is called a 

V, 119 

i o. A plant's response to light is known as 

XI, 307 

ANSWERS 

1. cells 6. nucleus 

2. 70 7. ganglia 

3. protoplasm 8. stem 

4. cell membranes 9. hormone 

5. cambium 10. phototropism 

TEST II 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B. 

- A B 

a. 70% of human body II, i. a small nerve mass 

244 

b. protoplasm V, 100 2. able to regenerate an 

arm 

c. annual rings XI, 15 3. roots grow downward 

d. cell division VII, 27 4. water 

e. ganglion V, 1 1 8 5. age of a tree 



f. cephalopod X, 330 

g. moltX, 105 

h. phototropism XI, 307 

i. geotropism XI, 63 

j. cambium XI, 13, 14 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. 
7- 



9- 

10. 



soft-shell crab 
chromosomes 
living matter 
makes wood 
bones 



1 1 . leaves turn to the light 



ANSWERS 

a 4 f 2 

b 8 g 6 

c 5 h 1 1 

d 7 i 3 

e i j 9 



[104] 



UNIT VII 
LIGHT AND HEAT FROM THE SUN 



A. The Sun's Heat: 

1. What is the sun's temperature? II, 256 

2. What do we know about the effect of different 
rays of the sun? 11,317 

3. How are the qualities of the rays of the sun 
studied? II, 316 

4. What kind o f bodies radiate heat most efficiently ? 
11,311-312 

5. How much energy does the sun radiate per square 
yard on the earth ? VII, 3 

6. What is the source of the sun's energy? VII, 4 

7. How do scientists believe solar energy is formed ? 
II, 290 

8. How does the sun compare with the other stars? 
VII, i 

9. How long will the sun's energy last? VII, 4 

10. What effect would a 10% change in the sun's 
temperature have on the earth? VII, 5 

11. What possibility exists for the sun causing an 
other Ice Age? VII, 56-57 

[105] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 2. How much of the sun's energy does man receive ? 
VII, 4 

13. How much heat is radiated from the sun? II, 8 

14. What instruments are necessary to measure the 
sun's radiations? II, 12-15 

15. What is a coelostat? 11,1-84 

1 6. How do solar radiation constants taken in differ 
ent parts of the world compare ? II, 34 

17. What are sun-spots? II, 5 

r 8 . What variations in solar heat take place ? II, 1 7- 

6s 

19. What is the solar constant of radiation? II, 5 1 

20. How is solar heat increased? 11,65 

21. What is a bolometer? II, 122 

22. How cold must a body be before it stops radiat 
ing? II, 91 

23. What happens to the wave-length of rays of 
heated bodies as their temperature rises? II, 91 

24. How much of the solar heat received by the earth 
is re-radiated into space? II, 109 

25. How is the sun's heat measured? II, 121-125 

26. How does the sun affect the earth's surface? II, 

138 

27. What happens to the solar constant of radiation 
as sun-spots pass the center of the sun while it 
rotates? II, 149 

28. How is the temperature of the earth affected by 
heat changes in the sun? II, 153 

29. What is the average value of the sun's intensity? 
II, 1 60 

[106] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

30. How can gases be used to absorb sun energy in 
order to drive engines? II, 207-208 

31. How is the earth maintained at a fairly constant 
temperature? II, 246-248 

32. With which sun factors are the northern lights 
associated? II, 259 

33. What may be the cause of sun-spots ? II, 264 

34. What electrical phenomena are demonstrated in 
the rotation of sun-spots? II, 263 

35. What sun-spot variations take place? II, 259- 
260 

36. How may the sun's heat preserve our food some 
time in the future? XII, 239 

37. What is a calorie? XI, 294 

38. Why does coal give us heat? XI, 294 

39. What is the relationship of coal to Devonian 
plants? VII, 15 

40. Where do hydrocarbons, gasoline, etc., origi 
nate? VII, 5 

41. How is natural gas obtained? XII, 34 

42. How does temperature affect most fishes? VII, 
152-153 

43. How was the first sun engine built? II, 214-215 

44. What is the efficiency of a sun engine? II, 212- 
213 

B. The Sun's Light: 

1. What is light energy? XI, 287-288 

2. What is a light year? VII, I 

[107] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. What would happen to life on the earth if ozone 
disappeared from the atmosphere? VII, 5 

4. What happens to the solar constant of radiation 
as sun-spots pass the center of the sun as it 
rotates? II, 149 

5. What are the relative quantities of the different 
colors in the sun ? II, 5 i 

6. What basis is there for the theory explaining the 
blue sky? II, 102 

7. What is the relation between transparency of 
atmosphere and transmission of light of different 
wavelengths? II, 112 

8. Which colors are lost as they are transmitted 
through the atmosphere? II, 113-1 14 

9. What does the atmosphere do to light? II, 1 16- 
117 

10. What causes absorption lines in the sun's spec 
trum? II, 129 

1 1 . How do solar radiation variations affect the color 
of the sun's rays? II, 145 

12. How can solar heat be used for cooking? 11,195- 
196, 216-217 

13. What are some types of sun reflectors? II, 197, 
204-205 

14. What supplies the energy for turning liquid water 
of plants into water- vapor? II, 230 

15. What is the importance of ozone in the atmos 
phere to life on the earth? II, 238 

1 6. What are the effects of ultra-violet rays on poul 
try? II, 236-237 

[108] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

17. What colors are found in the sun? II, 255 
1 8 What is the sun's corona? II, 265-269 

19. When is the sun's corona visible? II, 285 

20. How do glass and atmospheric water transmit 
sun rays? II, 311-314 

21. How are the qualities of sun rays studied? II, 

316 

C. Where Food Gomes From: 

1 . What is indispensable to life processes ? VII, 4-5 

2. Is sunshine necessary for living things? Explain. 
V, 104 

3. What kind of energy do plants need? XI, 288 

4. Which living things manufacture their own food ? 
What is the name of this process ? XI, 289 

5. How was it found that light affects the amounts 
of substances taken in by a plant? XI, 299 

6. Where is light energy stored by plants? XI, 294 

7. Describe the work of leaves. XI, 3 

8. How much light is required by plants for photo 
synthesis? XI, 292 

9. What percent of the light energy is used by 
plants? XI, 294 

10. How much light is wasted by a plant? XI, 293- 
294 

11. What may be said about the efficiency of green 
plants in photosynthesis ? XI, 295 

1 2. Which rays are most effective in photosynthesis ? 
XI, 293 

[109] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

13. What are the chemical formulae for chlorophyll 
a and i? XI, 290 

14. Which light rays does chlorophyll absorb? XI, 
292 

15. What part does chlorophyll play in photosyn 
thesis? XI, 289-290 

1 6. What color light is most important to plant 
growth? II, 234 

17. Where does the sun do its work in plants? II, 
230 

1 8. Which rays of the sun promote the most active 
plant growth? 11,234 

19. What are the raw materials used by plants in 
food making? XI, 289 

20. How do plants take in carbon dioxide? II, 224- 
225 

21. Why do plant leaves have many small openings 
instead of one large opening to the air? II, 225 

22. What are stomata? XI, 300 

23. What controls the opening and closing of 
stomata? XI, 300 

24. What happens to stomata at night? XI, 300 

25. How can a leaf get carbon dioxide without 
evaporating too much water? XI, 299-300 

26. How does water rise in plants from the roots? 
II, 227 

27. What is the most important chemical reaction in 
the world? XI, 26 

28. Write the chemical formula for photosynthesis. 
XI, 289 

[no] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

29. What method was used to discover the source of 
a plant's food? XI, 296 

30. When did actual experiments on food making in 
plants originate? XI, 296 

31. During which part of the day does a plant make 
food? XI, 300 

32. What ancient ideas explained food making in 
plants? XI, 295-296 

33. What are carbohydrates? XI, 27 

34. How is sugar made ? XI, 26 

35. How much sugar is produced per day by an acre 
of corn? XI, 295 

36. What is the origin of starch, wood, proteins, and 
fats found in plants? XI, 295-296 

37. Where do plants store their sugar and starch? 
XI, 29 

38. What kind of plant stores food best? II, 233 

39. How do plants adapt themselves to different light 
conditions? XI, 290-291 

40. How can pale plants be made greener? XI, 290 

4 1 . Which plants do not need light energy ? XI, 2 8 8- 
289 

42. What causes the appearance of a green scum on 
the surface of a pond? XI, 88 

D. How Man Helps T he Plant: 

1 . What is the debt mankind owes to plants ? XI, 97 

2. How many important food plants have been 
added to civilization since prehistoric times? XI, 
321 

[ill] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. When did the modern plant arise? VII, 17 

4. What was the only kind of farming of Mesolithic 
Man? VII, 242 

5. Why was the tending of the crops given over to 
women? VII, 243 

6. How was soil fertilized in ancient times? VII, 
246 

7. How long have the agricultural improvements of 
the Indus Valley people survived? VII, 314 

8. How was the ground cultivated by Neolithic 
Man? VII, 258 

9. How did the Iroquois cultivate crops ? IV, 80-8 I 

10. How did the Indians cultivate the soil? IV, 22 

11. How did Indians clear land? IV, 22 

12. What food plants were in use by Indians before 
the arrival of white men? IV, 71 

13. What especially prevented the growth of a large 
Indian population? IV, 24 

14. What is the Eskimo's main food supply? IV, 44 

15. What change in food gathering took place at the 
end of the Magdalenian Epoch? VII, 226 

1 6. Where did the sweet potato come from? VII, 
328 

17. What important parts of Indian culture were bor 
rowed by the white man? IV, 8 

1 8. What did Indians cultivate? IV, 24 

19. How was maize cultivation spread? VII, 324 

20. Where did the Irish potato come from? VII, 328 

[112] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

21. What was the main supply of the Indian's food? 
IV, 21 

22. What was the Inca's food? VII, 341 

23. What was the food of the Hupa Indians? IV, 
202 

24. What kind of food was necessary before a civil 
ization could arise? VII, 243 

25. What were the crops of early Egypt? VII, 297 

26. What plants grow in the Arctic summer? IV, 68 

27. What is a reaper? XII, 303-304 

28. How does a reaper do its work? XII, 304-305 

29. What improvements were added to the reaper? 
XII, 307 

30. Which two men perfected reapers? XII, 305 

31. What types of power machine are helping agri 
culture? XII, 308 

32. What was the effect of the reaper on population? 
XII, 308 

. Interdependence of Living Things: 

1. How are minerals returned to the soil? XI, 8 

2. What caused the change of primitive giant insects 
to those we now know? X, 71 

3 . Why does the yucca moth pollinate yucca flowers ? 
XI, 50-51 

4. Why will not yucca seed develop from plants 
which are not visited by a yucca moth? XI, 50 

5. What proportion of the seeds of the yucca are 
eaten by the larvae of the moth? XI, 5 1 

6. Why are ants absolutely necessary to the life of 
the corn aphids? V, 172-173 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

7. What animals came in with grasses? X, 79 

8. How is the life of the sardine dependent on 
algae? XI, 191 

9. How did the Proterozoic plants affect the de 
velopment of animal life? X, 49 

10. What is symbiosis? XI, 92 

F. Plant Products : 

1. What are the materials in a broom? XI, 229-230 

2. Name some uses of bamboo? XI, 229 

3. What is a sod house ? XI, 230 

4. How was sod used by pioneers? XI, 230 

5. What products do we obtain from maize or corn? 

XI, 217-218 

6. How are diatom skeletons used today? X, 8 1 

7. What is" the origin of peat? XI, 93 

8. How was coal formed? X, 68 

9. What compressed the decayed plants into coal? 
X, 7 i 

10. What may have been the source of the world's 
supply of petroleum? XI, 195 

11. Where is rubber obtained? XII, 315 

12. How is latex tapped? XII, 316 

13. How is rubber extracted from latex? XII, 316- 
317 

14. What were the important uses of rubber seventy 
years ago? XII, 310 

15. Who perfected the vulcanization of rubber? 

XII, 31? 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 6. What interesting substances do plants provide? 
XI, 104 

17. What plants furnish us with tanning material, 
rubber, chicle, tobacco, olive oil, and other oils ? 
XI, 103-104 

18. How does man use algae? XI, 184-196 

19. What kind of algae help make dynamite? XI, 
87-88 

20. Why is dynamite so easily handled? XI, 194 

21. What algae are used in silver polish? XI, 194 

22. What plants does man use for drugs? XI, 100 
101 

23. What plants furnish us with dyes? XI, 103 

24. Name some plants which provide us with lumber ? 
XI, 102-103 

25. What plants furnish fibres for clothes, paper, 
rayon, etc.? XI, 101-102 

26. What plants are a source of beverages? XI, 101 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a black-bulb thermometer by applying 
lampblack to the bulb of an ordinary thermome 
ter. II, 245 

2. Construct a hot-box, using a wooden box lined 
with wool or hair. Place a thermometer inside, 
and cover the box with glass. Observe the tem 
perature in the box after a half hour. II, 1 1 on i 

3. Construct a water-flow pyrheliometer, using glass 
tubing. Follow the diagram and explanation 
given in II, 88-89 

4. Make a model of a pyrheliometer following the 
instructions and descriptions given in II, 44-4? 

5. Construct a simple bolometer for measuring 
solar radiation by using nichrome wire and a 
galvanometer or coil of wire around a compass. 
Follow the circuit diagram and description as 
given in II, 76-77 

6. Turn up some slabs of rocks out-of-doors. Note 
the color of the plants under the rocks as com 
pared with plants exposed to the light. Can you 
explain this 1 XI, 290 

7. Cover a green plant with a black screen for a few 
weeks until it is very pale. Expose it to sunlight 
and note how soon the plant turns green. XI, 290 

[116] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

8. Place a house-plant near a window, Note the 
movements the leaves make in order to face the 
source of light. How long does this take? XI, 

307 

9. Make a cotton gin following the diagram in XII, 
303. Gin some cotton from a cotton boll, or mix 
ordinary seeds into cotton and then gin to remove 
the seeds. 

10. Grow plants in boxes, the walls of which are col 
ored cellophane. Use a different color for each 
box. Keep a record of the growth which took 
place under each color. 

B. Class Discussions: 

1 . The sun's energy 7 can be directly harnessed to give 
manpower. II, 196-222 

2. Cool bodies can emit radiations. II, 306-308 

3. The universe is running down. II, 301 

4. The sun is a variable star. II, 287-290 

5. The sun's heat which evaporates water from 
plants, will cause plants to die. II, 230-231 

6. How plants store light energy. XI, 287-295 

7. The connection between light, and normal plant 
growth. XI, 301-306 

8. Natural rubber is best. XII, 315-322 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. Why men study the sun. II, 1-9 

2. How hot is the sun? 11,254-258 

3. A storm in the sun. II, 260-261, 263 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. The early measurement of the sun's radiation 
constant. II, 12-29 

5. The instruments used to measure solar radiation. 
II, 75-97 

6. The effect of the atmosphere on solar radiation. 
II, 109-113 

7. A scientist's day when measuring solar radiation. 
II, 121-133 

8. Effect of sun-spots on solar radiation. II, 139- 
148 

9. The power value of the sun. II, 194-196 ' 

10. Principles of solar heat engines. 11,19,222 

1 1. The transmission of ultra-violet light by different 
materials. II, 237 

12. The cheapest form of light. 11,209-270 

13. Some experiments made to find out what makes 
plants respond to light as they do. XI, 308-314 

14. The relationship of ozone in the atmosphere to 
the maintenance of life. II, 314 

15. The fruit crops of the Indians. IV, 77 

D. Self- Test Exercises : 

TEST I 

1. Give a four-letter word meaning "that part of a tree 
which manufactures food." XI, 22 

2. Give a five-letter word meaning "energy needed in 
food-making." XI, 26 

3. Give a fourteen-letter word meaning "to produce 
carbohydrates in sunlight. 5 ' XI, 26 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

4. Give a six-letter word meaning u a gas released by 
plants in sunlight." XI, 27 

5. Give a thirteen-letter word meaning "sugars and 
starches." XI, 27 

ANSWERS 

1. leaf 4. oxygen 

2. light 5. carbohydrates 

3. photosynthesis 

TEST II 

Complete the following sentences with a word or words 
that make the sentence correct. 

1 . The sun's energy may last another years. 

VII, 4 

2. A slight decrease in the sun's radiation may cause 
another VII, 57 

3. The sun's temperature is centigrade. 

11,256 

4. Red, blue and violet light are valuable to the plant in 
the process of XI, 293 

5. The Irish potato originally came from 

VII, 328 



6. Plants which can grow without light are the . 
XI, 288-289 



7. With the aid of light, green plants produce sugar 
from ! and XI, 26 

8. The number of important food plants added to civil 
ization since prehistoric times is XI, 321 

9. A machine used to cut grain is the 

XII, 304 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

io. An important source of alcohol is 

XI, 218 

ANSWERS 

1. 1 5 trillion 6. saprophytes 

2. Ice Age 7- carbon dioxide and 

water 

3. 6000 degrees 8. none 

4. photosynthesis 9. reaper 

5. Peru 10. corn 

TEST III 

The letters of one word in each of the sentences below 
are jumbled. If you rearrange these letters properly, you 
will find that they spell a word which makes the sentence 
true. 

1. A valuable substance for polishing silverware is 
TIMADOS. X, 8 1 

2. Sphagnum moss furnishes people with TAPE. XI, 

93 

3. Tiny openings in leaves through which gasses pass 
are called AATTOMS. XI, 300 

4. Plants which do not need light energy are PASH- 
SPOTRYE. XI, 288 

5. A waste product of photosynthesis Is EGONYX. 
XI, 26-27 

ANSWERS 

1. diatoms 4- saprophytes 

2. peat 5- oxygen 

3. stomata 

[120] 



UNIT VIII 
FOOD FOR LIVING THINGS 



A. What is Food for Plants and Animals: 

1. Where do plants get some of their food? V, 106 

2. Through what must molecules pass in order to 
enter a plant? XI, 297 

3. In what condition must substances be in order to 
enter a cell? XI, 29 

4. Why do molecules diffuse or spread through a 
liquid? XI, 297 

5. What controls the entrance of molecules of salts 
into a plant? XI, 297-298 

6. What causes the concentration of some molecules 
to be higher in a plant cell than in the surround 
ing soil? XI, 298 

7. What kind of cells in young bark carry food? 
XI, 12-13 

8 Why does "girdling" a tree result in its death? 
" XI, 14-15 

9. Why do some roots take in more of one mineral 
than do other roots? XI, 6-7 

10. How does the seed embryo get its nourishment? 

XI, 59 

[121] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

n. What kinds of food are stored in seeds? XI, 
42-43 

1 2. How do carnivorous plants trap their food? XI, 
75-76 

13. How does the Venus's fly-trap get its animal 
food? XI, 74 

14. Name some carnivorous plants. XI, 75 

1 5 . How do plant parasites get their food ? XI, 30-3 1 

1 6. How many important food plants have been 
added to civilization since prehistoric times ? XI, 
321 

17. What is said to be the most ancient cultivated 
plant? XI, 324 

1 8. Why is corn an ideal food plant? XI, 325-326 

19. What is an enzyme? XI, 29; V, ill 

20. How do enzymes work? XI, 29 

21. Which algae serve as food for sea animals? XI, 
190-191 

22. How do algae save the lives of millions of sea 
animals? XI, 188-189 

23. In what way are diatoms the chief support of all 
the animal life of the sea? XI, 87 

24. Why does an abundance of grass mean plenty of 
meat? XI, 201 

25. Why are grasses the best plants for grazing ani 
mals? XI, 201-203 

B. Enemies of Animal Food Supply : 

i. Describe the damage done by some of the try- 
panosomes. V, 349 

[122] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. Where in a whale may we find copepod parasites ? 

X,I 3 2 

3. On what portion of a fish's body may we find 
copepod parasites? X, 129-131 

4. Have copepod parasites any parasites of their 
own? X, 134-136 

5. What mollusks have copepod parasites ? X, 133- 



6. What kind of damage is done by pill-bugs? X, 
245 

7. Describe the damage crustaceans do to oysters? 
X, 245-247 

8. What is meant by a "parasite?" Describe how 
one works. V, 12-25 

9. What is a hyperparasite? V, 181 

10. What is an insect parasite? V, 179 

11. Do parasites completely exterminate the insect 
tribe they feed on? Explain. V, 179-180 

12. Do insect parasites attack only harmful insects? 
V, 1 80 

13. What means of defense have aphids against their 
many parasites? V, 173-174 

14. Explain the presence of a door cut into the body 
of an aphid. V, 178 

15. Name some enemies of the aphids. V, 173-181 
1 6. What does the Hessian fly larva injure? V, 352 
17. Why are horn flies a menace to cattle? V, 348 

1 8. How does the tsetse fly feed on blood ? V, 350 

19. Do mosquitoes eat only the blood of man? Ex 
plain. V, 338 

[123] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

20. Does the female mosquito eat blood only? V, 
337-338 

21. How are horses and cattle affected by the larvae 
of the botfly and the ox warble-fly? V, 352 

22. What damage may the "screw worm" cause to 
animals and man ? V, 3 5 2 

23. How do tent caterpillars eat? What damage do 
they cause? V, 277 

24. How do tent caterpillars behave when their tree 
no longer has any leaves? V, 278-279 

C. Eating Habits of Animals: 
i. CRUSTACEANS AND MOLLUSKS : 

1. What can slugs eat? X, 303-304 

2. How does the oyster eat? X, 260-261 

3. How .do the mollusk's gills aid in getting food? 
X,2 59 

4. How do oysters digest their food? X, 262-263 

5. Describe the oyster's blood and its circulation. 
X,26 3 

6. What kind of jaws has a cephalopod? X, 334 

7. What do cephalopods eat? X, 333 

8. What evidence of intelligence is shown by an 
octopus in capturing its food? X, 333 

9. How do copepods make plant food available to 
all sea life? X, 125 

10. Why can life in the sea not exist without crusta 
ceans? X, 89-90 

11. What do ostracods eat? X, 123-124 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

12. What do fiddler crabs eat? X, 171 

13. Describe the stomach of a crab. X, 106-107 

14. Why do crabs often eat their discarded shell? 
X, 106 

15. How does the robber crab remove a coconut from 
its husk? X, 177-178 

1 6. Where is the heart of a crab? X, 107 

17. What kind of circulation has a crab ? X, 107 

1 8. What are the feeding habits of the mantis 
shrimp? X, 180-183 

2. INSECTS: 

1. How are insects adapted to getting their food? 
V, 107 

2. What is the chief function of all insect mouth 
parts? V, 109 

3. How are the mouth parts of insects related to 
their feeding habits? V, 107-109 

4. What chief types of mouth parts do insects have ? 
V, 108-109 

5. Name some insects with sucking, or piercing and 
sucking mouth parts. ,108-109 

6. What kind of mouth parts do crickets, beetles, 
grasshoppers and caterpillars have? V, 108 

7. Why do caterpillars eat so much? V, 291 

8. When and why does a caterpillar's stomach serve 
as food to its owner? V, 293 

9. How do caterpillars digest their food? V, 290 
10. How can you tell when a caterpillar is hungry? 

V, 290 

[125] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

11. Describe the caterpillar's alimentary canal? V, 
289-290 

12. Compare the alimentary canal of an insect with 
your own. V, 109-1 10 

13. Describe the alimentary canal of an insect. V, 
109-110 

14. How is an insect able to send its food all over its 
body? V, in 

1 5 . Describe the proboscis with which moths and but 
terflies get their food? V, 307-308 

1 6. In what way do the caterpillar and its moth differ 
in feeding methods? V, 237 

17. Are insects to blame for the damage they cause 
us? How is that explained? V, 152 

1 8. Why do insects visit flowers ? XI, 5 i 

19. Why are ants absolutely necessary to the life of 
the corn aphids ? V, 172-173 

20. Describe the type of food eaten by aphids in gen 
eral. V, 172 

21. Why is the aphis lion so useful to us ? V, 174-176 

22. What do adult cicadas eat? How do they eat? 
V, 200-204 

23. What do the cicada nymphs eat? V, 1 87 

24. Where is a cicada's stomach? V, 205-206 

25. What type of mouth parts has a cicada? V, 186 

26. What happens to trees inhabited by adult 
cicadas? V, 185 

27. "People who are not fond of roaches should pro 
tect centipedes." Explain. V, 82-83 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

28. How do moths and butterflies generally get their 
food? V, 307 

29. What can a house-fly eat? V, 346-347 

30. Why can the horse-fly u bite?" V, 322-323 

31. How does the robber fly kill and eat its prey? V, 
3 2 4 

32. Are animals the only living things affected by fly 
larvae? Explain. ,352 

33. Name an unusual liquid eaten by some flies. V, 
320 

34. What does the male mosquito eat? V, 337-338 

35. What termites raise their own food? V, 148 

36. Why are termites able to eat wood? V, 137 

37. How is the mantis able to obtain its food? V, 73- 
75 

38. Why should a ladybird beetle be protected? V, 
173-175 

39. Name some insect enemies of the grasshopper. 
V, 19-25 

40. Describe a typical day of a tent caterpillar. V, 
271-274 

41. What do tent caterpillars eat? V, 263 

42. What happens to the food carried along by the 
blood in an insect? ,112-113 

43. How does the pupa manage to feed itself and 
form new tissues ? V, 260 

3. FISH: 

i. What do fishes eat? VIII, 138-142 
[127] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. What truth is there in stories that fishes eat their 
own young? VIII, 114-115 

3. How does a fish's mouth affect its eating habits? 
VIII, 53-5 7 

4. Why does a fish swallow its food whole? Has a 
fish a sense of taste? VIII, 75 

5. What fishes migrate in pursuit of smaller migrat 
ing fish? VIII, 129 

6. How is the life of the sardine dependent on 
algae? XI, 191 

7. What enables microscopic copepods to form the 
food supply of so many fish? X, 125-126 

8. What constitutes from 63 to 97 percent of the 
food of whitefish and lake herring? X, 1 25 

9. What is meant by "no copepods, no herring?" 

X, 125 

10. What crustaceans feed more fish and other water 
forms than any other kind of animals? X, 125- 
126 

1 1 . How does the lamprey get its food ? VIII, 5-6 

12. What important fish is caught with squid bait? 
X, 3 55 

13. Which crustaceans affect the size of the tuna fish 
catch? X, 163 

14. What do sharks eat? VIII, 140-141 

15. How well can a shark bite ? VIII, 59-60 

1 6. How is the shark sucker adapted to attach itself 
to sharks? Why does it steal rides? VIII, 46-47 

17. What crustacean forms most of the food of the 
chub? X, 151-152 

[128] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 8. How do some fish poison other animals ? VIII, 
50-52 

1 9 . What fish uses its dorsal fin as bait for small fish ? 
VIII, 47 

4. REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS : 

1 . What kind of food do salamanders eat in nature ? 
VIII, 181 

2. What sort of reputation has the hellbender? 
VIII, 181-182 

3. How do amphibians eat? VIII, 175-176 

4. How can you successfully keep spotted or mar 
bled salamanders in captivity? What can you 
feed them? VIII, 1 86 

5. How can you feed red salamanders in captivity? 
VIII, 184 

6. How do toads eat? VIII, 201 

7. Which is the most common North American 
snake? What does it eat? VIII, 346 

8. What do some people believe about milk snakes ? 
Why are the milk snakes found near barns? 
VIII, 344 

9. What is the real basis for the belief that snakes 
can charm their prey? VIII, 343-344 

10. What gave the king-snake its name? How does 
it get its food? VIII, 344 

n. What do blacksnakes eat? VIII, 344-345 

12. What lizards catch and eat chicks ? VI, 264 

13. What food habits of crocodiles and alligators led 
man to reduce their number? VIII, 305 

[129] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 4. Which common lizard is able to change its color ? 
What does it eat? VI, 264-265 

5. BIRDS: 

1. Why are bird's stomachs so carefully studied? 
IX, 125 

2. How is a bird's beak adapted for the kind of food 
it eats? IX, 126-127 

3. Of what use are long legs and long necks to a 
heron or flamingo? IX, 127 

4. What kind of food is eaten by the different kinds 
of birds? IX, 126 

5. How are hard seeds handled by birds? IX, 127- 
128 

6. How well do birds get rid of weed seeds for us? 
IX, 129 

7. Why do birds eat tiny pieces of sand and gravel ? 
IX, 128 

8. What kind of wild fruits do birds eat? IX, 130- 



9. Name some insect-eating birds ? IX, 134-137 

10. What do "night-flying" birds eat? IX, 134 

11. How do birds react when one kind of insect be 
comes unusually numerous ? IX, 136-137 

12. What bird is able to eat clams and oysters, shell 
and all? IX, 137 

13. What birds fly aloft with clams in their bills and 
then drop them on rocks below? IX, 137 

14. How do some birds get the fish they eat? IX, 
137-138 

15. What birds are fond of snakes? IX, 140 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 6. What bird drops turtles on a stone in order to kill 
them? IX, 140 

1 7. What bird stuffs its stomach with its own feathers 
during a meal? IX, 150 

1 8. What birds (not owls or hawks) will swallow 
half-grown kittens, muskrats, and gophers? IX, 
152 

19. What causes cannibalism among the young peli 
cans ? IX, 99 

20. Why is one bird called the "grasshopper" spar 
row? IX, 107 

2 1 . What do vultures eat ? IX, 1 42 

22. What kind of birds are not affected by ptomaines ? 
IX, 142 

23. What is the diet of a barn-owl each year? IX, 
141-142 

24. How are owl pellets made ? IX, 141 

25. What do hawks and owls eat? IX, 140-141 

26. Why have hawks and owls sharply-hooked 
beaks? IX, 127 

27. Is the pouch of the pelican used to carry fish? 
Explain. IX, 99 

28. How are baby pelicans fed? IX, 99-100 

29. How does the black-headed gull get its crustacean 
food? X, 164-165 

30. How do neglected albatross babies manage to 
keep themselves alive? IX, 98-99 

31. How does a mother albatross feed its baby? IX, 
98 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

32. What bird has a strainer in its beak? How does 
it work? IX, 126 

33. What kind of food enables a bird to stay in cold 
climates instead of migrating? IX, 128 

34. What birds are very fond of acorns? How are 
they cracked open? IX, 131-132 

35 What bird stores acorns in holes it drills in trees ? 
IX, 132 

36. What bird drills holes in apple trees and drinks 
the sap which oozes out? IX, 133 

37. What is "pigeon's milk ?" IX, 134 

38. Why do woodpeckers drill holes in trees? IX, 
136 

39. Why are cowbirds so named? IX, 135 

40. How are different colors in bird feathers pro 
duced? IX, 25-34 

41. What complaints have been made against the 
bobolinks and red-winged blackbirds? IX, 129- 
130 

42. Why do humming birds visit flowers? Why are 
their beaks so thin and long? IX, 133 

43. How should we regard birds which catch and eat 
fish? IX, 138-139 

44. What do flickers eat ? How are they adapted for 
getting their food? IX, 136 

45. How are corn kernels treated to prevent crows 
from eating them ? IX, 131 

46. What parrot attacks and kills living sheep ? IX, 
1 60 

47. Why are the corners of a baby-bird's mouth soft 
and light colored? IX, 101-102 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. MAMMALS : 

1. How many seeds of the water primrose did one 
duck have in its stomach? IX, 129 

2. How many tons of weed seeds are eaten by tree 
sparrows in Iowa in a single winter? IX, 129 

3. How are some nut-bearing trees planted? XI, 58 

4. What is the food of all mammal babies just after 
birth? IX, 242 

5. What group of mammals, aside from man, has 
learned to store up food for later use? IX, 333 

6. What is the food of carnivores ? IX, 248 

7. What are insectivores ? 1X5247-248 

8. What marsupials are flesh eaters? IX, 298-303 

9. Can a whale swallow a man? Explain your 
answer. IX, 368-370 

10. How did the killer whale get its name? What 
are some of its activities ? IX, 372 

1 1 . What do newborn whale babies eat? IX, 242 

12. What mammal, aside from man, attacks the 
squid? X, 356 

13. What forms most of the food of Antarctic 
whales, penguins, seals, and petrels? X, 165-166 

14. Why are "vampire" bats so named? How do 
they eat? IX, 318 

15. What do ungulates eat? IX, 340-341 

ZX Food for Human Beings: 

i . Why are plant collecting trips useful to mankind ? 
XI, 376 

[133] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Why did people hunt for plants in Mexico and 
South America ? XI, 353-354 

3. Where did the American Indian get his plants? 
VII, 327-328 

4. What did the Sioux Indian eat? IV, 152 

5. What food plants are used by man? XI, 98-100 

6. How are grasses related to our dairy products, 
beef, wool, leather, horse power, hogs, and poul 
try? XI, 218 

7. What is the estimated value of our annual grass 
crops such as corn, barley, wheat, oats, and rye ? 
XI, 216-217 

8. How did the Pilgrims escape starvation during 
their first winter in America ? XI, 213 

9. What was the effect of corn on the American 
Indians, the Incas, Mayas, and Aztecs? XI, 213 

10. Why were the American Indians interested in a 
corn crop? XI, 323-324 

11. What products do we get from maize or corn? 
XI, 217-218 

12. Why were the people of the Old World inter 
ested in a wheat crop? XI, 323-324 

13. When and where were rice, barley, oats and rye 
first cultivated? XI, 209-210 

14. What grass furnishes us with sugar? XI, 212 

15. When and where was sugar cane first cultivated? 

XI,2I2 

1 6. What place has the oyster in economics? X, 275 
17. How extensively are snails used for food? X, 



[134] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 8. What portion of the mollusk do we eat when we 
have scallops ? X, 257 

19. Where are octapuses considered a delicacy? X, 
352 

20. What people eat barnacles ? X, 237 

21. In what country are barnacles eaten by man? X, 
143 

22. Are crayfish ever eaten? X, 234 

23. How extensive is shrimp-fishing in the United 
States? X, 233 

24. What is the annual catch of crabs in Chesapeake 
Bay? X, 229 

25. What use have the natives for robber crabs ? X, 
178 

26. What is the source of caviar? VIII, 23 

27. Which salamander is eaten extensively by man? 
VIII, 1 86 

28. Which lizard is a favorite food in tropical Amer 
ica? VI, 265 

29. Why are green turtles in the market turned on 
their backs? VIII, 312 

30. Which turtles are used for food? How large do 
they become? Why are the green turtles becom 
ing more scarce? VIII, 311-312 

31. What poisonous snake is used for food? VIII, 

354-355 

32. What disease was prevalent among sailors due 
to lack of proper food, which could not be carried 
because of absence of refrigeration? XII, 239 

33. How may the value of the ultra-violet rays be 
transmitted by foods and medicines ? II, 238-239 

[135] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a list of important food plants and the 
parts used by man. XI, 104-1 10 

2. Watch a praying mantis eat a grasshopper. 
Write a report on how this was done. How is the 
mantis built to catch its food? XI, 73-76, 107 

3. Using methods described in a book on micro 
scopic technique, make slides of the eyes and 
mouth parts of flies and mosquitoes. V, 322, 330, 

334, 346-347 

4. Using Benedict's or Fehling's solution, test a 
large variety of plants eaten by man for simple 
sugar. Do likewise with garden plants. XI, 26- 
29 

5. Make a collection of various plant parasites and 
saprophytes that grow in the fields and woods. 

6. Visit a local cold storage warehouse. 

7. Visit a local milk pasteurizing and bottling plant. 

8. Visit a local ice refrigeration plant. 

9. Visit a local creamery. 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. The connection between grasses and dairy prod 
ucts, meat, wool, leather and horse power. XI, 
218-226 

2. The effect of various elements or lack of them 
upon plant growth. XI, 296-299 

3. Crustaceans used as food and medicine for man. 
X, 229-240 

4. Primitive man had no ability to improve the 
plants which he needed for living. XI, 321 

5. Man's mechanical skill is the best measure of 
human progress. XI, 319-328 

6. Some theories to account for the present develop 
ment of maize. XI, 329-348 



C. Pupil Reports: 

1 . Methods used to discover where a plant obtained 
its food. XI, 296 

2. The extent of the damage done by plagues of 
grasshoppers. V, 17-19 

3. How insects prepare the food they eat for distri 
bution to their cells. V, 109-113 

4. How birds get their food. IX, 126-142 

5. Kinds of food eaten by birds. IX, 126-142 

6. The food of early man. VII, 18, 226, 253 

7. The proper preservation of food. XII, 239-247 

[1373 . 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 



D. Self-Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B. 



A 



B 



a. grasshopper parasite V, I. vultures 

19 

b. enzyme XI, 29 2. drills holes in apple 

trees 

c. piercing mouth parts V, 3. to determine food 

108, 109 habits of birds 

d. sucking mouth parts V, 4. converts solids into 
1 08, 109 liquids 

e. roaches V, 82 5. bison 

f. eats wood V, 137 

g. copepods X, 125 



6. sarcophaga 

7. butterflies 

h. stomach contents studied 8. mosquito 
IX, 125 

i. carrion eaters IX, 142 
j. sapsucker IX, 133 



9. food for centipedes 

10. termites 

1 1 . food for herring 



ANSWERS 

a 6 f 10 

b 4 g ii 

c 8 h 3 

d 7 i I 

e 9 j 2 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

TEST II 

Below are ten statements. Some are true and some are 
false. On your paper re-write each false statement in such 
a way that it becomes true. In doing this you may change or 
leave out any of the italicized words but you may not change 
or leave out any others. 

1 . An insect whose larvae eat another insect is known as 
a parasite. V, 179 

2. African sleeping sickness is caused by bacteria. V, 
349 

3. Insects visit flowers in order to pollinate them. XI, 

4. An unusual liquid eaten by mosquitoes is beer. V, 320 

5. An insect which should be protected by us is the 
drone fly. V, 73-75 

6. Most of the food of whitefish and lake herring con 
sists of other fish. X, 125 

7. The food of milk snakes consists of cow's milk. VIII, 
344 

8. Birds not affected by ptomaines in putrid meat are 
vultures. IX, 142 

9. Newborn whale babies eat fish. IX, 242 

10. The chief support of all animal life in the sea are 
young fish. XI, 87 

ANSWERS 

1. parasite 6. copepods 

2. trypanosomes 7. rats and mice 

3. get nectar 8. vultures 

4. human blood 9. milk 

5. praying mantis 10. diatoms 



UNIT IX 
ADAPTATIONS BY LIVING THINGS 



A. To Air: 

1. What purpose do the "knees'* of cypress trees 
serve? XI, 10 

2. What are stilt roots for? XI, 10 

3. Why is it that flies have only one pair of wings? 
What advantage is it? V, 315 

4. Why are the wings of a honeybee hooked to 
gether? V, 318 

5. Of what use to the beetle are its hard upper 
wings? V, 318 

6. Why are the butterfly's wings different in size? 



7. Why is the abdomen of a cicada filled with air? 
V, 206-207 

8. Why does a mosquito pupa stay near the surface 
of the water? V, 334 

9. Why do crabs make sounds? X, 197-199 

10. How does the pistol crab make its sharp reports? 
X, 192-194 

11. Can crustaceans make noises? Give examples. 
X, 192-194 



STUDY GUIDE IK GENERAL 

12. How do gastropods close their shell? X, 288 

13. How do gastropods without an operculum keep 
from drying out ? X, 289-290 

14. How are snails able to respond to sound? X, 
311-312 

1 5 . Discuss the breathing problems of land and water 
snails. X, 295-297 

1 6. Why can some fish stay out of water for a time? 
VIII, 88-89 

17. In what way are the gills of fishes similar to 
lungs? VIII, 84 

1 8. What types of gills are found among fishes? 

VIII, 84-85 

19. What special seeing abilities have the "four- 

eyed" fishes? VIII, 70-71 

20. How are frogs adapted for jumping? VIII, 193- 
194 

21. What frogs can "fly?" VIII, 208 

22. How are tree frogs fitted for tree life ? Describe 
their habits. VIII, 205-208 

23. What type of skin have amphibians ? Explain its 
advantages. VIII, 175 

24. How are a chameleon's feet fitted for its way of 
living? VIII, 324 

25. What remarkable adaptation has the dragon 
lizard for flight? VIII, 327 

26. In what ways are birds adapted for flying? IX, 
13-15 

27. Just how are the wings of a bird suited for flying? 

IX, 13-14 

[142] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

28. What is the driving force which enables a bird to 
fly? IX, 14 

29. In what general way are bird's feathers wonder 
ful adaptations for flight? IX, 15 

30. What strange forms may some feathers take? 
IX, 24 

31. Describe the construction of a bird's feather? 
IX, 15-17 

32. Why are the bones in a bird's wing so stiff? IX, 
14 

33. What two adaptations of the skeleton help a bird 
to fly? IX, 14-15 

34. What birds have horny tubes growing out of 
their nostrils ? Why? IX, 150-151 

35. How do birds inform other birds of danger, 
food, etc. ? IX, 110-113 

36. How true is it that splitting a bird's tongue will 
make it speak better? IX, 108-109 

37. What birds are able to imitate others? IX, 107- 
109 

38. How do birds differ in their ability to make 
sounds? IX, 103-105 

39. What bird roars like a lion? IX, 105 

40. What is the "syrinx" in birds? How is it used? 
IX, 103 

41 . How high can kangaroos jump ? IX, 285 

42. How are kangaroos adapted to their surround 
ings? IX, 284-285 

43. What are the habits of the kangaroo? IX, 285- 
287 

[143] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

44. What features enable a "flying" squirrel to get 
about? IX, 334 

45. Why is the bat a remarkable mammal ? IX, 316 

46. Why are bats able to fly? IX, 317 

B. To Water: 

1 . Why are seaweeds so soft and delicate ? XI, 1 6 8- 

172 

2. How does root pressure help a plant get water? 
XI, 5 

3. What are root-hairs ? How do they work ? XI, 5 

4. In which direction do roots grow ? What advan 
tage is it to the plant? XI, 32 

5. What kinds of cells do we find in a cross-section 
of a twig? XI, 12-13 

6. What are thorns and prickles ? XI, 18-19 

7. Why do trees shed their leaves in a dry season? 

XI, 21 

8. Do trees hibernate ? Explain. XI, 21 

9. How is evaporation from a leaf controlled? XI, 
25 

10. Why is adaptation to desert life extremely diffi 
cult for a plant ? XI, 280-281 

11. Why are desert plants so spiny? XI, 272-273 

12. Why are desert plants so juicy? XI, 273-279 

13. How does a bivalve maintain its balance ? X, 264 

14. How does a mollusk get fresh water to its gills? 
X,2 5 8 

15. In which gastropods is the foot used as a swim 
ming organ? X, 293-294 

[144] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 6. How can snails move about? X, 292 

17. To what use do bivalves put their feet? X, 261 

18. Where are a mollusk's eyes ? X, 257-258 

19. How do octopuses creep about? X, 328-329 

20. Why can lobsters move only forward or back 
ward? X, 98 

21. What helps a lobster swim right-side up? X, 

III-II2 

22. What are some of the most interesting adapta 
tions among fishes ? 111,143-148 

23. How is a fish's shape adapted for speed? How 
fast can a mackerel or shark swim? VIII, 30 

24. Do all fishes have scales? Explain. VIII, 34 

25. What is the purpose of fish scales ? VIII, 34 

26. Why does the air bladder mystify fish students? 
VIII, 89-90 

27. What purpose does the air bladder in a fish 
serve? VIII, 91-92 

28. How does the air bladder work? VIII, 92-93 

29. What is meant by the "lateral line" of a fish? 
How does it help a fish? VIII, 77-79 

30. What purpose does the fish's "ear" serve? VIII, 
73-74 

3 1 . What in a fish corresponds to the four legs of a 
higher vertebrate? VIII, 63-64 

32. How do the fins form in fishes? VIII, 38-39 

33. What types of fins are there? VIII, 39-41 

34. What is the chief purpose of the caudal or tail 
fin? VIII, 47-48 

[1451 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

35. How do fins serve the fishes? VIII, 38 

36. How are the paired fins of fishes attached to their 
skeletons? VIII, 63-64 

37. What keeps a fish from rolling over in the water? 

vin, 45-46 

38. What is the purpose of the ventral fins? VIII, 

43-45 

39. How are the paired pectoral fins used by rays, 
flying fishes, mudskippers, and sea robins? VIII, 

42-43 

40. What makes fins flexible? VIII, 39-41 

41. What fish hibernates in a mud cocoon? VIII, 4- 
5, 19-20 

42. How do salamanders spend their time when a dry 
season comes to their locality? VIII, 180 

43. How do penguins swim? IX, 148 

44. What families of tropical birds have webbed 
feet? IX, 151-152 

45. How did the seal become capable of moving in 
water? VI, 123 

46. Are men and horses adapted to desert life? XI, 
280 

47. What makes the Bactrian camel able to live 
where it does? VI, 155 

48. How long can a camel go without water? VI, 153 

49. Why is a camel called the "ship of the desert?" 
VI, 153 

50. Why can kangaroo rats live without water? IX, 
334 

51. How might the whale have become fitted for 
ocean life? IX, 253-254 

[146] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

C. ToTheNeedforFood: 

1 . Why have animals developed the power of move 
ment? V, 107 

2. How does the backbone serve the vertebrate ani 
mals? VIII, i 

3. How do the mollusk's gills aid in getting food? 
X, 259 

4. How do oysters digest their food? X, 262-263 

5. How powerful are the suckers of an octopus? X, 
330 

6. What kind of jaws has a cephalopod? X, 334 

7. What type of eyes have the cephalopods ? X, 336 

8. How does the radula aid a snail in eating? X, 
297-299 

9. Are slugs able to bite the hand? X, 304 

10. How are insects adapted to getting their food? 
V, 107 

11. How are the mouth parts of insects related to 
their feeding habits? V, 107-109 

12. What is the chief function of all insects' mouth 
parts? V, 109 

13. Name some insects with sucking, or piercing and 
sucking mouth parts. V, 108-109 

1 4. What chief types of mouth parts do insects have ? 
V, 109 

15. What kind of mouth parts do crickets, beetles, 
grasshoppers, and caterpillars have? V, 108 

1 6. Why have roaches existed for so many millions 
of years? V, 98 

[147] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

17. What is histolysis? Where and why does it 
occur? V, 259-260 

1 8. When and why does a caterpillar's stomach serve 
as food for its owner? V, 293 

19. How are a caterpillar's legs adapted for sticking 
to flat surfaces? V, 286 

20. Have moths and butterflies any mandibles 
(jaws) ? V, 255 

21. Describe the proboscis with which moths and but 
terflies get their food. V, 307-308 

22. What stage of an insect's development is adapted 
chiefly for eating? V, 236 

23. What kind of mouth parts has a house-fly? V, 
345-346 

24. What animal uses intestinal parasites to digest 
wood? V, 137 

25. What type of mouth parts has a cicada? V, 186 

26. How are fish-lice adapted to clinging to a moving 
fish? X, 137 

27. Describe a crustacean appendage? X, 102-104 

28. What important uses have the ten pairs of ap 
pendages in crustaceans ? X, 1 02 

29. Are teeth in fishes found only in the mouth ? Give 
examples. VIII, 57 

30. What fish grows teeth all over its body? How 
are these teeth formed? VIII, 37 

31. What fishes have no teeth? VIII, 59 

32. How do the gills of a fish strain small bits of food 
from the water taken in ? VIII, 65-66 

33. What are "gill rakers?" VIII, 87-88 

[148] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

34. What fish uses its dorsal fin as bait for small fish ? 
VIII, 47 

35. How well can a shark bite? VIII, 59-60 

36. How does a fish's mouth affect its eating habits? 
VHI, 53-57 

37. How do some fishes poison other animals ? VIII, 
50-52 

38. How is the shark sucker adapted to attach itself 
to sharks ? Why does it steal rides? VIII, 46-47 

39. In what unusual part of the mouth are the teeth 
of salamanders? VIII, 181 

40. What peculiar features does a chameleon have? 
How does it use its tongue? VIII, 324 

41. Why do humming birds visit flowers? Why are 
their beaks so thin and long? IX, 133 

42. How is a bird's beak adapted to the kind of food 
it eats? IX, 126-127 

43. How is a snake's mouth adapted to the task of 
swallowing food wider than itself? VIII, 340 

44. Of what use are long legs and long necks to a 
heron or flamingo ? IX, 127 

45. What do flickers eat? How are they adapted for 
getting their food? IX, 136 

46. Why have hawks and owls such sharply-hooked 
beaks? IX, 127 

47. What bird has a strainer in its beak? How does 
it work? IX, 126 

48. How are owls adapted for night life? IX, 160 

49. How are the teeth of carnivores adapted to their 
food habits? IX, 248 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

50. What carnivorous animal has the most powerful 
teeth or jaws? VI, 113 

5 1 . What kind of teeth have rodents ? IX, 33 1 

52. How are the hippo's tusks used? VI, 150 

53. Why do hippos in captivity have trouble with 
their teeth? VI, 149-152 

54. Describe the head of the sperm whale. Describe 
its teeth. IX, 371-372 

D. To Light: 

1. Why are mountain-top plants more brilliantly 
colored than lowland plants? XI, 305-306 

2. In what four ways do plants climb? XI, 34-37 

3. How are leaves arranged in trees ? XI, 17-18 

4. What work do leaves do? XI, 22 

5. How are leaves adapted to their work? XI, 23- 
25 

6. In which direction do leaves and stems grow? 
XI, 32 

7. What isheliotropism? XI, 32 

8. How can leaves turn to the light? XI, 32 

9. What is a leaf rosette? XI, 32 

10. Why are leaves in rosettes arranged as they are? 

XI, 32-33 
n. How are plants able to move? Give examples. 

XI, 72-76 

12. How do vines manage to reach the light? XI, 
33-34 

13. In what ways do plants adapt themselves to dif 
ferent light conditions ? XI, 290-291 

[150] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

14. What causes plants to move or go to sleep ? XI, 
72 

15. How can a caterpillar see? How many eyes has 
it? V, 285 

1 6. What deep-sea cephalopods give off light? X, 
343-345 

17. How do crustaceans produce light? X, 201-202 

1 8. Which crustaceans give off flashes of light? X, 

165 

19. Why do crustaceans give out light? X, 200-203 

20. What kind of organs in fishes produce electricity? 
VIII, 82-84 

21. How do certain fishes produce luminous light? 
VIII, 79-81 

22. What theories have been proposed to explain the 
usefulness of light organs in fishes? VIII, 81 

23. What fish can shut its eyes? VIII, 66 

24. What has happened to the eyes of certain deep- 
sea fishes which live in total darkness? VIII, 71 

E. To Heat: 

1. How is the barnacle adapted to travelling in 
warm and cold waters with whales? X, 141-142 

2. What crustacean lives in hot springs at a tem 
perature of 112 F.? X, I53' I 54 

3. How is it possible for frogs and toads to with 
stand extremely cold weather? VIII, 195 

4. How do box turtles spend the winter? VIII, 318 

5. Where are the down feathers? What is their 
. function? IX, 17-18 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. When do bison look shaggy and naked? VI, 168 

7. How do warm-blooded animals keep the heat in 
their bodies? VIII, 38 

F. To The Need for Protection: 

1. How does the mimosa or sensitive plant behave? 
What causes this behavior? XI, 72-74 

2. How well-developed is the brain of a fish? VIII, 

99 

3. Why does the hermit crab look for abandoned 
shells? X, 221-222 

4. What protection against enemies or weather have 
fly pupae? V, 252 

5. Discuss the variety of homes inhabited by crusta 
ceans. X, 210-228 

6. How does the spider crab camouflage itself? X, 
226 

7. What crustacean resembles the praying mantis 
insect? X, 179 

8. What crustacean's tail resembles a sea-urchin? 
How is it protective? X, 180 

9. How do the skeleton shrimp fit in with their sur 
roundings? X, 62-63 

10. Why does a crustacean cast off a limb? X, 103 

11. How does a lobster pinch off an appendage? X, 
103 

1 2. Which senses in a lobster are very keen? X, 1 10 

13. How does a lobster do his "seeing" in the dark? 
X, no 

14. Why do crustaceans change colors? X, 205-207 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. Name some crustaceans that can change color at 
will. X, 205-207 

1 6. Why are parasitic copepocL so interesting? X, 
128-129 

17. What is the "byssus?" X, 261-262 

1 8. How do mussels attach themselves to objects? X, 
261 

19. Discuss the smoke screens made by gastropods. 
X, 315-316 

20. What is the only cephalopod with a shell? X, 325 

2 1 . Why does an octopus use its ink sac ? X, 335 

22. Where is the "shell" of a squid or octopus? X, 
325 

23. What is the work of chromatophores in the octo 
pus? X, 342-343 

24. Why is the swimming mechanism of an octopus 
like that of a rocket ship ? X, 330 

25. What evidence is there that gastropods have a 
keen sense of smell? X, 308-309 

26. How well can snails "see?" X, 309-310 

27. What are adductor muscles? How are they 
used? X, 256-257 

28. How are pearls formed? X, 276-277 

29. What fish has a sense of direction? How is this 
shown? VIII, 132 

30. Of what use are the nostrils to a fish? VIII, 73 

31. What adaptations give a fish its sense of touch? 
VIII, 76-77 

32. Can a fish hear? Explain. VIII, 73-74 

[153] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

33. How does the sawfish protect itself? VIII, 55 

34. What makes ganoid fishes so hard externally? 
VIII, 36 

35. How did the flatfishes get both their eyes on top 
of their head? VIII, 68-69 

36. How well can fish with fully developed eyes see ? 
VIII, 72 

37. How is a fish's spine constructed? VIII, 62 

38. What gives the porcupine fish its name? VIII, 36 

39. Why are male birds so brilliantly colored? IX, 

36 

40. What lizard will "turn green with fright ?" VIII, 

3 2 4~3 2 5 

41. Which lizard commonly seen is able to change its 
colors? What does it eat? VI, 264-265 

42. Why do geckos drop their tails? Is the tail lost 
forever? Explain. VIII, 326 

43. Why are horned toads invisible a few feet away 
from us? VIII, 331 

44. What two species are the only poisonous lizards 
now known? VI, 262-263 

45. Which harmless snake can scare people with a 
vicious display of anger? How did this snake get 
its name? VIII, 345-346 

46. How efficient are the senses of smell, touch, taste, 
hearing, and seeing in snakes? VIII, 342 

47. Can snakes actually spit their venom? Explain 
your answer. VIII, 354 

48. How is a turtle's shell constructed? VIII, 308- 
309 

[154] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

49. Describe the fangs of a rattlesnake and how they 
are adapted to injecting poison. VIII, 341 

50. What gave the box turtle its name? Does this 
habit serve any special function? Explain. VIII, 



51. Why does the "painted" terrapin have such a 
name? Why does it always have such a smooth 
shell? VIII, 314-315 

52. Name the pigments commonly found in feathers ? 
IX, 25-34 

53. What gives a bird its color? IX, 25 

54. When is protective coloration of special benefit to 
birds? IX, 37-38 

55. Why do bird colors harmonize with their sur 
roundings? IX, 37 

56. What is given as the reason for the barred (dark 
and light) coloring in a bird? IX, 34-35 

57. How are color patterns arranged in birds? IX, 
3 2 '33 

5 8. Would the lion or the tiger win in a fight between 
them? Explain why. VI, 82 

59. What interesting feature has the armadillo ? IX, 
363 

G. To The Need for Reproduction: 

I . How is the flower adapted for reproduction ? XI, 

41 
2. Can you explain why your trousers or stockings 

are covered with seeds after a walk through a 

field? XI, 57-58 

[155] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. How are fleshy and juicy fruits able to scatter 
their seeds? XI, 58 

4. What tree endangers a passerby when it scatters 
its seeds? XI, 56 

5. Name some plants that use the wind to scatter 
their seeds? XI, 56 

6. What enables some seeds to steal a ride on ani 
mals? XI, 57-58 

7. How do the touch-me-not, the violet, witch-hazel, 
and bean plants scatter their seeds ? XI, 55-56 

8. How do the elms, maples, willows, poplars, and 
dandelions scatter their seeds? XI, 56-57 

9. How is the mollusk's shell made? X, 253-254 

10. Name some insects whose larvae spin cocoons? 
V, 251-252 

11. How is a cocoon made? V, 251-252 

12. How can a caterpillar spin a cocoon? V, 286 

13. Where does a caterpillar get its silk? V, 287-289 

14. Why do insects molt? How is this done ? V, 14- 
17 

15. What is the origin of the hard, shiny coat of a 
pupa? V, 251 

1 6. How are pupae adapted to live in cold weather? 

V,2 5 I 

17. How does the adult moth get out of the pupa case 
and the cocoon? V, 305-306 

1 8. Why are the exits of cocoons always brown in 
color? V, 306 

19. Why are the tent moth eggs protected? V, 311- 
312 

[156] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

20. Why do grasshopper eggs hatch when they do ? 
V, 7 -8 

21. Where are grasshopper's ears? V, 29-31 

22. How do crickets sing? V, 56-58 

23. How do katydids produce their song? V, 33-37, 
39> 4i, 43 -44, 47-49> 53 

24. When do you hear cicadas most? V, 184 

25. Why are fiddler crab eggs hatched at dusk? X, 
168 

26. What is molting? How is it done? X, 103-105 

27. What is meant by a "soft-shell" crab? X, 105 

28. What causes the hardening of a crab shell? X, 
105-106 

29. How have copepods adjusted their breeding 
habits to the life of the West Indian crabs? X, 

133 

30. How is the winter egg of Daphnia protected 
against winter conditions ? X, 1 20 

31. What fish uses sea-shells in which to deposit its 
eggs? VIII, 112 

32. How are male salmon recognized at the spawn 
ing season? VIII, 102 

33. How are the pointed eggs of murres able to stay 
on a rocky ledge ? X, 79 

34. What color are eggs which are placed in holes or 
undercover? Why? IX, 81-82 

35. What is meant by "incubation patches?" How 
are they used? IX, 88 

36. How does a baby bird crack its shell ? IX r 9 1 

[157] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

37. How do neglected albatross babies manage to 
keep themselves alive? IX, 98-99 

38. What birds fly as soon as they are hatched? IX, 
9 2 -93 

39. What birds have heel pads for support when they 
are too young to stand up ? IX, 100 

H. To The Earth: 

1 . What work does a tree trunk do ? XI, 3 

2. What kind of cells support a woody stem? XI, 

12 

3. How is a tender young root protected as it pushes 
its way through the hard soil ? XI, 4-5 

4. How do clams bury themselves in sand? X, 273- 
275 

5. Describe the instincts shown by the newborn 
cicada nymph from egg-hatching until it enters 
the ground. V, 224-225 

6. How are the legs of a cicada nymph adapted for 
digging? V, 190 

7. How do shipworms borejnto wood? X, 270 

8. Name a bivalve which burrows into hard rocks. 
X, 269 

I. Migration: 

1. Which ancient animals migrated extensively? 
VII, 18-19 

2. Describe a locust migration. V, 18 

3. What is a sea-horse? How is it adapted for 
traveling? VIII, 31 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

4. What fishes migrate in pursuit of smaller migrat 
ing fish? VIII, 129 

5. What one American fish leaves fresh water to 
spawn in salt water? VIII, 119 

6. Where do the young American and European 
eels go to live after hatching? VIII, 1 19-120 

7. Why do salmon and eel migrate? VIII, 118-123 

8. How does the salmon know where he w r as born? 
VIII, 121 

9. Ho\v do salmon get to fresh water? How long 
does this take? VIII, 122-123 

i o. What price does the salmon pay for its migration 
to fresh water? VIII, 123 

11. When do salmon babies return to salt water? 
VIII, 124 

1 2. What fishes besides the salmon and eel make long 
voyages to freshwater to cast their spawn? VIII, 
119-124 

13. Name some superstitious ideas connected with 
bird migration? IX, 6-9 

14. What mistaken notions were held by people re 
garding bird migration? IX, 51-53 

15. What explanations have been given to account 
for bird migration? IX, 50-55 

1 6. What may have caused birds to migrate in pre 
historic times? IX, 53-54 

17. What role have bird hormones played in stimu 
lating migration ? IX, 54-55 

1 8. During what time of day do most birds travel 
while migrating? IX, 55 

[159] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

19. Why is it best for migrating birds to travel at 
night? IX, 56 

20. When do migrating birds eat during their 
travels? IX, 56 

2 1 . How high up in the air do migrating birds travel ? 
IX, 56 

22. How fast do birds fly? 1X557-58 

23. Do all migrating birds travel long distances ? Ex 
plain. IX, 58-59 

24. Where do migrating birds go? IX, 58-60 

25. How far do plover fly in migration? IX, 59-60 

26. What bir4 is famous for its long distance flights ? 
IX, 60 

27. What birds that breed in the Southern Hemis 
phere regularly fly north? IX, 61-62 

28. How are migratory birds directed to their desti 
nation? IX, 62-63 

29. What evidence have we which tells us a good deal 
about bird migration? IX, 63-64 

30. What is bird banding? What does it teach us 
about birds? IX, 63-64 

31. When were birds first marked in order to learn 
more about their movements? IX, 64 

32. How does the Biological Survey cooperate with 
banding societies? IX, 64-65 

33. How many returns were made on banded birds? 
IX, 65 

34. What causes the usually rare snowy owl to be 
seen here recently? VI, 257 

[i 60] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

35. How do lemmings migrate? What causes this 
migration? IX, 335-336 

36. Where is the origin of the Indian? IV, 1-2 

37. Why is it believed that the Indians migrated from 
Asia in waves ? IV, 3 

38. Were there mass migrations in primitive times? 
Explain. VII, 198 

39. How long did the Cro-Magnon migrations take ? 
VII, 198 

40. How did the Solutreans come into Europe? VII, 
210 



[161] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Boil green leaves of different plants in alcohol. 
(Caution: Keep open flame away from top of 
dish.) Extract the chlorophyll and exhibit it to 
the class. XI, 290 

2. Place some timothy grass seeds on moist blotting 
paper and keep them dark between two saucers 
for a few days. Notice the root hairs that have 
grown out of the roots. Make careful drawings 
of what you see. XI, 5 

3. Find some pitcher plants in a bog. Cut one down 
to the base and examine what you find inside the 
pitcher. What does this show about pitcher 
plants? XI, 76 

4. Find some sundews in a bog near your home. 
Take some home in the original mass of humus 
and mosses. Grow them. Observe how tiny in 
sects get caught and are digested by the plant. 
XI/75-76 

5. Hunt for dodder plants on other plants growing 
wild. Note the way dodder attaches itself to the 
host plant, and the damage done by the dodder 
parasite. XI, 31-32 

6. On a clear spring night turn your binoculars or 
your telescope toward the moon. Can you see 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

birds traveling across the face of the moon? 
How high up do these birds fly? IX, 55-57 

7. Construct terraria showing examples of hydro 
phytes, xerophytes, halophytes, and mesophytes. 
Take careful notes of the conditions they require 
for healthy living and how they are adapted to 
their surroundings. XI, 78-80 

8. Capture a praying mantis. Observe it catch and 
eat a grasshopper or roach. Note how well- 
adapted the mantis is for this work. V, 73-76 

9. Find a Venus's fly-trap in a bog. Place a pointed 
object against the "hairs'* on the opened trap. 
Observe what happens. Try this several times. 
How long does the trap remain closed? XI, 74 

10. Exhibit a collection of feathers arranged as in the 
colors of the spectrum. IX, 25-38 

11. Secure variously colored feathers. Try to extract 
the colors by means of alcohol, ether, or chloro 
form. Cork the bottles with the pigments for dis 
play with the feathers from which you obtained 
them. IX, 26 

12. Exhibit a collection of various kinds of bird 
feathers. IX, 15-20 

13. In order to show your class how to recognize the 
rattling of a rattlesnake, obtain the real rattles 
from some supply source, and fasten them to the 
hammer of a gong or bell. Press the switch but 
ton each time you want to hear the rattling. 
Arrange this exhibit in your school museum. 

B. Class Discussions: 

I. Birds can fly with a speed of 200 miles an hour. 
IX, 57-58 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Some modern theories which try to explain the 
causes of bird migration. IX, 53-55 

3. Some superstitions believed in by people with re 
gard to bird migration. IX, 50-53 

4. Distances covered by birds in migration. IX, 58- 
62 

5. How scientists find out where birds go when they 
migrate. IX, 63-67 

6. The ways in which plants adapt themselves to 
desert life. XI, 264-281 

7. The value of different color patterns to birds. 
IX, 36-38 

8. How the nervous system of insects helps them to 
respond to their environment. V, 117-121 

C. Self-Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B. 

A B 

a. pelvic and pectoral fins i. called "the ship of the 
VIII, 63-64 desert" 

b. the lungfish VIII, 4 2. stiff and fused hand 

bones 

c. the legs of a seal VI, 123 3. the bat 

d. the camel VI, 153 4. attaches itself to ob 

jects by means of a 
byssus 

e. an important adaptation 5. correspond to the legs 
of birds IX, 14 of a higher vertebrate 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

f. a flying mammal IX, 6. hypodermic teeth 
316 

g. themussel X, 261 7. a mammal covered 

with bony plates 

h. the rattlesnake VIII, 8. live in abandoned sea- 
341 shells 

i. hermit crabs X, 221 9. has six legs 

j. the armadillo IX, 363 10. modified into flippers 

1 1 . hibernates in a mud co 
coon 

ANSWERS 

a 5 f 3 

b 1 1 g 4 

c 10 h 6 

d i i 8 

e 2 j 7 

TEST II 

Underline the phrase in each sentence which makes the 
sentence true. 

1. Animals have developed the power of movement in 
order to : 

(a) migrate (b) escape floods (c) get food. 

V, 106, 107 

2. The radula of a snail is used to : 

(a) grind food (b) move along smooth rocks 

(c) dig into sand. X, 297 

3. An insect with sucking mouth parts is the : 
(a) grasshopper (b) Japanese beetle 

(c) butterfly. V, 108-109 

[165] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. The stage in a butterfly's life which is adapted 
chiefly for feeding is the : 

(a) caterpillar (b) pupa (c) adult. V, 236 

5. An insect which uses intestinal parasites to digest the 
wood it eats is the : 

(a) dragon-fly (b) potato beetle (c) termite. 

V,i37 

6. A fish which grows teeth all over its body surface is 
the: 

(a) mackerel (b) shark (c) stickleback. 

VIII, 37 

7. A plant's response to light is called: 
(a) geotropism (b) heliotropism 

(c) thigmotropism. XI, 32 

8. A tree which scatters its seeds with the aid of the wind 
is the : 

(a) witch-hazel (b) cherry tree (c) maple tree. 

XI, 57 

9. An American fish which leaves fresh water to spawn 
in salt water is the : 

(a) shark (b) salmon (c) eel. VIII, 119 

I o. A warm-blooded vertebrate which migrates the great 
est distance is the : 
(a) bat (b) eel (c) Arctictern. IX, 60 

ANSWERS 

I c 6 b 

2 a 7 b 

3 c 8 c 

4 a 9 c 

5 c 10 c 
[166] 



UNIT X 
REPRODUCTION IN LIVING THINGS 



A. The Life Cycle: 

1. Describe the life history of the malaria parasite. 
V, 342 

2. What is the life history of the liver fluke? X, 
316-318 

3. How many eggs may an oyster have? X, 264- 
265 

4. What prevents the excessive reproduction of 
oysters? X, 265-266 

5. What is the life history of the common Daphnia 
or water flea? X, 118-120 

6. Describe the steps in the life history of the fid 
dler crabs. X, 168-171 

7. What is meant by * 'metamorphosis?" Give some 
examples. V, 226-231 

8. What two kinds of metamorphoses may insects 
have ? V, 245 

9. Name some insects that have no metamorphosis 
at all. .V, 247-248 

10. What is the difference between a larva and a 
nymph? V, 245-246 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

11. How does a pupa differ from a larva? ,250 

12. What is a chrysalis ? V,25l 

13. How is a cocoon made? V, 251-252 

14. Where do insect larvae that live in the water turn 
into pupae? V, 328 

15. Describe the life history of the common Culex 
mosquito. V, 331-335 

1 6. What is the reason for the name "wigglers" given 
to mosquito larvae? V, 333 

17. Why do fly puparia have a circular hole when 
found empty? V, 345 

1 8. Describe the life history of the house fly. V, 343- 
345 

19. What is apuparium? V, 344 

20. How long do most insects require to reach ma 
turity? V, 184 

21. For how long a time do cicadas enjoy fresh air? 
V, 185 

22. Make a report on the life history of the cicada. 
V, 186-199 

23. How often does a cicada molt? V, 186-187 

24. What is the story behind the hollow, shiny shells 
you have found stuck to the bark on a tree ? V, 
184 

25. What is a nymph? V, 185 

26. What is the goal of each cicada nymph? V, 194- 
195 

27. Describe the cicada nymph's behavior before 
molting. V, 195 

28. Describe the act of molting. V, 195-198 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

29. When do the wings of a new cicada stretch? V, 
197 

30. What causes the wholesale death of cicadas? V, 
214 

31. How do the young nymphs of cicadas reach the 
ground? V, 223-224 

32. Describe the progressive changes of a tent cater 
pillar into an adult. V, 293-305 

33. Why do they say that roaches are u born alive?" 
Is this really true? Explain. V, 80-82 

34. How many generations are necessary before the 
offspring resemble both parents in the case of 
aphids? V, 155-156 

35. How many parents do summer aphids have? V, 
162 

36. What is meant by parthenogenesis ? V, 162 

37. How many kinds of offspring do female aphids 
have in summer? V, 163 

38. How does a tropical climate affect the production 
of sexual generations of aphids? V, 167-168 

39. Write a report on the life history of the termite. 
V, 136-139 

40. Describe the life history of a frog. VIII, 196- 
197 

41. Describe the life history of the spotted salaman 
der. VIII, 1 85-1 86 

42. Describe the life history of Pseudotriton, the red 
salamander of the east. VIII, 183-185 

43. What example of metamorphosis can be found in 
human beings? V, 305 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

B. Parents And Offspring: 

1. Why do offspring resemble their parents? ,103 

2. Why is it not correct to say that offspring are 
"chips off the parental block?" V, 103 

3. Give a definition of reproduction. V, 102 

4. What does "spontaneous generation" mean? 
XI, 90 

5. How is a species continued? XI, 38 

6. What do the parents do for the germ cells? V, 
103 

7. What is the origin of the "somatic" or body cells ? 
V, 104 

8. What are the "servants" of the germ cells? V, 
104 

9. When are germ cells set aside in an individual? 
V, 104 

10. Do termites produce young exactly like the 
parents? V, 137 

11. How do roaches reproduce their kind? V, 80-82 

12. What decides whether an insect will be male or 
female? V, 123 

13. What stage of an insect's development is adapted 
chiefly for reproduction? ,235-236 

14. How does the sunfish protect its eggs? VIII, 108 

15. What fish incubates its very large eggs in its 
mouth? How does the fish eat? VIII, 113 

1 6. What birds have forgotten how to build nests or 
take care of their young? How do their young 
ones get along? IX, 159 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

17. How do chromosomes determine the sex of 
birds? VII, 28 

1 8. What steps do chromosomes go through in repro 
duction? VII, 26 

19. Do parent birds mate for life? IX, 72 

20. What birds have the smallest eggs? IX, 85 

21. Why do birds of temperate zones produce more 
eggs than their tropical relatives? IX, 86 

22. How many broods may the song sparrow raise in 
one season? IX, 86 

23. What does the bird do after she lays the eggs? 
IX, 87 

24. Why does a bird sit'on the eggs? IX, 88 

25. At what temperature are eggs incubated in the 
nest? IX, 88 

26. How do mother birds protect the eggs from the 
heat of the sun? IX, 88 

27. In what species of birds do males help in incubat 
ing the eggs? IX, 89 

28. What is meant by "incubation patches?" How 
are they used? IX, 88 

29. Why are the corners of the baby-birds' mouths 
soft and light colored? IX, 101-102 

30. What is meant by "altricial young?" Give ex 
amples. IX, 92 

'31. What is meant by "precocial young?" Give ex- 
amples. IX, 91-92 

32. How do ducks take care of their newly born 
young? IX, 94-97 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

33. How far do mother pelicans often fly in order to 
get food for their babies? IX, 99-100 

34. How does a mother albatross feed her baby ? IX, 

9 8 

35. How do newborn marsupials reach their mother's 
pouch? IX, 280-282 

36. Why are kangaroo babies so helpless? IX, 280- 
281 

37. Why was infanticide necessary in primitive times ? 
VII, 179 

38. What is the contribution of the father and mother 
to the human embryo? VII, 23 

39. What is the function of the mother? VII, 23 

40. What is one of the most important of all life func 
tions? VII, 35 

C. The Continuity of Life: 
i. IN PLANTS: 

1. How do bacteria reproduce? XI, 38 

2. What is a spore? XI, 39 

3. How do spores carry on the life of a plant? XI, 

39 

4. Are all spores produced sexually? Explain. XI, 
39 

5. How do yeasts reproduce? XI, 38, 90 

6. What is the dust in ripe puffballs? XI, 40 

7. What is the black powder of corn smut? XI, 40 

8. How does bread mold produce spores? XI, 39- 
40 

9. Is sex found only in animals ? Explain. XI, 3 8-39 

[172] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

10. Compare fertilization in plants with that in ani 
mals. XI, 39 

1 1 . How do sex cells in a lower plant behave ? XI, 39 

12. How do filamentous algae reproduce? XI, 39 

13. How do some algae reproduce? XI, 38 

14. Do ferns have seeds? Explain. XI, 94 

1 5 . Where are the spores of mosses and ferns found ? 
XI, 40 

1 6. How is the process of fertilization in flowers 
carried on? XI, 41 

17. Where is the egg of a plant found? XI, 41-42 

1 8. What happens to an egg cell after it has been fer 
tilized? XI, 42 

19. What is the yellow powder that comes off some 
flowers? XI, 41 

20. Why is the stigma sticky? XI, 41 

21. What is pollination? XI, 43 

22. How do plants avoid self-pollination? XI, 43-44 

23. What effect on the next generation has cross-pol 
lination? XI, 44 

24. What are some of the ways in which pollen is 
transported? XI, 44 

25. Why are so many pollen grains produced? XI, 
44 

26. Why are wind-pollinated flowers often produced 
before the leaves ? XI, 44 

27. Why are some plants either male or female but 
not both? XI, 45-46 

[173] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

28. What advantage to a flower are its bright colors? 
XI, 46-47 

29. Why do insect-pollinated flowers have so very 
little pollen? XI, 46 

30. What kind of flowers have very showy petals? 

XI, 46 

31. Why do flowers have odors ? XI, 47 

32. How does a bumblebee pollinate a lady-slipper or 
mocassin flower? XI, 47-49 

33. How is the yucca flower pollinated? XI, 50-5 1 

34. Why are colonies of honey-bees raised near 
orchards? XI, 52 

35. Why do growers plant two varieties of straw 
berries together in the same field? XI, 52 

36. \V r hy must several varieties of Bartlett pears be 
planted in the same orchard ? XI, 52-53 

37. What is a seed? XI, 40-41, 54 

38. What kinds of food are stored in seeds ? XI, 42- 
43 

39. How long can seeds live ? XI, 54-55 

40. In what chief ways are seeds scattered? XI, 55 

41. How are fleshy and spicy fruits able to scatter 
their seeds? XI, 58 

42. How do the touch-me-not, the violet, witch-hazel, 
and bean plants scatter their seeds ? XI, 55-56 

43. What tree endangers a passerby when it scatters 
its seeds? XI, 56 

44. Name some plants that use the wind to scatter 
their seeds. XI, 56 

[174] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

45. How do the elms, maples, willows, poplars and 
dandelions scatter their seeds? XI, 56-57 

46. Can you explain why your trousers or stockings 
are covered with seeds after a walk through a 
field? XI, 5 7-5 8 

47. What enables some seeds to steal a ride on ani 
mals? XI, 57-58 

48. How are some nut-bearing trees planted ? XI, 5 8 

49. Why are brambles and cedars often close to 
fences? XI, 58 

50. How has man spread weeds in all parts of the 
world? XI, 58 

51. In what plant do seeds need no rest period? 
XI, 54 

52. What is meant by germination? XI, 59 

53. What is the first stage in germination? XI, 59 

54. What is the first thing to come out of a seed? XI, 
59 

55. How do beans germinate? XI, 60-6 1 

56. How does corn germinate? XI, 60 

57. How does the garden pea germinate? XI, 60 

58. How do maple seeds germinate? XI, 61-62 

59. How do some plants propagate themselves with 
out seeds? XI, 63 

60. What is meant by vegetative propagation? XI, 

63 

61. How do plants propagate vegetatively? XI, 64 

62. Why are potato seeds never planted? XI, 67 

63. What is a bulb? XI, 68 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

64. What methods has man invented to propagate 
some plants? XI, 68 

65. Discuss some ways in which plants propagate 
themselves. XI, 66-67 

66. Discuss the methods of plant propagation by cut 
tings, budding and grafting. XI, 68-7 1 

67. Why is it so difficult to get rid of dandelions on a 
lawn? XI, 65-66 ' 

68. What becomes the fruit In a flower? XI, 42 

69. What becomes the seed in a flower? XI, 42 

70. What causes many plants to produce flowers and 
fruits only at certain seasons of the year ? XI, 303 

IN MOLLUSKS : 

1. How long do mollusks live? X, 255 

2. Where do mollusks store their fertilized eggs? 
X,26o 

3. How do bivalves reproduce? X, 264 

4. How can we distinguish the sexes in octopuses? 
X, 337-339 

5. What kind of care is given by octopuses to their 
eggs? X, 341-342 

6. Where does a squid deposit its eggs? X, 340 

7. How are the eggs of land mollusks fertilized? 

x, 305 

8. How are gastropod eggs deposited? X, 306-307 

IN CRUSTACEANS : 

I. What animal today has an embryo stage very 
much like a trilobite's ? What does this indicate ? 
X >5 6 

[176] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. How do crustaceans reproduce? X, 107-108 

3 . How many eggs may a lobster have ? X, I o 8 

4. How long can lobsters live ? X, 172-173 

5. How are the eggs of a lobster protected? X, 108 

6. Do baby crustaceans resemble their parents? 
Give examples. X, 108-109 

7. How are winter-resisting eggs of Daphnia pro 
duced? X, 1 19-120 

8. How do ostracods reproduce? X, 124 

9. How have copepods adjusted their breeding 
habits to the life of the West Indian crabs? X, 

133 

10. During what stage in a barnacle's life can it swim 
freely? X, 140-141 

11. How are young fiddler crabs born? X, 168 

12. Why are fiddler crab eggs hatched only at dusk? 
X, 168 

13. Why do fiddler crabs rarely go into the water? 
X, 171-172 

1 4. How long can a crab live ? X, 1 7 2 

15. Why does the robber crab, which lives on land, 
return once a year to the ocean? X, 178 

1 6. How does the mantis shrimp take care of its 
eggs? X, 183-184 

17. For what diseases were crayfish "eyes" prescribed 
some centuries ago in Western Europe? X, 239 

4. IN INSECTS : 

i . Is it possible for some eggs to develop without 
fertilization? V, 104 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. What decides whether an insect will be male or 
female? V, 123 

3. Why are the exits of cocoons always brown in 
color? V, 306 

4. How does the adult moth get out of the pupa case 
and the cocoon? V, 305-306 

5. What stage of an insect's development is adapted 
chiefly for reproduction? V, 235-236 

6. What kind of an adult insect results from a 
starved larva? ,292-293 

7. Where does the female moth store sperm cells 
received from the male? ,311 

8. What is stored in the ovary of a moth? V, 31 1 

9. Where are eggs and sperms formed in insects? 
V, 122-123 

i o. Where did grasshoppers come from, according to 
ancient people? V, i 

1 1 . How can we distinguish the male from the female 
grasshopper? V, 3 

12. Describe the way in which female grasshoppers 
lay eggs. V, 4-5 

13. Describe the egg of a grasshopper and its con 
tents. V, 6 

14. Descriue what takes place when a grasshopper 
egg hatches. V, 8-9 

15. Why do insects sing? V, 49 

1 6. How does a male cricket attract its mate? V, 49 

17. How do roaches reproduce their kind? V, 80-82 

18. Describe the work of the worker termites. 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

19. Describe the work of the "soldier" termites. V, 
131-132 

20. Name three kinds of termites in a nest. V, 131- 
135 

21. What kind of termites can reproduce? V, 132- 



22. How may one tell the female termite from the 
other termites? V, 133 

23. What is meant by "caste" among insects ? V, 1 34 

24. Which termites are winged? ,132-133 

25. Which termite produces all the eggs of the 
colony? V, 133 

26. With what other insect is the queen termite com 
parable? V, 133-134 

27. When and why do termites "swarm?" V, 134- 



28. What happens to most of the termite swarm? V, 
I34-I35 

29. How does a female termite start a colony? V, 
I3S-I36 

30. What does the first brood of the termites be 
come? V, 137 

31. Do termites produce young exactly like the 
parents? Give examples. V, 137 

32. Who relieves the termite parents of the duties of 
caring for the increasing colony? V, 138 

33. When are new king and queen termites produced 
in a colony? V, 139 

34. Are winged termites the only ones which start 
colonies? How is this possible? ,140 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

35. How is the continued life of the colony insured 
even when the king and queen termites die ? V, 
140-141 

36. Discuss some termite theories which try to ex 
plain why there are different castes produced 
from the same parents. V, 142-143 

37. Describe the various mound nests built by ter 
mites. V, 148 

38. How often does the fertile termite queen lay 
eggs? V, 149 

39. Where are the eggs of termites taken by the 
workers? Why? V, 151 

40. How large is the fertile queen termite ? Can you 
explain why this is so ? V, 149 

41. How many generations roll by before the off 
spring resemble both parents in the case of 
aphids? V, 155-156 

42. How many parents do summer aphids have? V, 
162 

43. What is meant by parthenogenesis? V, 162 

44. How many kinds of offspring do female aphids 
have in summer? V, 163 

45. Where are aphid eggs laid? ,167 

46. How does a tropical climate affect the production 
of the sexual generation in aphids ? V, 1 67-168 

47. Why are male and female aphids necessary in 
October? V, 166-168 

48. What means of defense have aphids against their 
many parasites? V, 173-174 

49. Which sex produces music in cicadas? How is 
this done? V, 199, 207-212 

[180] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

50. What is the chief difference between the male and 
female cicadas? V, 199 

51. How many eggs does a female cicada deposit? 

V, 214 

52. What is an ovipositor? How does it work? V, 
199-200, 212-214 

53. Where are the eggs of an apple tree tent moth 
found? V, 262-263 

54. When do tent moth eggs hatch ? V, 262 

55. How does the tent moth larva get out of its egg? 
V, 264 

56. How is the tent made by the tent moth larvae? 
V, 269-270 

57. How do the caterpillars of tent moths molt? V, 
274 

58. What happens to deserted insect tents? V, 279- 
280 

59. Where can we find cocoons of the tent caterpil 
lar? V, 282 

60. How are tent moth cocoons made ? V, 282-283 

61. How does a caterpillar get its silk? V, 287-289 

62. How are the tent moth eggs protected? V, 311- 
312 

63. What condition is necessary to complete the de 
velopment of the tent moth eggs? V, 312-313 

64. What is a "wiggler ?" How do they get into rain 
barrels? V, 329-331 

5. IN FISH: 

i. What do baby fish look like? VIII, 134-136 
[181] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. How do <-he sex glands in fishes behave? VIII, 
102 

3. Discuss the number of eggs certain fishes produce. 
VIII, 103 

4. What is meant by "viviparous" fishes? VIII, 
103-104 

5. In what ways do oviparous fishes differ from vivi 
parous fishes? VIII, 104 

6. How long does it take to hatch fish eggs? VIII, 
105 

7. What advantages have baby fishes, born alive, 
over baby fishes which come from eggs dropped 
in water? VIII, 107 

8. How are male salmon recognized at the spawning 
season? VIII, 102 

9. How does the sunfish protect its eggs ? VIII, 108 

10. What fish deposits its eggs in seashells? VIII, 

I 12 

1 1 . What male fish incubates eggs in a pouch on his 
body? VIII, i n-i 12 

12. What fish incubates its very large eggs in its 
mouth? How does the fish eat? VIII, 1 13 

13. How does the bowfin build its nest? VIII, 109- 
1 10 

14. What fish builds the largest nest? VIII, no 

15. Name the only vertebrate that can spin threads 
from body secretions? VIII, no 

1 6. Why is it said that the sticklebacks have carried 
nest building to its highest development among 
fishes? VIII, no-iii 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

17. What fishes breed all year round? VIII, 116 

1 8. What truth is there in stories that fishes eat their 
own young? Give examples. VIII, 114-115 

19. What one American fish leaves fresh water to 
spawn in salt water? VIII, 119 

20. Who first found out where the eel spawns ? VIII, 
119 

21. Where do American eels spawn? Where do 
European eels spawn? VIII, 119 

22. How often does an eel spawn in its life time? 
VIII, 120 

23. Whathappens to eels kept in aquaria? VIII, 12 1 

24. What are the spawning habits of the salmon? 
VIII, 123 

25. What deep-sea fishes go inshore to spawn? 
Why? VIII, 125 

6. IN AMPHIBIANS : 

1. Why must amphibians lay their eggs in water? 
VIII, 174 

2. How did the midwife toad get its name? What 
part does the male take in hatching the eggs? 
VIII, 202 

3. What salamander species is remarkable because 
its larvae can reproduce? VIII, 187 

4. What frogs incubate their eggs in pockets on their 
backs? How are the young developed? VIII, 
198-199 

5. Since a toad may lay as many as 12,000 eggs, 
what tends to keep its numbers down? VIII, 197- 
198 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. How old are toads before they return to the 
water to breed? VIII, 198 

IN REPTILES : 

1. Describe the eggs of reptiles. VIII, 294 

2. Describe the eggs of dinosaurs. VIII, 218-219 

3. How do crocodiles find each other in the water 
during mating season? VIII, 300-301 

4. How do crocodiles reproduce? VIII, 302 

5. How do alligators reproduce ? VIII, 303 

6. Why do leatherback turtles return to land? 

VIII, 310-311 

7. How do leatherback turtles reproduce? VIII, 

3*0*3" 

8. How do box turtles reproduce? VIII, 316-317 

9. During what stage of a box turtle's life is it in 
danger of its life ? VIII, 318 

IN BIRDS : 

1 . Describe the famous eggs of Aepyornis of Mada 
gascar. IX, 85 

2. How do male birds act during the mating season? 

IX, 7 1-72 

3. What birds are polygamous ? IX, 73 

4. What is the purpose of the excess food in the 
hen's egg? VII, 23 

5. What is the length of a chick's period of gesta 
tion? VII, 23-24 

6. What is the comparative size of the nuclei of the 
chick and human embryo ? VII, 23 

[184] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. What kind of hens lay blue eggs ? IX, 82 

8. What evidence is there that internal secretions 
( endocrines ) influence color and pattern in birds ? 

IX, 35 

9. What is meant by the "breeding territory" of a 
bird? Why is it defended against invaders? IX, 
68-70 

10. How does the male ruffed grouse produce its 
drumming sounds ? IX, 112-1 13 

n. When do birds sing best? IX, 109-110 

12. Do parent birds mate for life? Give examples. 
IX, 72 

13. Why are male birds so brilliantly colored? IX, 

36 

14. What shapes may birds' eggs have? IX, 79 

15. Name some pigments which give color to the eggs 
of birds. IX, 84 

1 6. What color are birds' eggs which are placed in 
holes or under cover? IX, 81-82 

17. How long do birds' eggs require for incubation? 
IX, 90 

1 8. What birds carry on no incubation? How, then, 
is it possible to hatch the eggs? IX, 89-90 

19. How is the sex of birds determined by the 
chromosomes? VII, 28 

20. What kinds of birds excavate holes in trees for 
their nests? IX, 77 

21. How do baby grebes which are hatched on a nest 
over water take care of themselves after birth? 
IX, 93-94 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

22. What birds have forgotten how to build nests or 
take care of their young? How do their young 
ones get along? IX, 159 

23. What common bird builds no nest of its own, nor 
takes care of its eggs ? IX, 90 

24. What bird seals its mate in the cavity of a tree 
with mud? VI, 256 

25. Describe some different types of nests. IX, 73-78 

26. What birds have the simplest kinds of nests ? IX, 
73 

27. What bird builds up its nest when the water level 
threatens to flood it? IX, 74 

28. Of what material are humming bird's nests 
made? IX, 74-75 

29. What bird builds a nest that often breaks the 
tree? Why does this happen? IX, 75 

30. What is the story behind a weaver bird's nest? 
IX, 78 

IN MAMMALS : 

1. What are the breeding habits of the duckbill? 
IX, 279 

2. What striking facts are known about the rate at 
which mice reproduce? IX, 336-338 

3. How much does a baby hippo weigh at birth? 
VI, 147 

4. Can you explain the presence of great calluses on 
the knees of a wart-hog embryo? 'VI, 158 

5. Why are kangaroo babies so helpless? IX, 280- 
281 

[186] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. Why are kangaroo babies often found in the 
pouch of their mother? VI, 219 

7. How do newborn marsupials reach the mother's 
pouch? IX, 280-282 

8. Why is it often necessary to remove the horns of 
a male deer? VI, 183-185 

9. What is the size of the human egg? VII, 23 

10. Why is it necessary for the hen's egg to be one 
million times larger than man's? VII, 23 

n. How large is the human embryo? VII, 23 

12. How did Cro-Magnon man try to increase the 
animal population? VII, 203 

13. Are egg and sperm cells alike? Explain. VII, 24 

14. What is the "seat of inheritance?" VII, 26 

15. What does the microscope reveal about chromo 
somes? VII, 27 

1 6. How do the chromosomes divide in the forma 
tion of sperm and egg cells? VII, 27 

1 7. What steps do chromosomes go through in repro 
duction? VII, 26 

1 8. What happens to the chromosomes as the cell 
divides? VII, 26-27 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A . Things To Do : 

1. Make spore-prints of common gilled mushrooms. 
XI, 92 

2. In the spring, observe the flowers of mountain 
laurel. Touch the stamens lightly and observe 
their reaction. XI, 127 

3. Make collection of fruits and seeds spread by 
animals, wind, water and by mechanical devices 
of the fruit itself. Exhibit them, labelled con 
spicuously in your classroom. XI, 55-59 

4. Germinate various kinds of seeds. Observe the 
way the seed opens and how the young leaves 
seek the light. Inspect the cotyledons. XI, 59-62 

5. Cut a potato so that each section has some buds 
or u eyes" on it. Plant them two inches deep in 
earth and keep them well watered. How is it pos 
sible for these portions to grow new potato 
plants? XI, 66-67 

6. Obtain some onions, tulips, narcissus, lilies, cro 
cuses and gladioluses. Cut them from top to 
bottom and observe the arrangement of food- 
bearing leaves around a protected stem. XI, 68 

7. Propagate a pussy-willow branch in water, then 
in soil. Let it grow up in your back yard and you 
will have pussy-willow branches* for home deco 
ration each spring. XI, 68-69 

[188] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

8. Practice propagating plants by budding. Use a 
peach bud. Try to implant peach buds on other 
trees, such as the sweet cherry tree, or plum tree. 
XI, 69-70 

9. Practice propagating fruit plants by grafting. 
Use one plant on which to graft several varieties 
of twigs from fruit trees. XI, 69-71 

10. Make a pure culture of daphnia, and study their 
life history. X, 118-120 

1 1. Isolate cyclops from some pond water and work 
out its life history yourself . X, 127-128 

12. Make a collection of differently-sized crab molts 
from the seashore, or from a crab kept in a salt 
water aquarium. X, 105-106 

13. Catch some grasshoppers among some weeds. In 
clude some young ones. Feed them grasses and 
weeds thrown into their cage. Note how often 
they molt. Watch the female digging into the 
earth at the bottom of the cage. Why does she 
do this? V, 1-25 

14. Exhibit a series of grasshopper nymphs from 
early stages to adult forms. V, 13 

15. In the late summer look for katydid eggs on twigs 
of various shrubs and trees. Exhibit them in your 
classroom or museum. V, 10-11 

1 6. Find a few egg cases of the praying mantis. Keep 
them through the winter in a cool place. When 
they hatch in the jar, feed them tiny fruit-flies 
raised for that purpose. How long can you suc 
ceed in raising the mantes? V, 75-76 

17. Imprison some houseflies in a screened tank con 
taining some manure. Take notes on your ob- 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

servations of the life history of houseflies. V, 
3 2 4-3 2 5 

1 8. Collect larvae of mosquitoes from some stagnant 
water. Cover the tank with gauze and observe 
the steps in the life history of mosquitoes. V, 
335-33 6 > 340-341 

19. Catch some honeybees in a net. Kill them in 
fumes of carbon tetrachloride in a bottle. Brush 
the pollen stuck to the bee into a drop of water 
on a slide and examine under a microscope. Draw 
the variety of pollens you see. What does this 
teach you? XI, 47. 

20. Dig into rotted wood in the woods near your 
home. See if you can find the larvae of termites 
as well as the pupae and adults. The queen term 
ite, if found, will give you some interesting ob 
servations. V, 128 

21. Study the activities and kinds of individuals in 
an ant nest in your vicinity. Try to make an arti 
ficial ant nest, making sure you get a queen ant. 
V, 128 

22. Make an observation beehive for your school. 
The local dealer can supply you with a queen bee, 
drones and workers. V, 128 

23. Construct aquaria for fresh water or pond fishes. 
Observe their mating behavior and how they care 
for their young. VIII, 108-112, 115 

24. In early May look in shallow ponds for nests of 
sunfishes being guarded by the parent fish. Ob 
serve their mating behavior. The nests are 
merely a gravel bed swept clean by the fish. How 
does the male act towards an Intruder? VIII, 
108-109 

[190] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

25. Using your camera, photograph a nest with eggs 
or young birds in it. IX, 68-102 

26. Try getting rid of dandelions or other weeds 
from your lawn. Consult bulletins from the 
United States Department of Agriculture. XI, 
65-66 

27. To find out whether spontaneous generation of 
bacteria is possible, repeat Pasteur's experiment. 
Put some food in test tubes. Boil them an hour 
or two. Place sterile cotton plugs in some tubes, 
leaving the others exposed. In which tubes do 
the foods spoil after a few days? Why? XI, 90 

. Class Discussions: 

1. The fertility of mollusks, such as the oyster. Of 
what value is this to the oyster species? X, 264- 
266 

2. The relationship between insects and plants as 
illustrated by the yucca. XI, 50-5 1 

3. The development of the embryo shows man's re 
lationship to other animals. VII, 23-36 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. Report on the first month of the tent caterpillar's 
life. You can secure some egg masses from fruit 
trees. Keep them in a screened cage. Feed them 
with wild black cherry leaves until the caterpillars 
spin cocoons. Write up your daily notes in the 
club magazine. V, 262-313 

2. The life history of a housefly. V, 342-345 

3. The travels of a Pacific Coast salmon. VIII, 121- 
124 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. The Odyssey of the Eel. VIII, 118-121 

5. The home life of young birds. IX, 91-102 

6. The kinds of homes made by birds and where 
they are built. IX, 68-78 

7. How birds take care of their eggs. IX, 79-90 

8. How egg-laying mammals feed their young. IX, 
269 

9. Some interesting things about egg-laying mam 
mals. IX, 269-279 

10. How beavers make their home. VI, 118-121 

11. Learn and tell your club and classmates the 
Seneca Myth of Creation. IV, 222-225 

12. The bearers of heredity. VII, 26-28 

D. Excursions: 

1. Make a trip to some fruit farm and investigate 
the methods employed to insure pollination. XI, 

52-53 

2. Look for frogs' eggs in swamps and marshes 
from the middle to the end of March. Bring 
them home to your tank. Observe their develop 
ment into tadpoles. VIII, 195-198 

3. Around the middle of March visit a marsh or 
swamp to hear the symphony of the frogs and 
toads. What is the meaning of all that music? 
VIII, 193-198 

E. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Complete the following sentences with a word or phrase 
so that the sentence is true. 

[192] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1. A method of reproducing plants without seeds is 
called XI, 63 

2. That part of a flower which becomes the fruit is 

XI, 42 

3. The stage in an insect's life during which it is able to 
reproduce is called the V, 235 

4. Unfertilized eggs may develop to the adult stage by 
the process of V, 162 

5. An American fish which leaves fresh water to spawn 
in salt water is the VIII, 1 19 

6. Bacteria reproduce by XI, 38 

7. The dust which comes out of ripe puffballs consists 
of XI, 40 

8. It is believed that flowers have odors to 

XI, 47 

9. In nature, seeds ar-e scattered by 

XI, 55 



10. A bird which never builds a nest nor takes care of its 
young is the IX, 159 

ANSWERS 

1. vegetative propaga- 6. cell division 
tion 

2. the pistil 7- s P ores 

-*. adult 8. attract insects 

4. parthenogenesis 9- wind, by water, by ani 

mals and by mechani 
cal contrivances 

5. eel 10. cuckoo 

[193] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

TEST II 

The letters of one word in each of the sentences below 
are jumbled. If you arrange these letters properly you will 
find that they spell a word which makes the sentence true. 

1. A bird which seals its mate in the cavity of a tree 
with mud is the ROBINLHL. VI, 256 

2. A bird whose nest often breaks a tree with its weight 
istheYESROP. IX, 75 

3. Bacteria reproduce their own kind by the process of 
NOISIVILLCED. XI, 38 

4. Honey-bees are raised near orchards in order to bring 
about PONIONTAILL. XI, 52 

5 . A tree which endangers a passerby when it scatters its 
seeds is the NOXDABS. XI, 56 

6. An insect species which has three types of individuals 
inonenestistheTEETRIM. V, 131 

7. An instrument for egg laying possessed by some in 
sects is the SPROOTOIVL V, 199 

8. An extinct bird which laid eggs holding over two gal 
lons of fluid was the RAINSPEYO. IX, 85 

9. The NICEPAL has young which are born naked. 
IX, 20 

10. A fish which may produce more than 3,500,000 eggs 
in one season is the BUTHAIL. VIII, 103 

ANSWERS 

1. hornbill 6. termite 

2. osprey 7. ovipositor 

3. cell division 8. Aepyornis 

4. pollination 9. pelican 

5. sandbox 10. halibut 



UNIT XI 
GOOD HEALTH FOR LIVING THINGS 



1. Who was Louis Pasteur? Why did he become 
famous? XI, 90 

2. Are all bacteria harmful? Explain. XI, 28 

3. What kind of fungi may cause diseases in man, 
animals and plants? XI, 89-90 

4. How can a fly's bite cause a serious infection ? V, 
323 

5. Why is the housefly so dangerous? V, 347 

6. What three types of disease germs may be car 
ried by the housefly? V, 347 

7. Why is yellow fever a tropical disease ? V, 340 

8. Why has yellow fever occasionally broken out in 
northern cities? V, 340 

9. What have we learned about the diseases of 
prehistoric man? What kind of evidence teaches 
us about their diseases? VII, 196 

10. How did primitive people treat diseased men and 
women? VII, 178 

11. How did early man explain diseases, accidents 
and poor hunting? VII, 177-178 

[195] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. What part did alcohol play in curing sickness 
among primitive people? VII, 178-179 

13. When did liquor first become a serious problem? 
Whom did it affect most? VII, 179 

14. Did early man enjoy perfect health? How do 
you know? VII, 176 

15. What state of health did the Indians enjoy? IV, 
27 

1 6. What caused the change in the Indian popula 
tion? IV, 6 

1 7. What is our most effective method of fly control ? 
V,343 

1 8. What type of tuberculosis is treated by sun ther 
apy? 11,235 

19. What conclusions have been reached concerning 
the treatment of rickets? II, 239-240 

20. What diseases are treated with sunlight? II, 235 

21. Why did the American Indian use a sweat bath? 
IV, 26-27 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1 . To find out how flies spread bacteria which may 
be harmful, capture a housefly and let it walk 
across sterile nutrient agar in a petri-dish. Incu 
bate the bacteria for 24 hours and report the re 
sults to your class. Use a control dish. V, 347 

2. To find out where bacteria may be found, expose 
sterile petri-dishes containing nutrient agar to air, 
soap, a hair, a powder puff, a coin, a finger tip, 
dust, handkerchief, some water, milk, earth, etc. 
Close the dishes and incubate them. After a few 
days what has happened? XI, 89 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. The relation between fungi and diseases of man, 
animals and plants. XI, 89-91 

2. Indians were exceptionally healthy. IV, 27-28 

3. The part snails play in spreading the flukes which 
cause disease in man. X, 3 1 6-320 

4. The relationship of ultra-violet light to disease. 
II, 233-241 

C. Self -Test Exercises : 

TEST I 

Underline the word or phrase that makes each of the fol 
lowing sentences true statements. 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1. All bacteria are (a) harmful (b) harmless (c) 
not harmful. XI, 27, 28 

2. Yellow fever is a tropical disease because (a) it is 
spread by tropical insects (b) it is due to the heat of the 
tropics (c) it is caused by breathing the hot, heavy air of 
the tropical swamps. V, 339-340 

3. House-flies can carry (a) typhoid fever (b) ty 
phoid bacteria (c) malaria parasites. V, 347 

4. Louis Pasteur became famous because he (a) dis 
covered rabies (b) invented pasteurized milk (c) 
showed that bacteria cause disease. XI, 90 

5 . The best method of controlling house-flies is to ( a ) 
swat every fly (b) keep food covered (c) destroy their 
breeding places. ,343 

6. A disease which is cured by sunlight is (a) scurvy 
(b) xeropthalmia (c) rickets. II, 235 

7. American Indians treated diseases by (a) injec 
tions (b) sweat baths (c) dieting. IV, 27 

8. Prehistoric man suffered from such diseases as (a) 
obesity (b) pyorrhea (c) melancholia. VII, 196 

9. Primitive people treat diseases by (a) scientific 
methods (b) beating drums (c) prescribing drugs. VII, 

178 

10. Hard liquor was invented by (a) prehistoric men 
(b) American Indians (c) Arabs. VII, 179 

ANSWERS 

i c 6 c 

2 a 7 b 

3 b 8 b 

4 c 9 b 

5 c 10 c 
[198] 



UNIT XII 
CHANGING WEATHER 



A. How The Weather Changes: 

1 . What is the temperature of air at different levels ? 
11,44 

2. When did our present day climate originate? 
VII, 68;X, 81 

3. What was the original climate at the poles ? VII, 
68 

4. What was the weather during the Ice Age ? VII, 
59-61 

5. What evidence is there that the Proterozoic era 
w r as cool? X, 45-46 

6. What is the relationship of dust to rain? II, 103 

7. What are the effects of sun variations on weather 
factors? II, 156 

8. How do sun-spots affect the sun's radiant energy ? 
II, 139-141 

9. How do sun-spots affect atmospheric tempera 
ture? II, 144-145 

10. How does the sun affect atmospheric pressure? 
II, 138 

[199] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

11. What is the relationship of solar radiation to at 
mospheric pressure? II, 152 

12. How is upper atmospheric pressure measured? 
II, 43-45 

13. What conclusions concerning weather factors are 
reached from studies of the relation of solar vari 
ations and weather? 11,157-158 

14. Trace the path of a West Indies hurricane. II, 
106 

15. Describe the appearance of a tornado. II, 113 

1 6. What prevents the escape of the earth's radiant 
heat? II, iio-in 

17. What kinds of clouds are there? II, 104-105 

B. Predicting The Weather: 

1. What basis is there for believing that the sun is 
the answer to meteorological problems? II, 10 

2. What would be the effect of removing ozone 
from the upper atmosphere? II, 314 

3. What effect has the sun's variations on baromet 
ric readings? II, 161 

4. When was the effect of solar radiation on tem 
perature first discovered? II, 16-17 

5. How is weather forecasted by the use of solar 
radiation variations? 11,67-68 

6. How closely do predictions of weather based on 
sun activity follow the actual weather? II, 155 

7. How did long range weather forecasts for New 
York compare with the actual weather? II, 159 



[200] 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1 . Visit your local weather bureau. 

2. For a period of several months plot the daily 
temperature. Write to Washington to obtain the 
solar variations for that period and compare with 
your record of temperature changes. II, 60-6 1 

"3. Watch newspaper articles for descriptions of 
tornadoes in the United States. Paste these arti 
cles into your scrap book. II, 113 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. Europe has always had a temperate climate. VII, 
65-70 

2. Weather can be forecasted on the basis of solar 
variability. 11,151-160 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. The relation of sun-spot activity to weather 
changes. II, 60-6 1 

2. The accuracy of weather predictions based on 
solar radiation variations. II, 67-71 

3. Forecasting weather on the basis of solar varia 
bility. II, 151-160 

[201] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

D. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Below are 10 statements. Some are true ; some are false. 
On your paper re-write each false statement in such a way 
that it becomes true. In doing this, you may change or leave 
out any of the italicized words but you may not change or 
leave out any others. 

1. The original climate of the North Pole was AL 
WAYS COLD. VII, 68 

2. The climate we enjoy today began on this earth dur 
ing the NEW S TONE AGE. VII, 68 

3. Another glacial period is NO LONGER POS 
SIBLE. VII, 57 

4. Moisture in the air condenses around ELECTRI- 
C ALP ARTICLES. II, 103 

5. The amount of radiation from the sun is CON 
STANT. II, 138 

6. The earth retains its heat due to GRAVITY. II, 
1 10. 

7. Extreme ultra-violet rays from the sun would burn 
our eyes and skin, were it not for the presence of NITRO 
GEN in the atmosphere. II, 314 

8. Some plants CAN GROW in a temperature below 
32 F. II, 230 

9. Of fifty-one long range weather forecasts, ONLY 
TWO were correct. II, 159 

10. The weather during the Ice Age was characterized 
by MILD TEMPERATURES. VII, 60 

[202] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

ANSWERS 

1. once warm 6. earth's atmosphere 

2. New Stone Age 7. ozone 

3. possible if the mean 8. cannot 
temperature drops 9 

F. 

4. dust particles 9. thirty-one 

5. variable 10. severe storms 



[203] 



UNIT XIII 
SEEKING SHELTER 



1 . Why did Eskimos remain in the North ? IV, 3 

2. Why were Indians constantly migrating? IV, 5 

3. What did Indians make from stone ? IV, 20 

4. What was the importance of bark to the Indian? 
IV, 22-23 

5. How does the Eskimo live in winter and in sum 
mer? IV, 40 

6. What was the Iroquois dwelling? IV, 73 

7. Why did the Cliff-dwellers build in cliffs ? I V, 1 1 o 

8. What is the estufa? IV, 111-112 

9. What is the only p re-white man pueblo still in 
use? IV, 113 

10. How did the Pueblos build houses ? IV, 113 

11. How did the Yuma build his lodge? IV, 175 

12. How is the Yurak house built? IV, 191-192 

13. How far back has man worn skins or clothing? 
VII, 173 

14. What kind of shelter did Chellean man invent? 
VII, 185 

15. When did man first use shelter? VII, 192 

[205] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 6. Who were the first regular cave dwellers? VII, 
192 

17. What part of the cave was occupied by a cave- 
dweller? VII, 192 

1 8. Who were the first to wear some kind of cover 
ing? VII, 192 

19. What caused Neanderthal man to wear skins and 
furs? VII, 192 

20. How was Neanderthal man able to withstand the 
severe winters in cold caves? VII, 195' 

21. Who were probably the first people to use shelt 
ers in warm weather? VII, 195 

22. What caused man to seek shelter in the mouths 
of caves? VII, 214 

23. What proofs are there of well-made shelters in 
the Aurignacian epoch? VII, 217-218 

24. What was the shelter of Neolithic man? VII, 
236 

25. What kind of shelters did Neanderthal man 
build? VII, 264-265 

26. When did architecture begin? VII, 264 

27. What is the probable development of the brick 
throughout the ages? VII, 282-283 

28. How were walls decorated in the Bronze Age? 
VII, 284-285 

29. What was the Sumerian house? VII, 103 

30. What improvement in brick had the Aryans 
learned? VII, 308 

31. Why was Cretan architecture of a wilder range 
than other civilizations ? VII, 310 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

32. What kind of architecture developed in Crete? 
VII, 3 10 

33. What preceded Mayan stone architecture? VII, 
330 

34. What was the purpose of Mayan architecture? 
VII, 33 1 

35. What kind of stone was easily worked by the 
Mayans? VII, 331 

36. Why were Mayan rooms small? VII, 331-332 

37. How did the Toltecs build houses? VII, 337 

38. What was the quality of Inca architecture ? VII, 
343-344 

39. What remarkable construction was accomplished 
bythelncas? VII, 344 

40. How was sod used by pioneers? XI, 230 

41. What is a sod house ? XI, 230 



[207] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do : 

1. From some twigs and grass construct a Paiute 
lodge. IV, 173, Plate 59 

2. In winter (wearing proper clothing) build an 
igloo or snow house. II, 40-42 

3. Build models of Chippewa houses from mats and 
bark. IV, 72 

4. Build a model Passamaquoddy birch bark house 
using straight twigs for the frame and bark for 
the covering. IV, 73 

5. Build a model of an Iroquois long-house. IV, 88 

6. Using an egg or an orange crate box, build a 
Karok plank house. IV, 188 

7. Make a model of an Indian tipi, IV, 158 

8. Using an old skin or a cloth and beads, make a 
duplicate of Chief Powhatan's mantle. IV, 252 

B. Self-Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Choose the correct answer. 

I. Neanderthal Man was able to withstand severe win 
ters because: (a) he wore warm clothing (b) caves were 
warm (c) only those who could withstand severe win 
ters remained alive. VII, 196 

[208] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. Eskimos remained in the North because (a) food 
was plentiful (b) they were kept from going South by 
other tribes (c) they found it healthy. IV, 3 

3. Pioneers built sod houses because (a) the material 
was ready at hand (b) it was an excellent weather pro 
tection (c) no trees were available. XI, 230 

4. Cave-dwellers occupied (a) the rear of a cave (b) 
the edge (c) the middle. VII, 192 

5. Man sought shelter in caves to protect himself 
against (a) cold (b) animals (c) rain. VII, 214 

6. The first people to use shelters in warm weather were 
the (a) Piltdown (b) Chellean (c) Cro-Magnon. 
VII, 217 

7. Early houses were heated by (a) fireplaces (b) 
steam from hollow logs heated by hot stoves (c) fires. 
VII, 173 

8. Mayan rooms were small (a) in order to keep out 
spirits (b) to keep out the tropical heat (c) because 
walls were extremely thick. VII, 331-332 

9. Mayans first built their buildings of (a) stone (b) 
wood (c) thatch. VII, 330 

10. Pueblos built their cliffs for (a) the view (b) it 
was easier to build (c) protection against enemies. IV, 
no. 

ANSWERS 

i c 6 c 

2 b 7 c 

3 a 8 c 

4 b 9 b 

5 a 10 c 
[209] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

TEST II 

1 . Write a six-letter word which names the Indians who 
lived in cliffs. IV, 1 1 2 

2. Give a seven-letter word which describes what In 
dians frequently had to do in order to have food. IV, 5 

3. Give a six-letter word which describes the house 
where Southwestern Indian men met. IV, 111-112 

4. Give a four-letter and a five-letter word which de 
scribe an Eskimo's winter house. IV, 40 

5. Give a four-letter word for a material from which 
Indians made clothing and houses. IV, 22-23 

6. Give a seven-letter word which names a people who 
produced fine architecture before all others. VII, 310 

7. Give a seven-letter word which describes the ma 
terials with which Aryans improved bricks. VII, 308 

8. Give a four-letter word which describes the cloth 
ing of early man. VII, 192 

9. Give a five-letter word which describes the method of 
heating the Indians' bathing house. IV, 26 

10. Give a four-letter word which describes what Eski 
mos used for cooking, heating and lighting their homes. IV, 
43-44 

ANSWERS 

1. pueblo 6. Cretans 

2. migrate 7. glazing 

3. estufa 8. furs or skin 

4. snow house 9. steam 

5. bark 10. lamp 



[210] 



UNIT XIV 
ENERGY 



1. What is the effect of an increased number of sun- 
spots on solar radiation? II, 140 

2. What is the comparison of ultra-violet radiation 
to solar radiations when sun-spots increase? II, 
146 

3. How does gravity make meteors fall to the 
earth? Ill, 2 

4. When do meteors become visible? Ill, 2 

5 . What was the calculated speed of some meteors ? 
Ill, 27 

6. What causes variations in the speed of a meteor ? 
HI, 27 

7. How great is the speed of a meteor falling in the 
opposite direction to the earth's rotation? Ill, 
27-28 

8. Why do meteors lose their initial speed and fall 
in the atmosphere at the speed of any falling 
body? Ill, 28 

9. How do we know that meteors strike the earth 
at rather slow speeds? Ill, 29-30 

io. What effects of meteoric flight in air are found 
on a meteor's surfaces? Ill, 50 

[211] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

1 1 . How does friction cause depressions on a meteor 
ite's surface ? Ill, 57 

12. What improvements in tools took place in the 
ChelleanAge? VII, 186 

13. What is a fist axe? VII, 186-187 

14. What advantage did flint chips have over pebble 
flints? VII, 193 

15. What were the uses of the stone tools of Nean 
derthal man? VII, 193 

1 6. How did man first use clubs? VII, 194 

17. Why are we led to believe that ancient man used 
handles for his tools? VII, 194 

1 8. How did Cro-Magnon man use the burin or en 
graving tool? VII, 202 

19. When did the engraving tool first come into use ? 

VII, 202 

20. What improvement in stone tool-making took 
place in the Solutrean epoch? VII, 206-207 

21. What types of instruments were used in Solu 
trean times? VII, 207 

22. What type of instrument is found only in Solu 
trean times? VII, 207 

23. What importance may the sharp ripple flaked 
instruments have had in spreading Solutrean cul 
ture through Europe? VII, 208 

24. What kind of tool material is not Solutrean? 
VII, 208 

25. What is the ripple flaking of stone tools? VII, 
208 

26. What replaced ripple flaking of stone ? VII, 216 

[212] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

27. What Is the first evidence of the use of the bow 
and arrow? VII, 229 

28. How were tools mounted in Mesolithic times? 
VII, 235 

29. Why is it incorrect to say that the plow was an 
evolution of the hoe? VII, 259 

30. How were bronze tools hafted? VII, 270 

31. How was the composite bow made? VII, 323 

32. What was the composite bow? VII, 323 

33. What was the great aid to safety of railroad 
brakes? XII, 33 

34. What are the advantages and disadvantages of 
machines? XII, 149-150 

35. What kinds of mechanical energy do machines 
use? XII, 150-151 

36. How much mechanical energy is produced annu 
ally in the United States? XII, 150 

37. What are the energy sources of the annual me 
chanical energy output? XII, 150 

38. How are wheels of engines prevented from skid 
ding around sharp curves ? XII, 194 

39. How was loss of power in locomotives due to 
lack of friction eliminated? XII, 194-195 

40. How do large engines follow the curvature of 
the track? XII, 195 

41. How were early trains stopped? XII, 195 

42. How did inertia prevent the early popularity of 
airbrakes? XII, 196 

43. How is air pressure used to apply brakes? XII, 
196 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Take a large coffee can with a cover. Punch a 
hole in the cover. Mount a pinwheel above the 
hole. Put some water into the can and heat over 
a Bunsen burner or electric stove. When steam 
is formed the pinwheel will spin. Discuss the 
transformations of energy which took place. 

2. Lift weights of different sizes from the floor to a 
table. Calculate the amount of work done in each 
case. 

3. Estimate the amount of work you do when you 
walk up stairs and on an equivalent distance along 
level ground. Which forces do you work against ? 

4. Using cord and thread spools, make a block and 
tackle with various rope numbers. Lift a small 
weight and calculate the mechanical advantage. 

5. Using a spring balance, draw one-half pound 
weights over a smooth surface (glass), sand 
paper and plain wood. Compare the amount of 
force required to pull the weight over each kind 
of surf ace. What do you conclude ? 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. The force of gravity can be reduced. 

2. Energy can be destroyed. 

3. The world would be better without friction. 

[214] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

G. Pupil Reports: 

1. How gravity helps man. 

2. The places where friction occurs in an automo 
bile. 

3. How friction is reduced in machines. 

4. Sources of heat energy. 

5. Energy transformations in a steam locomotive. 

6. Energy transformations in the automobile. 

D. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 
EGHUBCZDFJK 

Change the letters in this code word, as follows : 

1 . Change E to G if meteors may move much faster than 
the speed of a falling body. If not, change to F. Ill, 27 

2. Change G to L if gravity has no effect on meteors. If 
it has, change to R. Ill, 28 

3. Change H to A if the friction of the air reduces me 
teoric speed. If not, change to O. Ill, 28 

4. Change U to W if locomotives do not skid on turns. 
If locomotive wheels do skid, change to V. XII, 195 

5. Change B to I if inertia prevented the immediate use 
of air brakes. If not, do not change. XII, 196 

6. Change C to E if early trains were stopped without 
brake friction. If not, change to T. XII, 195 

7. Change Z to A if the annual mechanical horsepower 
output in the United States is 92 million horsepower. If not, 
change to T. XII, 150 

8. Change D to E if two-thirds of the mechanical energy 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

in the United States comes from water power. If not, 
change to T. XII, 150 

9. Change F to I if friction causes meteors to become 
visible. If not, do not change. Ill, 2. 

10. If machines have no disadvantages to man, change 
J to L. If machines do have disadvantages, change to O. 
XII, 149-150 

11. If all meteors fall at the same speed, do not change. 
If they do not, change K to N. Ill, 27-28 

NOTE : If all the changes listed above are properly made, 
a word will be formed, which represents the theory by which 
the sun holds planets in their places. 

ANSWER 
Gravitation 

TEST II 

Rewrite correctly any of the following statements which 
are false. 

1. Meteors fall and hit the earth at a speed equal to 
gravity plus the initial speed. Ill, 28 

2. Friction causes depressions in meteorite surfaces. 

in, 57 

3. Water pressure is a great aid to railroad brakes. 
XII, 33 

4. Machines use mainly the mechanical energy of rotat 
ing wheels. XII, 150-151 

5. Early pebble-chipped stones were superior to flint 
chips. VII, 193 

6. Cro-Magnon Man used the burin engraving tool for 
practical purposes. VII, 202 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. Neanderthal Man used tools against friction and 
gravity to cut, scrape and chop. VII, 193 

8. Solutrean advanced culture spread through Europe 
because friction did not affect their tools. VII, 208 

9. Ancient man used handles on tools to increase their 
ability to overcome friction and gravity. VII, 194 

10. In a bow, friction and gravity play no part. VII, 229, 
3 2 3 

ANSWERS 

1. False Meteors are slowed down by friction until 
their speed is that produced by gravity. 

2. True 

3. False Air pressure is used to apply railroad brakes. 

4. True 

5. False Flints were sharper than pebble chips. 

6. False Cro-Magnon Man engraved for decorative 
purposes. 

7. True 

8. False Solutrean culture spread, due to sharper 
tools. 

9. True 

i o. False Friction at the bow and in the air retard the 
flight of an arrow. 



[217] 



UNIT XV 

MAN'S USE AND CONTROL OF HEAT 
ENERGY 



A. Heat Energy fro m Fu els : 

1. Where is light energy stored by plants? XI, 294 

2. Whatistakia? How is it used? VI, 157 

3. What is the relative heat efficiency of coal and 
oil? XII, 159 

4. How does coal give us heat? XI, 294 

5 . How much fuel is consumed in the United States ? 
II, 194 

6. What are the by-products of coke ? XII, 338 

7. What is a British thermal unit? XII, 159 

8. What is a calorie ? XI, 294 

9. What is afire tube boiler? XII, 157 

i o. What is a water tube boiler ? XII, 157 
n. What is dry steam? XII, 155-157 

12. How may heat energy be converted to mechani 
cal energy? XII, 155 

13. What was the purpose of Watt's condenser? 
XII, 1 60 

[219] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

14. What happens to steam at 700 F.? XII, 158 

15. How does steam pressure increase with tempera 
ture? XII, 155 

1 6. What fuels are used by internal combustion en 

gines? XII, 171 
17. What is the meaning of the flash point of oil? 

XII, I 7 5 
1 8, How is fuel ignited in a Diesel engine ? XII, 1 75 

B. Heat Operated Engines: 

i. What was the Newcomen steam engine? XII, 



2. What was the defect of the Newcomen engine? 
XII, 159 

3. Who made steam engines before James Watt? 
XII, 159 

4. What is the difference between the Watt and 
Newcomen engines? XII, 160 

5. How did Watt's engine work? XII, 160 

6. What is a horsepower? XII, 159 

7. Why are single cylinder engines the least effi 
cient? XII, 1 66 

8. What was the first steam power installation in 
New York City? XII, 183 

9. Who built the first rotary steam engine? XII, 
182 

10. Why is it important to maintain a high cylinder 

temperature? XII, 166 
n. What is a reciprocating steam engine ? XII, 161- 

162 

[220] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

12. What is the defect of the simple reciprocating 
engine? XII, 162 

13. How can the greatest amount of energy be ob 
tained from steam? XII, 166 

14. How is steam made to give us most of its me 
chanical energy? XII, 168 

15. Who invented the steam turbine? XII, 167-168 

1 6. Why does a turbine increase the efficiency of a 
steam engine? XII, 171 

17. How is pressure equalized in a Parson's turbine? 
XII, 170 

1 8. What is the reaction turbine ? XII, 1 69 

19. What is the defect of. the impulse turbine? XII, 
168 

20. What substance is taking the place of steam in 
high power steam installations? XII, 47-48 

21. How is mercury used in steam engines? XII, 
158-159 

22. How much electricity is manufactured by steam 
power? XII, 47 

23. What is the maximum efficiency of a steam en 
gine? XII, 158 

24. What conditions determine steam engine effi 
ciency? XII, 158 

25. Who calculated the maximum efficiency of a 
steam engine? XII, 157-158 

26. What is an internal combustion engine ? XII, 171 

27. What type of engine was the Brayton ? XII, 2 1 6 

28. What was the pioneer gas engine ? XII, 171 

[221] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

29* What Is a carburetor? XII, 174, 178 

30. How is fuel admitted to the cylinder of a gas en 
gine? XII, 171, 174 

31. How is pressure produced in a cylinder? XII, 
172 

'32. When was compression discovered? XII, 172 

33. How is the fuel in a gas engine ignited? XII, 
174-177 

34. How do exhaust gases leave a gas engine? XII, 
172, 174 

35. What is the greatest complication of internal 
combustion engines ? XII, 176 

36. Why must engines be cooled ? XII, 176 

37. How are internal combustion engines cooled? 
XII, 176 

38. What limits the efficiency of gas engines? XII, 
179-180 

39. What type of action is generally found in a gas 
engine? XII, 172 

40. What were the earliest commercial gas engines ? 
XII, 171 

41. Who invented the four-cycle gas engine? XII, 
215 

42. What is the order of events in a four-cycle gas 
engine? XII, 172 

43. Why are internal combustion engines more effi 
cient than steam engines? XII, 158 

44. What are the advantages and disadvantages of 
the steam and gas engines ? XII, 1 80 

45. What is a Diesel engine ? XII, 175 

[222] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

46. What is the cycle of operation of a two-cycle 
Diesel? XII, 176 

47. What is the cycle of operation of a four-cycle 
Diesel? XII, 175 

48. How was the first sun engine built? II, 214-215 

49. What is the efficiency of a sun engine? II, 212- 
213 

50. How can gases be used to absorb sun energy in 
order to drive engines? II, 207-208 

C. Refrigeration: 

1. What is latent heat? XII, 240 

2. What factors of gases are concerned in refriger 
ators? XII, 239-240 

3. How does ammonia dissolve in water? XII, 240 

4. How can expanding ammonia absorb heat from 
its surroundings ? XII, 241 

5. How is CO 2 used for refrigeration? XII, 243- 
244 

6. What types of refrigeration are adapted to home 
use? XII, 244 

7. How is cold produced by heat? XII, 239 

8. What are the parts of absorption refrigerators ? 
XII, 221 

9. How does the home absorption refrigerator 
(Electrolux) work? XII, 244-248 

10. How may the sun's heat preserve our food some 

time in the future? XII, 239 
n. How does the home compression refrigerator 

work? XII, 245-249 
[223] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. What are the best refrigerator temperatures for 
some common foods? XII, 242-243 

13. What common method other than heat is used 
for refrigeration? XII, 241-242 



[224] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a cross-section model of the early type of 
gas engine. Use scraps of tin and wood found in 
the scrap heap. XII, 172 

2. Construct a solar boiler from a test tube in the 
center of a tin funnel. Blacken test tube with 
candle soot. Fill test tube with water. Use posi 
tions shown on pages 195-198. II 

3. Make a simplified model of the steam boiler on 
page 156. XII 

4. Make a diagram of the cross-section of a one 
cylinder gas engine. Color the different parts. 
XII, I73-I7S 

5. Types and operation of steam engines. XII, 159 

6. A history of solar engines and solar heat devices. 
II, 19-22 

7. Examine the school's thermostat system. 

8. Visit a local gas-producing plant. 

9. Make a colored chart of an electric refrigerator. 
Label the important parts. XII, 249 

10. Make a colored chart of the operation of a gas 
" refrigerator. XII, 248 

11. Construct a solar cooker from glass tubing and 
sheet tin following the photograph and instruc 
tions on pages 216-222. II 

[225] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 



JS. Class Discussions : 

1. The gasoline engine is superior to the Diesel 
engine. XII, 171-180 

2. Watt did not invent the steam engine. XII, 159- 
162 

3. Parsons invented the steam turbine. XII, 166- 
171 

4. The relative advantages of Diesel and gasoline 
engines. XII, 171-180 

5. Solar engines and cookers are new developments. 
XII, 194-222 

C. Self-Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Match each item in Column A with the proper item in 
Column B. 



A 

a. sun energy 



B 



i. Oil XII, 159 

b. United States coal con- 2. unit of heat XII, 159 
sumption 

c. unit of heat 3. United States oil con 

sumption II, 194 

d. internal combustion en- 4. high power engine XII, 
gine 

e. boiler 



f . British thermal unit 

g. desert fuel 
h. Diesel 

i. half billion barrels 

j. most efficient fuel 



I55-I57 

5. calorie XI, 294 

6. compression ignition 
XII, 175 

7. oil fuels XII, 171 

8. stored in plants XI, 
294 

9. steam engine XII, 157 
i o. half billion tons II, 194 
n. takia VI, 157 

[226] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

ANSWERS 

a 8 f 2 

b 10 g ii 

c 5 h 6 

d 7 i 3 

e 9 j i 

TEST II 

By using all of the letters below you can form the names 
of five men who helped develop the steam engine. 

BAN 

VONOM 

SCAVE 

ETELW 

ARTAE 

SSNTL 

PNDWS 

References XII, 159, 167-168, 170, 175-176, 181- 
184, 215-216. 

ANSWERS 
Newcomen 
deLaval 
Stevens 
Parsons 
Watt 



[227] 



UNIT XVI 

MAN'S USE AND CONTROL OF LIGHT 
ENERGY 



A. The Structure And Function of The Eye: 

1. How can a caterpillar see ? How many eyes has 
it? ,285 

2. What type of eyes has the cephalopods ? X, 336 

3. Where are a scallop's eyes? X T 257-258 

4. How well can snails see? X, 309-310 

5. What kind of eye has a lobster? X, 1 10 

6. What fish has the simplest kind of eye? What 
theory has been advanced to account for further 
eye development ? VIII, 71-72 

7. How is the fish's eye constructed? VIII, 66-73 

8. How well can fish with fully developed eyes see ? 
VIII, 72 

B. Ho<w Pictures Are Made: 

1. When was the effect of light on silver known? 
XII, 356 

2. Who proved that light tarnishes silver? XII, 

357 

[229] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. Who invented the first practical method of pho 
tography? XII, 357 

4. What is a Daguerreotype? XII, 358 

5. How were Daguerreotypes exposed and de 
veloped? XII, 358-359 

6. Who perfected sensitized paper photography? 
XII, 358-359 

7. Who invented the glass photographic plate? 
XII, 360 

8. Who was the first inventor of the dry photo 
graphic plate? XII, 136 

9. Who introduced dry plates? XII, 360 

10. What was the first popular amateur camera? 
XII, 364 

11. When was the roll film invented? XII, 363-364 

12. Why is it difficult to photograph shooting stars? 
111,6 

13. How were pictures printed before photography? 
XII, 353-356 

14. What materials have been used for engraving? 

xii, 353-356 

15. What is photoengraving? XII, 366-367 

16. What is a Ben Day screen? XII, 374 

17. What is rotogravure? XII, 370-371 

1 8. How is electricity used in printing pictures ? XII, 
367 

C. Helping The Eye to See: 

i. How is the speed of light measured? 11,303-305 
[230] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. What is the speed and wavelength of light? II, 
303 

3. What is interference? II, 310 

4. What is the reflection of light? II, 308 

5. How are objects seen in mirrors? 11,308 

6. What do scientists believe about light? II, 306- 
307 

7. How old is glass? XII, 322 

8. What is glass? XII, 323 

9. What are some important uses of glass? XII, 
3^ 

10. What is optical glass? XII, 324 

11. How do glass and atmospheric water transmit 
sun rays? II, 314 

12. What was the Eskimo window ? IV, 42 

13. How are astronomical mirrors silvered and 
cleaned? II, 95 

14. What is used to replace glass for astronomical 
mirrors? II, 96 

15. What are the disadvantages and advantages of 
stellite and glass for mirrors? II, 97 

1 6. When were lenses discovered? XII, 311 

1 7. How old is the eyeglass ? XII, 311 

1 8. How can the sun and stars be seen when they are 
below the horizon? II, 1 16 

19. What makes oars appear to bend in water? II, 
H5 

20. What is refraction? II, 308-309 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2 1 . How was the part of Einstein's theory concerning 
the bending of light shown to be possible ? II, 285 

22. What is chromatic aberration? II, 310 

23. What is a diffraction grating? II, 310-311 

24. How does refraction affect gems? Ill, 181 

25. What two factors of light are studied in cutting a 
stone? Ill, 306-307 

26. What spoils crystal transparency? Ill, 176 

27. What types of telescopes are in use? II, 310 

28. What metal before stellite was used as a reflector 
in telescopes? XII, 169 

D. What Is Color? 

1 . Why is the sky blue ? II, 98 

2. What is the efficiency of the eye for different 
colors? II, 101 

3. What colors are found in the sun? II, 74 

4. Why can white light be broken into colors? II, 
309 

5. Who first discovered the sun's spectrum? II, 74 

6. What colors are found in the sun? II, 255 

7. What causes the colors of the sunset? II, 115- 
116 

8. What causes the quantity of spectrum rays to in 
crease? II, 313 

9. Which colors are transmitted most efficiently by 
the atmosphere? 11,113-114 

10. What proof exists for the theory explaining the 
blue sky? II, 102 

[232] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

11. What happens to a star's spectrum as it cools? 
VII, 7 

12. What color changes do new stars pass through? 

VII, 7-8 

13. What is believed to be the cause of spectral shift ? 

n, 293 

14. What is found in the spectra of colored stars? 

ii, 285 

15. How are the different colors of "Neon" lights 
produced? XII, 50-51, 71 

1 6. What is the range of rays beyond X-rays ? II, 1 1 

17. What is the chemistry of color production in ani 
mals? X, 207-209 

1 8. Name some crustaceans which can change color 
at will. X, 205-207 

19. Why do crustaceans change colors? X, 205-207 

20. What gives fish their remarkable colors? VIII, 
34 

2 1 . How may male fish differ in color from females ? 

VIII, 101 

22. What is the origin of sepia used by artists? X, 
335 

23. How do plants react to different wave lengths of 
light? XI, 304-306 

24. What are collotype pictures? XII, 373 

25. How are colored pictures made? XII, 369 

26. What is dispersion in gems? Ill, 181 

27. What produces the color of amethyst? Ill, 226 

28. What is the color of benitoite? Ill, 252-253 

I>33] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

29. What is the color of spodumene? Ill, 250 

30. What are the colors of diamonds? Ill, 191 

31. What is the color of jade? 111,254 

32. What is the color of variscite? Ill, 259 

33. What is the color of chrysoberyl? Ill, 247 

34. What are the colors of pearls? Ill, 219 

35. What are the colors of feldspars? Ill, 262-264 

36. What is the color of zircon ? Ill, 253 

37. What are the colors of coral ? Ill, 270-27 1 

38. What kind of diamond produces the best colors ? 

m, i 9 i 

39. What forms the luster of pearl and mother-of- 
pearl? Ill, 218 

40. What is the color of sodalite ? Ill, 262 



[>34] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Construct a spectroscope using ordinary pipe, a 
convex lens and a glass prism. Follow the dia 
grams and explanations. II, 3 1 1 

2. Use printing-out paper instead of films in a plate 
camera. Wash the paper after developing and 
then fix in hypo. You will then have a Talbot 
paper picture. 

3. Take a picture of the class. Develop in a red 
cellophane-walled box so that your class can see 
the steps of developing and fixing. 

4. Make a Daguerreotype by electroplating a cop 
per sheet with silver. Polish the silver and expose 
to iodine fumes. When a rich yellow brown is 
obtained, expose for thirty minutes in a camera. 
XII, 357-358 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. Glass is perfectly transparent. II, 108-109 

2. George Eastman made modern photography pos 
sible. XII, 36 1-366 

3. Daguerre invented the first camera. XII, 356- 
361 

C. Pupil Reports: 

i. How light travels. II, 302-304 

[235] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. The measurement of the speed of light. II, 303- 
305 

3. How we see colored objects. II, 99-100 

4. The colors of the sun. 11,74,115-116,255 

5. Why the sky is blue. II, 98-99, 102 

6. The colors in the sun. II, 5 1-53 

7. Tourmaline, a stone of many colors. Ill, 238-243 

8. How colorless crystals show colors. Ill, 180-181 

9. How photographs are printed for publications. 
XII, 370-375 

10. The chemistry of photography. XII, 356-361 

11. The history of photography. XII, 353-375 

D. Experiments: 

1. Using a glass prism break up a beam of sunlight 
into its component colors as Newton did. II, 99 

2. Place a stick in a glass of water. Observe the ap 
pearance of the stick. Draw what you see and 
explain the observation. II, 115 

Ef. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

By rearranging the spelling of the scrambled words, the 
sentences will make true statements. 

1. Over one hundred years ago it was known that light 
turned VERLIS black. XII, 356 

2. The first practical method of photography was per 
fected by RUGAE D RE. XII, 357-358 

3. Sensitized paper photography was invented by 
BLATTO. XII, 358-359 

[236] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

4. Before photography, pictures were printed by RAG- 
INGVEN. XII, 353-35 6 

5. Today, photographs may be printed by a NAYBED 
screen. XII, 374 

6. The colors of the sun are called the sun's STRUM- 
PEC. II, 74-75 

7. The sun spectrum was found by TENNOW. II, 74 

8. Plant growth changes with changes in light LAW- 
NEVGHET. XI, 304-306 

9. The colors of the sunset are caused by the FER- 
RACTION. II, 115-116 

10. The quantity of the rays in the sun spectrum changes 
when the SNOSTUPS change. II, 140 

ANSWERS 

1. silver 6. spectrum 

2. Daguerre 7. Newton 

3. Talbot 8. wavelength 

4. engraving 9. refraction 

5. Ben Day 10. sun-spots 

TEST II 

In order to make the following sentences complete, fill in 
the missing words. 

1 . As a star cools, its . changes. VII, 7-8 

2. The different colors of Neon signs are obtained by 
using different XII, 5'5 I 

3. The Eskimo used ice for a window. 

IV, 42 

[2373 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 



4. The sepia used by artists comes from a _. 

X,335 

5. Colored photographs are made by using separate 
negatives for each XII, 369-373 

6. The color of transparent gems is heightened by 

III, 181 

7. Diamonds may be found in black, blue, clear and 
colors. Ill, 191 



8. The different colors of gems are formed by different 

in, i 79 



9. The speed of light is II, 303 

10. Images seen in mirrors seem to be the 

distance from a person. II, 308 

ANSWERS 

1. color 

2. gases 

3. freshwater 

4. squid 

5. primary color 

6. dispersion 

7. yellow 

8. chemicals 

9. approximately 186,000 miles per second 
10. twice 



[238] 



UNIT XVII 

MAN'S USE AND CONTROL OF 
ELECTRICAL ENERGY 



A. How Magnets Push And Pull: 

1. What is the shape of the magnetic field about the 
poles of a horseshoe magnet? XII, 20-21 

2. What does a piece of iron between the poles of a 
horseshoe magnet do to its magnetic field? XII, 
20-21 

3. Who discovered that a wire with current passing 
through it behaved like a magnet? XII, 1-2 

4. Which two men invented the electromagnet? 
XII, 3-4 

5. Which metals are attracted by magnets? XII, 9 

6. Who first used the idea of "lines of force" in 
connection with electromagnets? XII, 20 

7. How was Faraday's galvanometer constructed? 
XII, 9 

8. What is the relation of electricity to the poles of a 
magnet? XII, 15 

9. How is an ultra-sensitive galvanometer assem 
bled? II, 80 

[239] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

10. Why are opposing sets of magnets used in the 
bolometer galvanometer? II, 80 

11. What happens to compasses during outbursts on 
the sun's surface? II, 260-261 

12. What is a gyro-compass? XII, 190 

13. How does a gyro-compass maintain true north? 
XII, 190 

14. How does a gyro-compass control the steering of 
a ship? XII, 190-191 

15. How is the steel of a ship prevented from affect 
ing the compass ? XII, 190 

B. Electricity from Chemical Action : 

1. What are electrons and protons? VII, 5 

2. Who was one of the first men to use electric cur 
rent for chemical decomposition ? XII, 4 

3. How is the production and quality of electro 
plated copper increased? XII, 136 

4. How is electric current used in photoengraving? 
XII, 367 

c. What was the name of Volta's first battery? 
XII, 2 

6. What application of the chemical action of elec 
tric current was made in early electrical signal 
ing? XII, 79 

C. Electricity from Moving Magnets: 

1. Who was Michael Faraday? XII, 4-5 

2. What observation of Arago lecl Faraday to his 
famous experiment? XII, 13 

[240] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

3. What relationship of magnetism to electricity 
was discovered by Henry and Faraday? XII, 10 

4. What is a galvanometer? XII, 7-9 

5. How is electric current obtained from magnets? 
XII, 21 

6. What was Faraday's first dynamo? XII, 14 

7. When was the electromagnetic field first used for 
dynamos? XII, 19 

8. What was the earliest type of practical armature 
winding? XII, 20 

9. Who invented the commutator? XII, 1 8 

10. Why are electromagnet cores laminated? XII, 

19 
n. How did Edison change the dynamo? XII, 143 

12. What determines the number of field poles of an 
alternator? XII, 40 

13. How are the field magnets of an alternator ex 
cited? XII, 30 

14. Who was the first man to see that brushes and a 
commutator were unnecessary to procure electric 
current? XII, 31 

15. What are the advantages of the AC dynamo? 
VII, 37 

1 6. How is current produced in an alternator? XII, 
39-40 

17. What was the first large AC installation? XII, 

36 

1 8. When was the three-phase dynamo invented? 
XII, 29 

[241] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

19. How are modern high power dynamos wound? 
XII, 26 

20. What is the difference between the AC and DC 
dynamo? XII, 22 

2 1 . What is the difference between radio and electric 
alternators? XII, 41, 47 

22. Why is the alternator simpler than the DC dyna 
mo? XII, 40 

23. What is the importance of the steam turbine to 
the electrical industry? XII, 169-170 

24. Why is the alternator especially suited to the tur 
bine? XII, 29 

25. How much of Niagara Falls water is used to 
generate electric current? XII, 153 

26. How is continuous electric service from Niagara 
Falls insured ? XII, 154 

27. How much electricity is made by steam power? 
XII, 47 

D. Th e Flow of Electricity : 

1. Who was Michael Faraday? XII, 4-5 

2. What did Faraday prove? XII, 11-16 

3. Who was Joseph Henry? XII, 5-7 

4. What did Henry prove? XII, 11-16 

5. What is a galvanometer? XII, 7-9 

6. What relationship of magnetism to electricity 
was discovered by Henry and Faraday? XII, 10 

7. Who gave mathematical definition to electromag 
netic phenomena ? XII, 20 

[242] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

8. What is believed to be the condition inside a 
copper wire? XII, 56,58 

9. How does electric current travel through a wire ? 
XII, 56-57 

10. What is the speed of electrical changes ? XII, 57 

11. What were the objections to alternating current 
in the eighties ? XII, 35 

12. What is meant by single-phase, two-phase and 
three-phase current? XII, 41 

13. What retarded the use of AC? XII, 32, 35 

14. What AC frequencies are popular in the United 
States? XII, 40 

15. When was the first commercial electric distribut 
ing plant constructed? XII, 144 

1 6. How did Edison distribute his current? XII, 144 

17. What efficient means of transmission did Edison 
devise? XII, 143 

1 8. What is the reason for a three-wire system ? XII, 
143-144 

19. Who standardized the no-volt circuit? XII, 
143 

20. What is the most efficient method of changing 
AC to DC? XII, 68-70 

21. What is a transformer? XII, 37-38 

22. What principles of transformers were discovered 
by Joseph Henry? XII, 75-77 

23. How does a transformer work? XII, 38 

24. How can electricity be transferred from one cir 
cuit to another without any wire connections? 

XII, 12 

[243] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

25. What was the earliest example of a transformer? 

XII, 12 

26. How is voltage controlled by a transformer? 
XII, 39 

27. Why is it more efficient to transmit high voltage 
low current electricity instead of low voltage high 
current electricity? XII, 37 

28. What is the importance of the transformer in the 
extensive and inexpensive use of electric current? 
XII, 35 

29. When was the transformer first used to step 
down AC to the usable level? XII, 27 

30. When was the transformer first used for com 
mercial current distribution? XII, 27 

31. What was the first great installation of trans 
former-distributed power? XII, 36 

E. Electricity for Light And Heat: 

1. What kind of electric light was in use before 
Edison's incandescent lamp? XII, 28 

2. What kinds of lamps were used before electric 
lights? XII, 135 

3. What was the earliest practical use of the arc 
light? XII, 135 

4. What kind &f electric lighting was popular for 
street lights for many years? XII, 145, 147-148 

5. What is a flaming arc? XII, 148 

6. Why did Edison believe that the arc light was not 
practical for home use? XII, 138 

7. On whose experiments was Edison's lamp based ? 
XII, 35 

[244] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

8. What was Swan's process for making carbon 
lamp filaments ? XII, 136 

9. What was the defect of early incandescent 
lamps? XII, 135-136 

10. What materials did Edison try for a filament? 
XII, 138-141 

11. What were the advantages of Edison's lamp? 
XII, 140 

12. What was the life of an early Edison lamp? XII, 
142 

13. What replaced Edison's carbonized filaments? 
XII, 143 

14. What was the first practical metal filament? XII, 



15. What metal is now used as a filament for electric 
light lamps? XII, 143 

1 6. What are the properties of tungsten? XII, 145 

17. Who made tungsten lamps possible? XII, 145- 
146 

1 8. What are the difficulties of working tungsten? 

XII, 146-147 

19. Who invented the screw base socket? XII, 142 

20. Why do modern electric bulbs contain inert gas 
instead of a vacuum? XII, 147 

2 1 . Compare the efficiency of Edison's first lamp with 

the modern lamp ? XII, 142 

22. How many incandescent electric lights are in use 
in the United States? XII, 145 

23. How do gases behave in a vacuum ? XII, 49 

24. When will gases conduct electricity? XII, 49 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

25. What use is made of the effect of high voltage on 
gases? XII, 50 

26. What is electric welding? XII, 27 

27. Who discovered electric welding? XII, 25 

28. Who improved the transformer for lighting and 
power? XII, 35 

F. Doing The Work of The World with Electricity: 

1. What kind of electric motor did Henry build? 
XII, 72-73 

2. What is the purpose of supplementary pole pieces 
on electric motors? XII, 24 

3. What makes a direct current motor work? XII, 
43 

4. How is a DC motor wound ? XII, 43-44 

5. Who invented the repulsion motor? XII, 29 

6. What is the principal of the repulsion motor? 
XII, 29-30 

7. What is a synchronous motor? XII, 46 

8. What is a constant speed motor? XII, 45 

9. What is a squirrel cage in an electric motor? 
XII, 45 

10. What is the difference between an AC and DC 
motor? XII, 44-45 



[246] 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



A . Things To Do: 

1. Make a working model of Joseph Henry's first 
electric motor using copper wire, an iron bar, 
mercury and two wet cells. See photographs. 
XII, 72-75 

2. Using a horseshoe magnet covered with insulated 
copper wire, pivot a bar magnet and a bell from 
an old alarm clock in the manner shown in the 
diagram. Connect ends of wire to a battery and 
turn current on and off. XII, 73 

3. Using carbons from discarded flashlight cells 
build simple arc lamps. Connect lamps in series 
with an electric heater to obtain necessary cur 
rent. XII, 145 

4. Using a Florence flask and a small electric bulb 
and a wooden base, reconstruct a model of Edi 
son's first lamps. XII, 141 

5. Connect a coil which is wound around a compass 
to various weak sources of electricity. Note the 
movement of the needle in each case. XII, 9 

6. Construct a sensitive galvanometer from copper 
wire and twelve sewing needles following the dia 
gram and instructions. VII, 80-82 

7. Using an iron ring and copper wire make a trans 
former according to Michael Faraday's instruc 
tions. XII, 12 

[247] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

8. Take a dead dry cell apart. Heat the carbon rod 
until all wax is burned off. Clean and scrape a 
piece of zinc cut from the cup. Place both in a 
strong solution of salammoniac. Connect to a 
bell or small electric flashlight bulb. Discuss the 
energy changes. 

9. Wind two layers of cotton-covered copper wire 
around a nail. Connect to a dry cell. Place near 
some small pieces of steel or iron. 

i o. Wind a coil of wire around a thin cardboard tube. 
Place a large nail in the tube. Connect the ends 
of the coil to a battery and switch. Cause the nail 
to jump up and down by turning the current on 
and off. 

11. Make a model of a simple polyphase dynamo 
using the photograph shown. XII, 29 

1 2. Make a large model of a dynamo using two large 
bar magnets, a thick wire, two metal strips and 
two metal rings. Follow diagram. XII, 22 

13. Using an old toy electric motor reconstruct it into 
a Jumbo Edison dynamo using long iron electro 
magnets. Follow the photographs. XII, 144 

B. Class Discussions: 

1 . Faraday was the first to discover magnetic induc 
tion. XII, 5-16, 72-78 

2. The American telegraph is inferior to the Euro 
pean telegraph. XII, 78-89 

3. Morse invented the electric telegraph. XII, 80 
99 

4. The DC motor is superior to the AC motor. XII, 
42-46 

[248] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

5. AC is better than DC for magnets. XII, 37-40 

6. Arago discovered the electromagnet. XII, 9-10 

7. The sun affects the earth's magnetism. II, 259- 
261 

8. Inventions are the work of one man. Consult XII 

9. Edison invented the first electric light. XII, 135- 
146 

i o. Arc lights are the best form of illumination. XII, 



n. What are the merits of AC and DC? XII, 35-36 

12. Electric wires carry electric current the way a 
water pipe carries water. XII, 56-58 

13. Elihu Thomson's main contribution is the con 
struction of machines. XII, 25-34 

G. Pupil Reports: 

i . The major discoveries of Michael Faraday. XII, 
4-16 

2. Early types of telegraph systems. XII, 84-89 

3. The major discoveries of Joseph Henry. XII, 
72-78 

4. The work of Hans Christian Oersted. XII, 1-2 

5. The obstacles which w T ere overcome in setting up 
the Atlantic cable. XII, 87-98 

6. Visit a neon sign factory. 

7. How the different colors of neon signs are made. 
111,50-51,70 

8. The operation of transformers. XII, 38-39 

9. A comparison in the construction of AC and DC 
dynamos. XII, 40-50 

[249] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

Z). Experiments: 

1 . Suspend a bar magnet. Hold another bar magnet 
near the first. As the magnet spins keep changing 
the poles of the magnet in your hand. 

2. Pass the poles of a magnet through a sheet of 
paper and sprinkle iron filings out and around the 
poles. Tap the paper. Study the outline of the 
iron filings. XII, 20 

3. Connect a battery, sending key, condenser and 
galvanometer in the circuit shown on page 98, 
volume XII. Observe the effect on the galva 
nometer as you operate the sending key. XII, 98 

4. Place a compass needle under a thick wire 
through which a strong DC current is passing. 
Observe the action of the needle. Vary the 
strength of the current. Note the effect on the 
movement of the needle. XII, 7-8 

'5. Place a coil in which current is flowing near the 
pole of an active electromagnet. Observe what 
the coil does. Place the other side of the coil near 
the magnet. This movement is the action of a re 
pulsion motor. A diagram will be found on page 
29, XII. 

K. Build a horseshoe electromagnet similar to 
Joseph Henry's. See how many pounds your 
magnet can pick up. XII, 72 

7. Connect a coil of wire to a battery. Note the 
amount of iron filings which will be attracted. 
Place an iron core inside the coil and measure the 
effect again. XII, 10 

8. Using some square iron bars wind two coils of 
different sizes on the iron core. Apply low volt- 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

age AC to the small coil. Measure the effect on 
the above coll. Apply low voltage AC to the 
large coil. Note the effect on current obtained 
from the small coil. Consult diagram. XII, 38 

9. Connect a coil of wire to a flashlight bulb and 
place in a jar of water. Bring the pole of a power 
ful electromagnet, which is energized by AC, near 
the coil. You will see the effect of a transformer 
and of a repulsion motor. XII, 30 

10. Make a galvanometer following Michael Fara 
day's directions. XII, 9 

11. Produce induced current by connecting a coil to 
200 turns of fine wire around a compass. Move a 
magnet near the coil. 

JB. Excursions: 

1. Visit a storage battery repair shop. 

2. Visit an electric bulb factory. 

3. Examine your school's electric wiring system. 

4. Visit your locjal electric power house to see the 
dynamos. 

F. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 
Fill in the missing words to make a true statement. 

1 . When current flows through a wire, the wire behaves 
like a XII, 2 

2. Induction in long wires was discovered by 

XII, 74-76 

3. When a magnet moves near a coil of wire, electric 
current is . XII, 12-15 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. AC voltage can be stepped up or down by using 
XII, 37-38 



5. Most dynamos are driven by the energy obtained 
from XII, 150-151 

6. The inventor of electric arc welding was 

XII, 27-28 

7. The electric light bulb does not contain 

XII, 140 

8. The principal parts of an electric motor are the com 
mutator and brushes, the field magnet and 

XII, 43 

9. The earliest means of measuring the flow of electric 
current was XII, 9 

10. High power alternators have magnetic fields which 
XII, 41, Plate 14 

ANSWERS 

1. magnet 6. Thomson 

2. Henry 7. air 

3. induced 8. armature 

4. transformers 9. the galvanometer 

5. combustion. 10. rotate 

TEST II 

The letters in one or two words of each of the following 
sentences are jumbled. If you re-arrange the letters, you 
will find that it spells a word which makes the sentence true. 

1. The electromagnet was discovered by Davy and 
ROAGO. XII, i 

2. Magnets attract metals made of LETES AND 
NIOR. XII, 9 

[252] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

3. Opposing sets of magnets are used in very sensitive 
galvanometers to offset the earth's ASTIGMENM. II, 80 

4. The quality of electroplated copper is improved by 
using TAGLEINE. XII, 136 

5. Electricity was first obtained from magnets by 
DAFRAYA. XII, 4 -n 

6. Edison dynamos were called BOJUMS. XII, 144, 
Plate 42 

7. The number of field poles of a dynamo is determined 
by the DEPES. XII, 40 

8. The man who did away with brushes and commuta 
tors on dynamos was LESAT. XII, 31 

9. Modern electric power transmission is made possible 
by the use of TORNFARMERSS. XII, 38 

10. Electric lights in use before Edison were electric 
SRAC. XII, 28 

ANSWERS 

1. Arago 6. jumbos 

2. steel and iron 7. speed 

3. magnetism 8. Tesla 

4. gelatine 9. transformers 

5. Faraday 10. arcs 



[253] 



UNIT XVIII 
ENERGY FOR COMMUNICATION 



A. The Telegraph: 

1. What means of electrical signalling existed be 
fore the telegraph? XII, 79 

2. How did Henry make a telegraph in 1831? XII, 
73- 

3. Upon whose work is the English telegraph sys 
tem based? XII, 79-80 

4. What was the first commercial telegraph? XII, 
78-79 

5. What type of system was Morse's telegraph? 
XII, 80 

6. What is the difference between Morse's tele 
graph and the popular sounder and key? XII, 
81,85 

7. How did Morse's telegraph record messages? 
XII, 81,84-85 

8. What was the first long distance telegraph mes 
sage in the United States? XII, 81 

9. Between which cities was the first telegraph line 
operated in the United States? XII, 81 

[255] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

10. What was the principle of Morse's telegraph? 
XII, 8 1 

1 1 . Who invented the relay ? XII, 81-82 

1 2. What is the Wheatstone bridge method of teleg 
raphy? XII, 82 

13. What were Edison's contributions to telegraphy ? 
XII, 137-138 

14. How does the modern printing telegraph oper 
ate? XII, 89 

15. When did the telegraph sounder supersede 
Morse's recording telegraph? XII, 86 

1 6. How is the cost of wire reduced in telegraphy? 
XII, 86 

17. How does duplex telegraphy operate? XII, 87 

1 8. How is multiplex telegraphy maintained? XII, 
88 

19. What was the effect of the great length of the 
Atlantic cable? XII, 90 

20. How does electrostatic capacity accumulate in a 
cable? XII, 91 

21. How are earth currents induced in a cable ? XII, 
9i 

22. When was the first Atlantic cable laid? XII, 93 

23. What caused the first cable to break down? XII, 

9 6 

24. How was electrostatic discharge overcome? 
XII, 97 

25. What instrument replaced the sounder in cable 
operations? XII, 98 

[256] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

26. How are earth-induced currents prevented in the 
cable? XII, 98 

27. Why was the first Atlantic cable slow? XII, 98 

28. How did Edison get his start in the field of elec 
tricity? XII, 137 

29. What was Edison's first practical invention? 
XII, 137-138 

B. The Telephone: 

1. Who invented the telephone? XII, 99 

2. What was Bell working on w r hen he discovered 
the telephone? XII, 101 

3. What was Bell's first telephone? XII, 102 

4. How did Bell's telephone operate? XII, 104- 
105 

5. When did Bell's telephone attract attention? 
XII, 108 

6. What was the difference between Gray's and 
Bell's telephones? XII, 106-107 

7. What makes modern long distance telephony pos 
sible? XII, 112 

8. Which two men invented the microphone ? XII, 
109 

9. What is the purpose of the loading coil in the 
telephone? XII, 111-112 

10. How does the modern telephone operate? XII, 

IIO-III 

11. How are we able to telephone to Europe? XII, 
113-114 

[257] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. How many wires are enclosed in a telephone 
cable? XII, in 

13. How much telephone wire is in use in the United 
States? XII, in 

14. What is permalloy? XII, 111-112 

C. Radio: 

1. Who foreshadowed wireless and radio? XII, 78 

2. When was radio prophesied? XII, 78 

3. Why is induction not suitable for long distance 
communication? XII, 116 

4. Why is it impossible to use telephone instruments 
directly on a radio wave ? XII, 114-115 

5. What makes radio possible ? XII, 121-122 

6. Where can magnetic waves travel? XII, 117 

7. Who were the men whose inventions made 
modern radio possible? XII, 135 

8. Whatwas the work of Hertz? XII, 128-129 

9. What did Branly and Lodge do for early radio? 
XII, 129 

10. What was Marconi's wireless? XII, 129-133 

11. What is the relation of radio to light waves? 
XII, 113-114 

12. How is frequency determined? XII, 119-120 

13. How is a radio wave started ? XII, 116-117 

14. How do radio waves travel around the earth? 
XII, 117 

15. What is the Heavyside Layer ? XII, 117 

1 6. What is a discontinuous radio wave? XII 117- 
118 

[258] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

17. Who perfected the modulation of radio waves 
with speech? XII, 133 

1 8. What modern transmitter did Marconi perfect? 
XII, 134 

19. Who made the crystal oscillator possible? XII, 
133 

20. How is the constant frequency of a broadcast 
station maintained ? XII, 127 

21. How is a radio wave transmitted? XII, 118,121 

22. How is speech combined with a radio wave? 
XII, 126 

23. What is resonance ? XII, 119 

24. What is regeneration? XII, 123-124 

25. How is regeneration accomplished? XII, 124- 
127 

26. Who invented the radio tube? XII, 60-6 1 

27. What is emitted by heated bodies? XII, 57 

28. Why does a hot filament emit electrons? XII, 59 

29. Who discovered the principle of the vacuum 
tube? XII, 58-59 

30. What is radiated from the hot cathode of a 
vacuum tube? XII, 51-52 

3 1 . Why is a good vacuum necessary in a radio tube ? 
XII, 61-62 

32. What happens in the space of a radio tube? XII, 
59 

33. What laws do vacuum tubes follow? XII, 63 

34. What are the parts of a radio tube? XII, 60 

35. Who studied the laws of vacuum tubes? XII, 59 

[259] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

36. What limits the number of electrons thrown off 
by the filament of a radio tube ? XII, 63 

37. What causes some radio tubes to glow? XII, 60 

38. What is the purpose of the grid in a radio tube? 
XII, 60 

39. What is the purpose of the plate of a radio tube ? 
XII, 6 1 

40. What was the first practical use of the electron? 
XII, 54 

41. Who perfected the modern radio tube ? XII, 133 

42. Who perfected the AC radio? XII, 133 

43. How are very minute currents measured? XII, 
123 

44. What is a dielectric ? XII, 118 

45. What is a condenser? XII, 118 

46. Why do the earth and clouds act as a condenser? 
XII, 118 

47. Who invented the radio frequency amplifier? 
XII, 133 

48. Who invented the neutrodyne receiver? XII, 
133 

49. What is an underground aerial? XII, 133 

50. Who developed radio control? XII, 133 

51. Who invented the radio direction finder? XII, 
133 

52. How does a ship determine its position by a radio 
beam? XII, 191-192 

53. How does the quality of radio music compare 
with the original? XII, 128 

[260] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

D. X-Rays: 

1. What things emit invisible rays? II, 302 

2. What is the speed and the wavelength of X-rays? 

n, 303 

3. Why are X-rays called "X?" XII, 65 

4. What are X-rays related to? XII, 65 

5. How are X-rays produced? XII, 66 

6. Which metals are opaque and which are trans 
parent to X-rays? XII, 66 

7. How are X-ray effects made visible? XII, 66 

8. How do X-rays behave in a magnetic field? XII, 

6 7 

9. How do cathode rays differ from X-rays? XII, 

6 7 

10. What is the structure of an X-ray tube? XII, 
64,67 

11. What is the operating voltage of modern X-ray 
tubes? XII, 68 

1 2. What is the range of rays beyond X-rays ? II, 1 1 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make a model of Bell's first telephone. Use two 
electromagnets and two strips of spring steel. 
See diagram XII, 102 

2. Make a model of Bell's improved working tele 
phone using megaphone, electromagnets and a 
battery. See pages 103-104, XII 

3. Visit an X-ray laboratory. 

4. Visit a radio tube factory. 

5. Visit your local telephone exchange. 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. Dr. Lee DeForest invented the radio tube. XII, 

58-65 

2. Marconi invented all of his apparatus. XII, 128 

3. Faraday discovered magnetic induction. XII, 5- 
13,74-78 

4. The Atlantic cable is simply a telegraph wire 
under the ocean. XII, 89-99 

5. Morse invented the electric telegraph. XII, 72- 

8 9 

6. The -Bell telephone was the only electric tele 
phone. XII, 99-109 

[262] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. The discovery and application of X-rays. XII, 
65-68 

2. The rays which exist beyond X-rays. II, 1 1 

3. The operation of vacuum tubes. XII, 59-61 

4. The discovery of the radio tube. XII, 58-64 

5. The story of Marconi's wireless telegraph. XII, 
129-133 

6. Men who contributed to Marconi's invention. 
XII, 128-129 

7. Scientists who made modern radio possible. XII, 



D. Experiments: 

1. Connect the filament of a radio amplifier tube to 
several dry cells. Connect the plate to the high 
potential side of an induction coil. Connect the 
other side of the secondary of the coil to the fila 
ment after the filament is hot. Turn on the induc 
tion coil. X-rays will be produced in the radio 
tube. Expose pieces of printing paper or films, 
covered in lightproof envelopes under the top of 
the bulb. Develop and fix as in ordinary photog 
raphy. 

2. Connect a telephone transmitter to batteries and 
an induction coil. Connect the other side of the 
coil to a receiver. You may run the telephone re 
ceiver as far as your wires will let you. XII, no 

Ei. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

i. Give a four-letter word for the inventor of the tele 
phone. XII, 99 

[263] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Give two six-letter words for the inventors of the 
microphone. XII, 109 

3. Give a seven-letter word which describes the coil used 
for long distance telephone. XII, 111-112 

4. Give a five-letter word which describes the method of 
transmitting trans-oceanic telephone messages. XII, 113- 
114 

5 . Give a nine-letter word which describes the metal used 
in telephone induction and loading coils. XII, 111-112 

6. Give a five-letter word for the inventor of the first 
practical demonstration of energy transmission across 
space. XII, 128-129 

7. Give a seven-letter word which describes the first 
practical wireless detector. XII, 129 

8. Give a four-letter word which shows the relation of 
light to radio. XII, 113-114 

9. Give a ten-letter word which describes the method of 
impressing speech upon a radio wave. XII, 133 

10. Give a seven-letter word and a ten-letter word 
which describe the method of controlling the frequency of 
radio broadcast stations. XII, 133 

ANSWERS 

1. Bell 6. Hertz 

2. Berlin, Edison 7. coherer 

3. loading 8. wave 

4. radio 9. modulation 

5. permalloy 10. crystal oscillator 

[264] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

TEST II 

From the words below, form the names of six men who 
elped develop the telegraph. 

LEEKEH 
VINSON 
DRIESN 
STONY FIELD 
MORE WHEAT 

References: XII, 73, 79-80, 82, 92, 98, plate 29, 137, 
38 

ANSWERS 
Morse, Henry, Kelvin, Field, Edison, Wheatstone 



[265] 



UNIT XIX 
ENERGY FOR TRANSPORTATION 



A. Early Means of Transportation: 

1. How did man learn to travel over water? VII, 
239-240 

2. What was the crudest means of water transporta 
tion? VII, 241 

3. What were the early water-crafts of man? VII, 
276 

4. What means of boat propulsion w r ere developed ? 
VII, 277 

5. Why are the Egyptians believed to be the in 
ventors of the sail? VII, 298 

6. What type of sea craft finally permitted unlimited 
sea travel? VII, 277-278 

7. What means of water travel was used by the 
Sumatrans? VII, 304 

8. How was the Iroquois canoe made? IV, 77-78 

9. Which tribes built the biggest canoes? IV, 210 

10. What types of boats were used by the Incas? 
VII, 344 

1 1 . Why are boats still given individual names ? VII, 
241 

[267] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. How did man come to use animals as beasts of 
burden? VII, 255-256 

13. How did the Incas transport objects? VII, 344 

14. How old is the wheel? VII, 256 

1 5 . What was the religious implication of the wheel ? 
VII, 257 

1 6. What were the earliest uses of the wheeled cart ? 
VII, 257 

17. How old is the horse chariot? VII, 288 

1 8. Did the use of the horse precede the use of the 
horse and wagon? VII, 286 

19. What type of carriage was first used? VII, 256 

20. When and how was the horse and chariot intro 
duced into Egypt? VII, 300 

2 1 . What kind of transportation did the Indus valley 
people have? VII, 314 

22. What means of transportation did the Aryans 
use? VII, 315 

23. How is an Eskimo sled constructed? IV, 45 

B. On Land; Railroads and Automobiles: 

1. How old are railways ? XII, 192 

2. What was the first motive power for railways? 
XII, 192 

3. What was the first practical railroad locomotive 
built in the United States ? XII, 192 

4. What was the first modern locomotive? XII, 
193 

5. What is the difference between English "T" rails 
and United States rails ? XII, 193 

[26-8] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. How is safety promoted in coupling cars? XII, 
199-200 

7. What was the great aid to the safety of railroad 
brakes? XII, 33 

8. How was electricity used to control air brakes? 
XII, 196-197 

9. How do trains take curves at high speed? XII, 



10. What was the first gasoline automobile in the 
United States? XII, 216 

11. What type of action is generally found in a gas 
engine? XII, 172 

12. What is the order of events in a four-cycle gas 
engine? XII, 172 

13. What were the earliest commercial gas engines? 
XII, 171 

14. What is a carburetor? XII, 174, 178 

15. What is the difference between an automobile 
engine and a gas engine? XII, 174-175 

1 6. How does gas enter the cylinder of a gas engine ? 
XII, 172 

17. What was the Brayton engine ? XII, 216 

1 8. What were the defects of using a horse carriage 
for the automobile? XII, 220 

19. Who first applied the gas engine to a vehicle? 
XII, 215 

20. What was the Haynes machine? XII, 220-221 

21. Why is more than one cylinder necessary for an 
automobile? XII, 176 

[269] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

22. What did Daimler do to the speed and weight of 
the four-cycle engine? XII, 215 

23. What was the first car with equipment arranged 
in the present way? XII, 215 

24. How was power transmitted to the rear wheels 
in early automobiles ? XII, 216 

25. How are the rear wheels of a car able to make 
turns at different speeds ? XII, 216 

26. What modern devices did the Duryea automobile 
possess? XII, 219 

27. What is a "V" type engine? XII, 176-178 

28. Why are "V" type engines used? XII, 179 

29. How many cars were produced in the United 
States in 1930? XII, 224 

30. What was the secret of Henry Ford's success? 
XII, 224 

C. On Water; Steamships: 

1. When did commercial steamboats begin opera 
tion in England ? XII, 187 

2. Who was the first man to build steamboats in the 
United States? XII, 181 

3. How did Fitch's engine move his steamboat? 
XII, 181-182, 184 

4. Who built the first rotary steam engine? XII, 
182 

5. What kind of engine did Fitch use ? XII, 1 8 2 

6. What was the mechanical beast? XII, 181 

7. What was Fulton's particular skill with the 
steamboat? XII, 187 

[270] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

8. Why was Fulton's steamboat a success? XII, 
187 

9. What was Robert Fulton's profession? XII, 1 86 

10. What was the first large steamboat built for com 
merce in the United States ? XII, 184-185 

11. What was the first transatlantic steamer? XII, 
188 

12. Who first used the screw propeller? XII, 183 

13. How was the screw propeller proved more ef 
ficient than the paddle wheel? XII, 189 

14. What engine in 1870 revolutionized shipping? 
XII, 189 

15. Why was steam able to displace sail? XII, 188 

1 6. Why is Parson's steam turbine best adapted to 
steamships? XII, 171 

17. What are the speed possibilities of a Parson's 
turbine? XII, 170 

1 8. What is the efficiency of a Parson's turbine? XII, 
170 

19. What did some people prophesy for iron ships? 
XII, 189 

20. Why does a steel ship float? XII, 190 

21. Why was the oared ship a handicap to com 
merce? VII, 277 

22. How long did clipper ships take to travel from 
England to China? XII, 188 

23. What was the disadvantage of clipper ships? 
XII, 188 

24. What was the largest sailing vessel ? XII, 189 

[271] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

25. When were sailing vessels in their prime? XII, 
188 

26. What modern safety devices are used by steam 
ships? XII, 191-192 

27. How does a gyro-compass control the steering of 
a ship? XII, 190-191 

28. What is a gyro-compass ? XII, 190 

29. How does a gyro-compass maintain a ship's direc 
tion? XII, 190 

30. How does a ship determine its position in mid- 
ocean? XII, 191-192 

D. In the Air; Airplanes : 

1. What is a glider? XII, 225 

2. Who were the early American glider flyers? 
XII, 225 

3. Who was the first to fly successfully a heavier- 
than-air ship ? XII, 225 

4. How did Langley devise his plane ? XII, 225 

5. Did Langley's plane ever fly? XII, 227 

6. Why did Langley's full size plane fail to fly? 
XII, 227 

7. What was the first successful mechanically driven, 
heavier-than-air ship ? XII, 225-226 

8. What improvement to flying did the Wrights 
contribute? XII, 232 

9. What was the power of the first plane of the 
Wright brothers ? XII, 230 

10. What was the first gasoline aeroplane engine? 
XII, 226 

[272] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 1. What was the first successful flight of a heavier- 
than-air motor driven passenger plane? XII, 228 

12. How is wind resistance reduced? XII, 235-236 

1 3. How are the characteristics of airships and planes 
tested? XII, 232-233 Plates 81-85 

14. HOW T are seaplane pontoons tested? XII, 233, 
236 

15. How are small models of planes tested to deter 
mine the qualities of the full size plane? XII, 
232, 236 

1 6. What is a radial engine? XII, 179 

17. Which was the first radically different aviation 
motor? XII, 226-227 

1 8. What is an autogiro ? XII, 238 



[273] 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Build a model of the Wright brothers' plane. 
XII, 228-229 

2. Build rubberband-powered flying models of 
Langley's plane. XII, 226 

3. Make a model of a primitive cart using the round 
wood bottoms of a bushel basket for wheels. 
VII, 256-257 

4. Construct a model of a Chinese dragon boat from 
scrap wood. VII, 241 

5. Following the model on page 276 build a Caro 
line Islands outrigger sailing canoe. VII, 276 

6. From twigs and skins build a model Indian bull- 
boat. VII, 276 

7. Make a native Brazilian balsa boat from reeds 
and grasses found in the fields. XII, 1 85 

8. Build a model of a Yurok boat. IV, 1 88 

9. Using the illustration on page 64 make a model 
of an Eskimo sled. IV 

10. Make models of Eskimo kayaks. Use balsa 
model airplane wood for framework and cover 
with Japanese tissue. IV, 5 6 

11. Make a model of an Eskimo umiak (sailboat), 
from wood and cloth. IV, 57 

[274] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

12. Make a model of Fulton's "Clermont." XII, 
184 

13. Make a model of Fitch's oar-driven steamboat. 
XII, 184 

14. Make a model of a clipper ship using the photo 
graph on page 1 88 as a guide. XII 

15. Build a wood model of the first steam locomotive 
train made in the United States. XII, 192 

1 6. Make a wind tunnel from a large can with both 
ends open. Place an electric fan at one end, 
suspend suitably sized model planes facing the 
fan. Make the planes fly by operating the fan. 
XII, 232 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. The Wright brothers did not invent the aero 
plane. XII, 225-238 

2. Selden invented the automobile. XII, 2 14-225 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. The effect of streamlining on speed. XII, 235 

2. Methods used to determine the airworthiness of 
airships and aeroplanes. XII, 232-238 

3. The operation of radio beacons for guiding ships 
at sea. XII, 190-192 

4. Early automobiles. XII, 214-225 

D. Excursions: 

1 . Visit a local electric railroad or railway shop or 
roundhouse. 

2. Visit a local auto assembly plant. 

3. Visit a local steam locomotive roundhouse. 

[275] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 



E. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Match each Item in Column A with the proper item in 
Column B. 



a. first locomotive in the i. 
United States 

b. early internal combus- 2. 
tion engine 

c. modern steamships 3- 

d. "T" rails 4- 

e. first modern type auto- 5. 
mobile 

f. four-cycle 6. 

g. high speed light-weight 7. 
automobile engine 

h. mechanical beast 



B 

automobile engine XII, 

172 

English XII, 193 

gasoline XII, 174, 178 
steamboat XII, 181 

Tom Thumb XII, 192, 
Plate 63 

early automobile XII, 



i. carburetor 
j. one-cylinder 



8. 

9- 

10. 



Brayton XII, 216 

Parson's turbine XII, 
170, 171 

Duryea XII, 219 
Daimler XII, 215 



ANSWERS 

a 5 f i 

b 7 g 10 

c 8 h 4 

d 2 i 3 

e 9 j 6 
[276] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

TEST II 

If you correctly re-arrange the letters of the jumbled 
word, the sentence will be true. 

1. The first heavier-than-air machines were DRIEGLS. 

XII, 22 S 

2. First to fly non-passenger, heavier-than-air, motor 
driven plane was LEYLAXG. XII, 225-226 

3. The modern plane was first successfully developed by 
the GRIWTHS. XII, 230 

4. The first gasoline airplane engine was the DRIALA 
type. XII, 226 

5. Wind resistance on an airplane is reduced byLOWC- 
ING. XII, 235-236 

6. The characteristics of airships and airplanes are 
tested in DIWN LUXTENS. XII, 232, plate Si 

7. A plane which can rise almost perpendicular to the 
ground is an GOITRAOU. XII, 238 

8. Egyptians are believed to have invented the ALSL 
VII, 298 

9. The use of the COITHAR preceded the use of sad 
dled horses. VII, 286 

10. Before the Middle Stone Age, SHORES were used 
as food and not for transportation. VII, 255-256 

ANSWERS 

1. gliders 6. wind tunnels 

2. Langley 7. autogiro 

3. Wrights 8. sail 

4. radial 9. chariot 

5. cowling 10. horses 



UNIT XX 
IMPROVED WAYS OF USING MATERIALS 



A. Clothing Materials: 

1. How are skins softened for use as clothing? IV, 
55 

2. How do Eskimos make clothes ? IV, 50-53 

3. What did Indians weave into cloth? IV, 23 

4. What was the dress of the upper Caspian period ? 
VII, 229 

5. How was clothing sewn in Solutrean times ? VII, 
209 

6. When did needles come into use ? VII, 202 

7. Who invented the first sewing machine in the 
United States ? XII, 248-249 

8. What objection was there to Howe's machine? 
XII, 252 

9. Who made the first sewing machine? XII, 247 

10, What were the defects of early sewing machines ? 
XII, 248-249 

n. What was the first commercially used sewing 
machine? XII, 248 

12. What Is the rotary hook? XII, 259 

[279] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

13. What improvement was made on the bobbin? 
XII, 259 

14. Who perfected the four-motion feed for cloth? 
XII, 259 

15. How did Singer improve the sewing machine? 
XII, 256 

1 6. What effect did Eli Whitney's cotton-gin have on 
the South? XII, 301 

17. How does the cotton-gin work? XII, 302-303 

1 8. Who foreshadowed the spinning wheel? XII, 
273 

19. How is thread made ? XII, 267-268 

20. What is spinning? XII, 265 

21. What was the old way of spinning? XII, 268 

22. How does a modern spinner operate? XII, 274 

23. What were the weaving fibres in different parts 
of the world? VII, 262 

24. What is the difference between silk and other 
thread? XII, 267 

25. When did the weaving of cloth begin? VII, 261 

26. What is weaving? XII, 265 

27. How old is the art of weaving? XII, 265-266 

28. How do we know the type of loom used in olden 
times? XII, 269 

29. Describe the simplest loom? XII, 266 

30. How is weaving performed ? XII, 271 

31. What are the essentials of a loom? XII, 277- 
278 

32. Describe the African loom? XII, 276 

[280] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

33. What happened to the earliest attempt at 
mechanical weaving? XII, 299 

34. Who invented the fly shuttle ? XII, 299 

35. Who established the first power weaving mill? 
XII, 300 

36. How are patterns woven? XII, 281-286 

37. What is a heddle? XII, 272, 279-280 

38. Why did a drawboy fork become necessary? 
XII, 287-289 

39. What is Jacquard weaving? XII, 290-298 

B. Building Materials: 

1. How is an igloo built? IV, 40 

2. How is the Kwakiutl house built? IV, 209 

3. Name some uses of bamboo? XI, 229 

4. How are brooms made ? XI, 229-230 

5. How did the Chippewas use matting in building? 
IV, 72 

6. What was a common Indian building material? 
IV, 73 

7. Which people built extensively with stone? VII, 
297 

8. Which mineral stones are used as building ma 
terials? Ill, 280-282 

C. Metals: 

1 . When did man know nothing of metals ? VII, 42 

2. How did prehistoric man in Ohio use meteoric 
iron? Ill, 104-105 

3. How were metal nuggets first used? VI I r 24 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. What kind of metal work was done by Neolithic 
man? VII, 265 

5. What use was made of meteoric iron in Mexico? 

Ill, IOO-IOI 

6. How was meteoric iron used in the United States ? 

Ill, IOO-IOI 

7. What uses have been made of meteoric iron? 
Ill, 100-101 

8. What use was made of meteoric iron in Green 
land? Ill, IOO-IOI 

9. When did the use of metals begin ? VII, 1 67 

10. How did the Mayans use gold and copper? VII, 
334 

11. When did the Hopis become silversmiths? IV, 
138 

12. What metals did Indians work before the coming 
of white man? IV, 21-22 

13. Why was copper the first metal used by man? 
VII, 266 

14. How did the Bronze Age replace the New Stone 
Age? VII, 267 

15. Why was not gold a practical metal in the Bronze 
Age? VII, 266 

1 6. What was the true basis of the Bronze Age? 
VII, 268 

17. How did bronze-making occur? VII, 268 

18. Where was early metallurgy practiced? VII, 266 

19. What was the form of the earliest bronze instru 
ments? VII, 269 

[282] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

20. Why was bronze better than iron for battle axes ? 
VII, 306 

21. What is the lost wax process of casting? VII, 
269-270 

22. Why is not all meteor iron usable? 111,104-105 

23. How was iron made in ancient times? XII, 338 

24. When did iron come into use in different parts of 
the world? VII, 41 

25. How long has iron been in use ? VII, 41 

26. Where does most of the iron ore come from? 
XII, 337 

27. What is the effect of the presence of carbon or 
sulphur in iron? XII, 342 

28. How is iron made today? XII, 338 

29. How does a blast furnace operate? XII, 340- 
341 

30. When did the steel age begin? VII, 41 

31. What is the difference between steel and iron? 
XII, 336-337 

32. Who invented the Bessemer process? XII, 342 

33. When is the Bessemer process impractical ? XII, 
345 

34. How does an iron converter operate ? XII, 342- 
344 

35. What are the raw materials and products of the 
blast furnace? XII, 338-339 

36. What is a reverberatory furnace? XII, 346 

37. What is the open hearth process? XII, 346-347 

38. How is high-grade steel made? XII, 346, 348 

[283] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

39. How is steel shaped? XII, 348 

40. What are the by-products of coke? XII, 338 

D. Writing Materials: 

1 . When was paper discovered ? XII, 3 1 2 

2. How was paper made by hand? XII, 313-314 

3. How much paper is consumed in one year in the 
United States? XII, 309 

4. What materials are used in paper-making? XII, 

313 

5. How is paper made by machine? XII, 314 

6. What was the Mayan writing material? VII, 
332, 334 

7. What determines the deterioration of paper? 
XII, 3 15 

8. What material did western Indians use to carry 
the written story of their exploits ? IV, 167 

E. Gems And Precious Stones: 
i . NATURE OF CRYSTALS : 

1. What is the difference between minerals and 
rocks? Ill, 279-280 

2. What gives a mineral a gem value ? Ill, 170 

3. How many minerals are used as gems ? XII, 171 

4. What determines a gem's beauty? Ill, 178 

5. How many mineral species are there? Ill, 170- 
171 

6. How are natural stones distinguished from syn 
thetic stones ? Ill, 177 

[284] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. How did minerals get their names? Ill, 188-189 

8. What is the significance of the "ite" ending in a 
mineral name? Ill, iSS 

9. What are some shapes and kinds of crystals? 

in, 172 

10. What determines the shape of a crystal? Ill, 



11. What will happen to almost all minerals if 
allowed to grow without interference? Ill, 172 

12. What size can crystals become ? Ill, 172-173 

13. What is the largest crystal? Ill, 173 

14. What is the smallest number of faces a crystal 
may have? Ill, 173 

1 5 . According to which factors do most crystals ar 
range their faces ? Ill, 174 

1 6. Which minerals have more than one crystalline 
shape? Ill, 174 

17. What is constant in any crystal? Ill, 172 
1 8. What spoils crystal transparency? Ill, 176 

19. What is dispersion in gems? Ill, 181 

20. How does refraction affect gems ? Ill, 1 8 1 

21. What causes variations in shade of color in a 
crystal? Ill, 179-180 

22. In which gems is the cause of color still doubtful ? 

in, 179 

23. What important property of a gem is measured 
scientifically? VII, 183 

24. What crystal does earth water produce? Ill, 175 

25. Which minerals form without water? 111,175 

[285] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

26. How do crystals form naturally? Ill, 174 

27. How do the different colors of gems form? Ill, 
178-179 

28. What colors are imparted to gems by different 
elements? Ill, 179 

29. What common metals are the basis for different 
garnets? Ill, 244 

30. What is the importance of hardness in gem 
value? Ill, 182 

31. What are volcanic pipes? 111,196 

32. What forms in volcanic pipes? Ill, 196 

33. What are the physical properties of a diamond? 
Ill, 190 

34. What is a synthetic gem? Ill, 289 

35. Which gems are made commercially? Ill, 289 

36. What is mineral hardness? Ill, 182 

37. How hard must minerals be to resist wear? Ill, 
182-183 

2 . PRECIOUS STONES : 

1 . What is the name of the gems of the beryl group ? 

111,210 

2. What is the color of beryl? Ill, 210-211 

3. Where are diamonds found in the United States ? 
Ill, 199-200 

4. How long has the diamond been known? Ill, 
190 

5. To which minerals is diamond related? Ill, 191 

6. What is the original matrix of diamonds? Ill, 
193-194 

[286] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. Where are diamonds found? Ill, 191-195 

8. What is the geology of the area where diamonds 
are found in the United States? Ill, 207 

9. How are diamonds mined? Ill, 193 

10. How is the value of a diamond estimated? Ill, 
191 

11. What are the colors of diamonds? Ill, 191 

12. What kind of diamond emits the best colors? 
Ill, 191 

13. What is a black diamond? Ill, 191 

14. Who made the first synthetic diamonds? Ill, 
289 

15. How big are artificial diamonds? Ill, 289 

1 6. Who considered diamonds as poisonous as arse 
nic? Ill, 203 

17. What is the crystalline shape of emeralds and 
beryls? Ill, 211 

1 8. Where are emeralds found? Ill, 211 

19. What is the composition of emeralds and beryls? 
Ill, 210 

20. What makes emeralds and beryls valuable? Ill, 
210 

,21. What kind of emerald is the rarest gem? Ill, 
212 

22. What is mistaken for emeralds ? 111,213-214 

23. In what kind of stone are rubies found ? Ill, 204- 
205 

24. What is the relation of spinel to ruby? Ill, 204 

[287] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

25. What minerals are both ruby and sapphire ? Ill, 
203 

26. Where are rubies found? Ill, 204-205 

27. What may cause the color difference between 
ruby and sapphire ? Ill, 203 

28. Where are sapphires found in the United States ? 
Ill, 207 

29. How does the sapphire mineral occur? Ill, 208 

30. What is a star or cat's eye sapphire? Ill, 203 

31. How hard is a sapphire? Ill, 203 

32. What is the primitive method of mining rubies 
and sapphires ? Ill, 206 

33. Where are sapphires found? Ill, 205-206 

3. WELL-KNOWN SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES: 

1. What is amber? 111,267 

2. What is the appearance of amber? Ill, 268 

3. What was the Greek name for amber? Ill, 267 

4. How long has amber been known? Ill, 257 

5. When did amber form? Ill, 268 

6. What fossils are found in amber ? Ill, 268 

7. Where is amber found? Ill, 268-269 

8. How is amber mined? Ill, 268-269 

9. How can true amber be detected? Ill, 267 

10. How is amethyst formed? Ill, 227 

11. Where is amethyst found? Ill, 227 

12. What causes the color of amethyst? Ill, 226 

13. How is amethyst mined ? 111,227 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

14. How are garnets formed? Ill, 244-245 

15. Where are garnets found? Ill, 245-246 

1 6. Where are garnets found in the United States? 
Ill, 245-246 

17. What are the colors of garnets? Ill, 244 

1 8. How hard is garnet? Ill, 244 

19. What is the solubility of garnets? Ill, 245 

20. In what rock is jade found? Ill, 255 

21. Where is jade obtained? 111,255-256 

22. What is the difference between Chinese and 
Mexican jade ? 111,255 

23. What is lapis lazuli ? Ill, 260 

24. Where is lapis lazuli found? Ill, 261 

25. How T is lapis lazuli formed III, 260 

26. What is the color of lapis? Ill, 260 

27. How is opal formed? Ill, 232 

28. Where are gem opals obtained? Ill, 232-234 

29. What is the composition of opal? Ill, 231-232 

30. What kind of opal is a gem mineral? Ill, 232 

31. How is opal formed? Ill, 232, 234 

32. What is the color of opal? Ill, 233 

33. How hard is opal? Ill, 232 

34. How valuable is opal? Ill, 232 

35. Where are pearls found in North and South 
America? Ill, 221 

36. Where are pearls found In the United States? 

111,221 

37. What is an abalone pearl? Ill, 222 

[289] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

38. How is topaz formed? 111,236 

39. Where is topaz found? Ill, 236-237 

40. Where is topaz found in the United States? Ill, 

2 37 

41. Where did topaz get its name? 111,235 

42. What are the colors of topaz? Ill, 236 

43. How is pink topaz obtained ? Ill, 237 

44. How hard is topaz? 111,235 

45. Where is tourmaline found? Ill, 239-240 

46. How long has tourmaline been known? Ill, 239 

47. In which colors do tourmalines form ? Ill, 239 

48. For which gem is tourmaline sometimes mis 
taken? Ill, 240 

49. How is turquoise formed? Ill, 257 

50. Where is turquoise found? 111,257 

51. How long has turquoise been used? Ill, 258 

52. What is the color of turquoise? Ill, 257-259 

53. Where is zircon found? Ill, 253-254 

54. What is the crystal shape of zircon? Ill, 253 

55. What is the color of zircon? Ill, 253 

UNCOMMON SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES : 

1. What is the color of malachite and azurite? Ill, 
276 

2. Inwhatkindof rock is benitoite found? 111,252- 
253 

3. Where is benitoite found? Ill, 252-253 

4. What is the color of benitoite? Ill, 252-253 

[290] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

5. Where is chrysoberyl found? Ill, 247-248 

6. What is chrysoberyl made of? Ill, 247 

7. What is the color of chrysoberyl ? Ill, 247 

8. Where is chrysolite found? Ill, 249-250 

9. Where is chrysolite found in the United States? 

in, 250 

10. What is the composition of chrysolite? Ill, 249 

11. Why is cyanite not used for gems? 111,275 

12. Where is euclase found? Ill, 273 

13. What is a cultured pearl? 111,224 

14. What is phenocite ? Ill, 274 

15. What is rhodonite ? 111,274 

1 6. Where is rhodonite found? Ill, 274 

17. What are the uses of rhodonite? Ill, 274 

1 8. Where is sodalite found? Ill, 262 

19. In what kind of rock is spodumene found? Ill, 
251 

20. Where is spodumene found? Ill, 250-252 

21. What is spodumene made of? Ill, 250 

22. What is the color of spodumene? Ill, 250 

23. What is staurolite ? 111,278 

24. How and where is staurolite found? Ill, 278 

25. Where is titanite found? Ill, 273 

26. Why is titanite not used in place of diamonds 
although it is the more brilliant? Ill, 273 

27. What is the difference between turquoise and 
variscite? Ill, 260 

28. Where is variscite found? Ill, 259 

[291] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

29. What is the color of variscite ? Ill, 259 * 

30. What is vesuvianite ? 111,274 

31. For which gem is vesuvianite sometimes substi 
tuted? Ill, 274 

ORNAMENTAL STONES : 

1. Where does most agate come from? Ill, 229 

2. What common semi-precious stones belong to the 
class of agates? Ill, 230 

3. How did the stripes of agate form? Ill, 228 

4. What is moss or landscape agate? Ill, 229 

5. What is basalt? Ill, 287-288 

6. What is calcite ? 111,276 

7. What crystal forms does calcite take ? Ill, 276 

8. What is chalcedony? 111,228 

9. What are the colors of coral? 111,270-271 

10. What is the use of non-gem corundum? Ill, 204 

11. Is all corundum usable for gems ? Ill, 204 

12. Where is feldspar found? 111,263 

13. Where is feldspar found in the United States? 
Ill, 263-264 

14. What are the different kinds of feldspars? Ill, 
262 

15. What is the composition of feldspars? Ill, 262 

1 6. What are the colors of feldspars? Ill, 262, 264 

17. What is granite ? 111,287 

1 8. Where is granite found? Ill, 286-287 

19. Where is hematite found? Ill, 279 

[292} 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

20. What is a Herkimer diamond? Ill, 225 

21. What is jet? Ill, 270 

22. Where is marble found? Ill, 281 

23. What is the difference between foreign and 
American marble? 111,282-283 

24. What is the difference between limestone and 
marble? Ill, 280 

25. What is obsidian? Ill, 287 

26. How was obsidian used? Ill, 287 

27. What is onyx? 111,228 

28. What is Mexican onyx? Ill, 282 

29. What is porphyry? Where is it found? Ill, 287 

30. What are pyrites? 111,278 

31. What is "fool's gold?" 111,278 

32. How prevalent is quartz? Ill, 224 

33. How does quartz occur? Ill, 224-225 

34. With which metallic ore is quartz associated? 
Ill, 225-226 

35. What is the crystalline structure of quartz? Ill, 
224-225 

36. What is the composition of quartz? Ill, 224 

37. What are the names of quartz gems? Ill, 225 

38. What gems are made from quartz? Ill, 227 

39. Where is clear quartz found? Ill, 225-226 

40. What is the importance of clear quartz? Ill, 
226-227 

41. What kind of rock contains gem quartz? Ill, 

225 

[293] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

42. What is serpentine? 111,284 

43. Where is serpentine found? 111,284 

44. When is serpentine used as a substitute for jade? 
Ill, 285 

45. What is sodalite? Ill, 262 

6. How GEMS ARE CUT : 

1. What determines the line of cleavage in miner 
als? Ill, 181 

2. What kind of gem carving is the most artistic? 

111,314 

3. Which crystals cleave into smooth even sections ? 
Ill, 181 

4. What natural property of crystals is taken into 
consideration in cutting? Ill, 180 

5. Which two factors of light are studied in cutting 
a stone? Ill, 306-307 

6. Which crystals do not cleave smoothly ? Ill, 1 8 1 

7. How is a diamond cut? Ill, 182 

8. What determines how a stone will be cut? Ill, 
306 

9. Why are most stones cut differently? Ill, 306 

10. What is the brilliant cut? Ill, 308-309 

11. What are the names of the parts of the brilliant 
cut? Ill, 308 

12. What are the perfect proportions of a brilliant 
cut diamond? 111,309 

13. When is the half brilliant cut used? Ill, 310 

1 4. What is the double brilliant cut ? Ill, 3 1 o 

[294] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. What is the trap brilliant cut? Ill, 311 

1 6. Which stones are brilliant cut? Ill, 309 

17. What are the cameo and intaglio cut? 111,314 

1 8. What is thecabochoncut? 111,314 

19. What is the rose cut ? Ill, 312 

20. What is the star cut? 111,311-312 

2 1 . What is the step brilliant or mixed cut ? Ill, 3 1 3 

22. What is the table cut ? Ill, 314 

23. What is the trap or step cut? 111,313 

24. Why are cut stones so much smaller than the 
original? Ill, 307 

25. What is facetting? Ill, 306 

26. Which cuts are bounded by plane surfaces? Ill, 
308 

27. What are the styles of cutting stones ? Ill, 308 

28. Which cuts are bounded by curved surfaces ? Ill, 
308 

29. Which cut is bounded by curved and plane sur 
faces? 111,308 

7. GEMS IN HISTORY : 

i. What gems are mentioned in the Bible? Ill, 316, 



2. What stones stood for each tribe of Israel in the 
Bible? 111,316-317 

3. What are the so-called magical properties of 
gems? Ill, 183-185 

4. Who were the early mineralogists? Ill, 295-296 

5. Which people perfected the working of jade? 
111,254-255 

C 2 95] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. What is a gem collector ? Ill, 29 1 

7. What must a true collector know ? Ill, 292 

8. What is the importance of a mineral collection? 
Ill, 292 

9. What was the first public mineral collection in the 
United States? Ill, 290, 295 

10. Where are the great gem collections housed? Ill, 
294 

11. What gem minerals have become commercially 
and scientifically important? Ill, 293-294 

12. What is the Canfield collection? Ill, 300 

13. Who was Doctor King? Ill, 304 

14. What is the Lea collection? Ill, 297 

15. What is the Roebling collection? Ill, 297 

1 6. Who was Professor Shepard? Ill, 301 

17. What has become of most of the great mineral 
collections? Ill, 296 

1 8. How did Congress enable the National Museum 
to build up its collections of minerals? Ill, 295 



[2963 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1. Make models in soap of the important types of 
gem cuts. 111,302-314 

2. Polish bright colored stones found in river beds. 

3. Make a collection of the rocks and minerals 
native to your locality. 

4. Make a collection of colored glass chips which 
approximate the colored gem photos shown in 

III, 210, 224, 232, 238, 242, 246, 250, 264, 272, 
274, 276, 286. 

5. Make a Peruvian knot-writing record from some 
old rope. VII, 345 

6. Make a cross-section model of a Bessemer con 
verter by consulting the diagram. XII, 343 

7. Make some glass by melting a small quantity of 
pulverized limestone and sand in the flame of a 
blowtorch or blowpipe. XII, 323 

8. Build a Creek log-house from straight twigs. IV, 
288 

o. Build models of Swiss lake dwellings using twigs. 
VII, 264 

10. Make a miniature spinning wheel and use it to 
spin some thread from cotton. XII, 273 

n. Make an Indian loom from sticks and cord. 
Weave a piece of cloth. VII, 2645X1!, 276 

[ 2 97] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. Build a model of the earliest known loom from 
sticks and cord. Weave a small piece of cloth. 
XII, 266 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. All jade is genuine. Ill, 254-256 

2. Opals are unlucky stones. Ill, 231-235 

3. Quartz has no value other than its use as a build 
ing stone. Ill, 224-230 

4. Culture pearls are as good as natural pearls. 
Ill, 217-224 

5. Emeralds are the most beautiful of the large 
gems? Ill, 210-217 

6. Since diamonds are pure carbon, they are not 
worth the values assigned to them. Ill, 190-203 

7. Gems possess magical properties. Ill, 183-189 

8. We could easily do without paper. XII, 3 1 2-3 1 5 

9. The weaving of cloth is a modern art. XII, 265- 
300 

10. Singer invented the sewing machine. XII, 247- 
264 

11. Weaving is a modern process. VII, 261-264 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. The cutting of gems. 111,306-315 

2. Little known gems. 111,247-254,272-278 

3. Minerals used for decoration. Ill, 280-288 

4. Sources of diamonds. 111,191-202 

5. History of rubies. Ill, 203-210 

6. The hardness of gems. 111,182 

[298] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. The process of making paper. XII, 312-314 

8. The development of writing. VII, 288-293 

9. The weaving of intricate patterns. XII, 278-300 

10. Inventors and improvers of the sewing machine. 
XII, 247-264 

D. Excursions: 

1. Visit your natural history museum to inspect 
gems and rocks. 

2. Visit such local mines as coal, iron, copper and 
report to your class. 

3. Visit a local iron works. 

4. ' Visit a rubber factory. 

5. Visit a sewing machine factory or store. Observe 
the operation of the parts. 

6. Visit a local textile weaving mill. 

7. Visit a local dyeing and dry cleaning plant. 

E. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Choose the answer which properly completes the sentence 
in each question. 

1. Eskimos softened skins by (a) rubbing (b) chewing 
(c) pounding. IV, 55 

2. Needles came into use during the (a) Bronze Age 
(b) Iron Age (c) Old Stone Age. VII, 202 

3. The first sewing machine in the United States was in- 
ventedby (a) Hunt (b) Howe (c) Singer. XII, 248-249 

4. The main defect of early sewing machines was (a) 
too expensive (b) difficult to operate (c) continuous work 
was not possible. XII, 248-249 

[299] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

5. Thread is made by (a) spinning (b) weaving (c) 
the cotton-gin. XII, 267-268 

6. Men began to weave cloth in the (a) Old Stone Age 
(b) New Stone Age (c) Middle Stone Age. VII, 261 

7. Paper has been known since (a) 5000 B.C. (b) 
1432 A.D. (c) 200 B.C. XII, 312 

8. Iron came into use (a) in Europe (b) and immedi 
ately replaced bronze (c) gradually in different parts of 
the Old World. VII, 41 

9. Most iron ore in the United States comes from (a) 
Pennsylvania (b) Alabama (c) Mesabi range. XII, 337 

10. The use of steel in place of iron was first brought 
about by the (a) open hearth furnace (b) Bessemer con 
verter (c) crucible process. XII, 342-345 

ANSWERS 
i b 6 b 

4 c 9 c 

5 a i o b 

TEST II 

Match each item in Column A with the proper item in 
Column B. 

A B 

a. hydrocarbon i. gypsum 

b. silicates 2. diamond, gold 

c. sulphates 3. quartz 

d. phosphates 4. calcite 

.[300] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

e. oxides 5. pyrites 

f. elements 6. turquoise 

g. carbonates 7. emeralds and beryls 
h. sulphides 8. amber and jet 

Reference: III, 170-171 

ANSWERS 

a 8 e 3 

b 7 f 2 

c i g 4 

d 6 h 5 



UNIT XXI 
CONSERVING LIFE 



. Animals That Are Becoming And Have Become 
Extinct: 

1 . SEA ANIMALS : 

1 . Why are so many species wiped out ? ,124 

2. Why are crabs so expensive? X, 230 

3. What methods of crabbing in Chesapeake Bay 
are rapidly wiping out crabs? X, 230 

4. Why is the robber crab disappearing from many 
of its former haunts? X, 178 

5. Why have lobsters become a luxury? X, 229 

6. What is happening to the salmon fisheries? 
VIII, 126 

7. Why are the green turtles becoming scarce? 
VIII, 311-312 

8. Why have the Galapagos turtles almost been 
wiped out in recent years ? VIII, 313 

2. BIRDS: 

i . What has happened to our bird population in the 
past 400 years? IX, 40 

[303] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. What bird species have already been extermi 
nated by man? IX, ii 

3. What led to the extinction of the great auk and 
the passenger pigeon? IX, 87 

4. What is the estimated annual slaughter of wild 
ducks in the United States? IX, 39-40 

5. How many wild ducks were sold in 1910 in San 
Francisco markets? IX, 39 

6. How many wild ducks were sold in New Orleans 
in 1913 as food? What does this show? IX, 39 

7. What hawks and owls should be protected? IX, 
141 

8. What happens when we kill off hawks and owls ? 
What conclusions can you reach? IX, 140-142 

9. What species of parrot was once native to the 
United States ? VI, 254 

10. What led to the extermination of the Carolina 
paroquet? VI, 254 

3. MAMMALS: 

1. Why are marsupials dying out today? IX, 282- 
283 

2. Why was it once difficult for the National Zoo 
logical Park to get a beaver? VI, 117 

3. How is the whale hunted? What does this indi 
cate to you? IV, 64 

4. Why are otters so rare today? VI, 1 1 6 

5. How are seals hunted? What chances have they 
for survival? IV, 49-50, 64 

6. How does the Eskimo hunt seals ? IV, 47-48 

[304] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. Why do we rarely, if ever, see a West Indian 
seal? VI, 125 

8. What has happened to the lion population in 
Africa? VI, 70 

9. How are tigers captured? How does this affect 
the tiger population? VI, 81-82 

10. How are the wart hogs captured? VI, 158-159 

11. Why is the zebra-like quagga now extinct? VI, 
212-213 

12. What made the American bison fear man? VI, 



13. Why were bison shot? How do you feel about 
the reasons given? VI, 167 

14. Where was the center of the bison population at 
one time? VI, 166 

15. About how many bison were there on the Great 
Plains in 1 8 70? VI, 166 

1 6. What was the bison population in 1 907 ? VI, 167 

17. What practically wiped out the European bison 
population by 1925 ? VI, 173 

1 8. How and why are elephants captured in India? 

vi, 137-139 

B. Improving Plant Life: 

i . What evidence is there of ancient man's ability as 
a plant breeder ? XI, 321 

2. What is meant by "selection" in plant breeding? 
XI, 54 

3. What mental qualities do plant and animal breed 
ers need? XI, 320-321 

[305] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. Why is progress in plant and animal breeding so 
slow? XI, 320-321 

5. Why did people cultivate grasses in prehistoric 
times? XI, 203-205 

6. For how long a time has man cultivated grasses? 
XI, 204-205 

7. What is said to be the most ancient cultivated 
plant? XI, 324 

8. What crops did the Incas originate? XI, 329- 
330 

9. What country is said to have first domesticated 
corn? XI, 3 2 9-33 

10. What special type of agriculture developed 
around Mexico City? VII, 338 

1 1. What is said to be the crowning achievement of 
the American Indian? XI, 346 

12. Why did Indians have colored corn ? XI, 328 

13. How did the Indian carry on agriculture in a dry 
region? VII, 328 

14. What were the probable ancestors of corn? XI, 
214 

15. What evidence is there of corn's ancient develop 
ment? XI, 327-328 

1 6. Why is the origin of corn still a mystery? XI, 
336-337 

17. Why are scientists unable to determine the ances 
tors of corn? XI, 324 

1 8. What practices caused the corn plants to become 
so highly specialized and developed? XI, 324 

[306] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

19. Why does corn never grow without man's aid? 
XI, 326 

20. How might mutations have produced modern 
com? XI, 343 

21. Name some recent mutations which have oc 
curred in corn? XI, 344 

22. What chief objections have we to the Idea of 
mutations in the production of corn? XI, 345- 
346 

23. Discuss some theories to explain the origin of the 
ear in corn. XI, 339-340 

24. What part did selection play in producing modern 
corn? XI, 342-343 

25. What evidence have we of the hybrid nature of 
corn? XI, 345 

26. What corn relative hybridizes with corn? XI, 
335 

27. How does corn today compare with that grown 
by ancient Indians? XI, 327 

28. Why Is corn considered an ideal food plant ? XI, 
325-326 

29. Why w^ere the cereal plants so hard to domesti 
cate? XI, 325 

30. When and where were rice, barley, oats and rye 
first cultivated? XI, 209-210 

31. How r are new plants propagated or kept alive? 
XI, 53-54 

32. How have new varieties of orchids, irises, roses, 
etc., been originated? XI, 53 

[307] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

C. Improving Domestic Animals: 

1. Why are present-day species successfully carry 
ing on? V, 125 

2. What is the probable ancestor of our poultry? 
VI, 247 

3. What is the origin of the domestic fowl ? IX, 3 

4. What results when bison are mated to domestic 
cattle? VI, 1 68 

5. Why were scientists interested in zebra-ass hy 
brids? VI, 213 

6. What hybridization experiments have been made 
with zebras, horses and asses? VI, 213 

D. Conserving Wild Animal Life: 

1. How did people come to realize that wild ani 
mals in this country were being wiped out? VI, 2 

2. How was interest in wild life preservation 
aroused? VI, 3 

3. What practice almost wiped out the California 
shrimp? X, 230 

4. What remedied the shrimp situation in Cali 
fornia? X, 230 

5. What practice among Andalusian fishermen has 
maintained the crab population? X, 230-231 

6. Why do Florida fishermen break off the large 
claws of crabs and then throw the crabs back? 
X, 230 

7. What crab is protected in Florida ? X, 230 

8. Name some parks which raise bison? VI, 162 

[308] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

9. When were steps taken to prevent the slaughter 
of bison? VI, 167 

i o. What steps have been taken to protect wild goril 
las? VL 28 



E. Conserving The Health of Human Beings: 

1. How do certain seaweeds aid the science of bac 
teriology? XI, 89 

2. Should plants be removed from a sick room? 
Explain. XI, 28-29 

3. Describe the damage done by some of the try- 
panosomes. V, 349 

4. In what way are gastropods sometimes danger 
ous to man ? X, 3 1 6 

5. What mollusk can kill a man ? X, 293 

6. Why do natives of New Guinea dread the bite of 
Conus, a snail? X, 301-302 

7. Do octopuses and squid attack man ? X, 346-347 

8. Does the housefly ever bite people? Explain. 
V, 347-348 

9. Why can a fly's bite cause a serious infection ? V, 
323 

10. What is the most effective method of fly control 
we have? ,343 

11. Why are mosquito bites painful? V, 338 

12. What is the only known carrier of the yellow 
fever virus? V, 338-339 

13. Why has yellow fever occasionally broken out in 
northern cities ? V, 340 

[309] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

14. What damage may the u screw worm" cause to 
animals and man? V, 352 

15. What is the carrier of the germs of African sleep 
ing sickness and nagana? V, 348-349 

1 6. What is the worst biting fly? V, 348 

17. What crab in Jamaica is used to "treat" deaf 
ness? X, 239 

1 8. How are crabs an aid to sanitation in the tropics ? 
X,2 4 5 

19. How do sand fleas help mankind? X, 158 

20. What two species are the only poisonous lizards 
now known? 1,262-263 

21. What lizard in the United States is as deadly as a 
rattlesnake? How does it inject its poison? VIII, 
336 

22. How dangerous is the cobra ? How many people 
in India die each year from cobra bites? Why 
is not the cobra wiped out in India? VIII, 351- 
352 

23. Is it true that a spitting cobra can shoot its poison 
at one's eye? Explain. VI, 269 

24. Why is the mamba so feared? VIII, 354 

25. How old must a baby of a poisonous snake be 
before it can inflict harm upon one ? VIII, 343 

26. How poisonous are copperheads? VIII, 348 

27. What rattlesnake is considered the most danger 
ous in North America ? What gives it its reputa 
tion? VIII, 349 

28. How is antivenin used and prepared? VIII, 35 1 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

29. \Yhat monkey was used to teach ancient doctors 
anatomy? VI, 48 

30. What is the rhinoceros' "horn" made of? VI, 
208 

31. To what use were rhinoceros' horns put at one 
time? VI, 207 

32. What do the Chinese use a rhinoceros' horn for? 
VI, 207 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



d. Things To Do: 

1. Make a representative collection of harmful and 
beneficial insects in your locality. Consult all of 
Volume V. 

2. Make a collection of plants suffering from fungus 
diseases. Preserve the plants in alcohol for your 
museum. XI, 91 

3. To find out whether or not the praying mantis is 
a useful insect, place some live mantes together 
with twenty grasshoppers in a screened cage. By 
daily observations note how soon the grasshop 
pers decrease in number. V, 73-76 

4. Write to an agricultural experimental station in 
your state and ask for pamphlets on corn genetics. 
Examine these with your biology teacher. XI, 
348 

B. Class Discussw ns : 

1. The gorillas will soon be wiped out. VI, 28 

2. White man owes the American Indian nothing. 
XI, 346 

3. Hawks and owls are the worst pests with which 
a farmer has to deal. IX, 141 

4. Horses and cows developed before the grasses 
appeared on earth. XI, 203 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

C. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Underline the word or phrase which makes the sentence 
a true statement. 

1. The lion population in Africa is (a) increasing (b) 
decreasing (c) remaining stationary. VI, 70 

2. Bison were shot (a) for their tongues (b) for their 
tails (c) for being nuisances. VI, 167 

3. The Carolina paroquet was exterminated because 

(a) it was too noisy (b) it has bright feathers (c) it killed 
chickens. VI, 254 

4. When we kill off hawks and owls (a) chickens in 
crease (b) rats and mice increase (c) rats and mice de 
crease. IX, 140-142 

5. The passenger pigeon was wiped out by (a) hawks 

(b) diseases (c) man. IX, 87 

6. The most ancient cultivated plant is (a) the tomato 
(b) the potato (c) corn. XI, 324 

7. The American Indian's chief contribution to civiliza 
tion was (a) tobacco (b) corn (c) the art of weaving. 
XI, 346 

8. Florida fishermen break off the large claws of crabs 
and then throw the crabs back in order to (a) make the 
crabs suffer (b) let the crabs grow new, large claws (c) 
feed the fishes to be caught later. X, 230 

9. The best way to control house-flies is to (a) swat 
every fly we see (b) fumigate the house (c) cover manure. 



10. The yellow fever virus is carried by (a) a fly (b) 
a trypanosome (c) a mosquito. V, 339 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

ANSWERS 

I b 6 c 

2 a 7 b 

3 b 8 b 

4 b 9 c 

5 c 10 c 

TEST II 

Below are ten statements. Some are true and some are 
false. On your paper re-write each false statement in such 
a way that it becomes true. In doing this, you may change 
or leave out any of the italicized words but you may not 
change or leave out any others. 

1 . The passenger pigeon 75 BEING WIPED OUT by 
man. IX, 87 

2. Some hawks and owls SHOULD BE PROTEC 
TED. IX, 141 

3. Whales ARE INCREASING IN NUMBER. IV, 
64,65 

4. Otters are rare today because THEY CAN NOT 
GET ENOUGH FOOD. VI, 116 

5. The American bison as a species BECAME EX 
TINCT. VI, 1 66, 167 

6. Steps have been taken TO EXTERMINATE the 
gorillas. VI, 28 

7. The crowning achievement of the American Indian 
was his development of THE CANOE. XI, 346 

8. CORN was the most ancient of cultivated plants. 
XI, 324 

9. Plant breeders select for propagation only those 
plants THAT NEED LITTLE ATTENTION. XI, 54 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

10. Grazing animals, like horses and cattle, owe their 
development TO THE USE OF BARNS. XI, 203 

ANSWERS 

1. has been wiped out 

2. should not be protected 

3. are being hunted to death 

4. their skins are in great demand by the fur industry 

5. was almost wiped out 

6. protect 

7. corn 

8. corn 

9. that show the desired characteristics 
10. to grasses 



[315] 



UNIT XXII 
THE NATURE OF MATTER 



A. Atoms, And ^Molecules: 

1. Why do we assume the earth formed before the 
decomposition of radio active material? VII, 3 

2. Who laid the groundwork for atomic investiga 
tion? VII, 5 

3. What is the structure of an atom? XII, 54-55 

4. What is the composition of atoms ? II, 290 

5. What is the composition of all elements? VII, 5 

6. What happens to some atoms as stars cool? 
VII, 7 

7. What happens to atoms in the sun? II, 5-6 

8. What is the structure of simple elements accord 
ing to Moseley? VII, 5 

9. What atomic and molecular conditions exist in 
the sun? II, 5-6 

B. Elements And Compounds: 

1. What is the composition of the sun? II, 256-258 

2. What are the elements in the sun? VII, 5 

3. Why are compounds not possible in the sun ? II, 7 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

4. How can it be proved that iron is in the sun? 
II, 256 

5. What happens to common compounds in the sun ? 

II, 289 

6. What is the composition of the products of the 
sun's work in plants? II, 232 

7. What types of compounds are found in minerals ? 

III, 170-171 

8. What elements are valuable gems? Ill, 170 

9. Which compounds contribute to the largest num 
ber of gems? Ill, 171 

10. What is the chemical relationship of synthetic to 
natural gems? Ill, 290 

1 1 . How are artificial diamonds made ? Ill, 289 

12. How many elements occur in metorites? Ill, 65 

13. How is metoric composition determined? 111,64 

14. What is the comparative composition of stony 
and iron meteorites? Ill, 73 

15. What is the average chemical composition of iron 
meteors? Ill, 67 

1 6. What is the average composition of stony iron 
meteors? Ill, 67 

17. What is the average composition of stony 
meteors? Ill, 67 

1 8. What is the composition of 90% of meteoric 
stone? Ill, 75 

19. What colors do the elements produce in gems? 

in, 179 

20. What is the composition of alabaster? Ill, 283 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

21. What is the composition of amethyst? Ill, 226 

22. What is the composition of malachite and 
azurite? Ill, 275 

23. How do malachites and azurites form? Ill, 275 

24. What is the composition of chrysoberyl ? Ill, 247 

25 . What is the composition of chrysolite ? Ill, 249 

26. What is the composition of coral ? Ill, 271 

27. What is the composition of cyanite ? Ill, 275 

28. What is the composition of euclase? Ill, 273 

29. What is the composition of emeralds and beryls ? 

111,210 

30. What is the composition of feldspars? Ill, 262 

3 1 . What is the composition of garnet ? Ill, 243 

32. What common metals are the bases of different 
garnets? Ill, 244 

33. How is glass made ? XII, 325 

34. What is the composition of gypsum? Ill, 284 

35. What is the composition of hematite? 111,279 

36. What is the composition of lazuli? Ill, 260-261 

37. What is the composition of marble? Ill, 280-281 

38. What alloys of nickel and iron are found in 
meteors? Ill, 70 

39. What makes opal unstable ? Ill, 232 

40. What is the composition of opal? Ill, 23 1-232 _ 

41. What is the composition of Mexican onyx? Ill, 
282 

42. What is the composition of pyrites ? Ill, 278 

43. What is the composition of pearl? Ill, 223 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

44. How are artificial rubies and sapphires made? 
Ill, 290 

45. What is the composition of sodalite? Ill, 262 

46. What is the composition of spodumene ? Ill, 250 

47. What is the composition of topaz? Ill, 235 

48. What is the composition of Thomsonite? Ill, 
275 

49. What is the composition of titronite? Ill, 273 

50. What is the composition of tourmaline? 111,239 

51. What is the composition of turquoise and varis- 
cite? Ill, 256-257 

C. Electrons And Protons: 

1. What are electrons and protons? VII, 5 

2. Who first demonstrated the existence of particles 
smaller than atoms? XII, 51 

3. How is the existence of electrons demonstrated? 
XII, 51-52 

4. Where are free electrons found ? XII, 53-54 

5. What is the weight of an electron? XII, 5 i, 54 

6. What prevents the proton and electrons in an 
atom from smashing into each other? XII, 55 

7. What is Moseley's law? VII, 5 

8. How do distances of electrons from the nuclei 
in atoms compare with the distance of the sun 
from the planets? XII, 55 

9. What atomic differences determine the spectra 
of the elements? VII, 6 

[320] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

D. Matter And Energy: 

1. What are the forms of matter? XII, 49 

2. What form of matter is the sun? II, 7 

3. Why is the enormous output of star and sun 
radiation possible? VII, 7 

4. What laws do spiral nebulae follow? VII, 6 

5. How does the sun get its energy? VII, 4 

6. How does a star form? VII, 7 

7. What is a possible origin of the matter of the 
stars? II, 297-298 

8. How do electrons affect the activity of matter? 
XII, 56 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A. Class Discussions: 

1. Electrons are real things. XII, 49-56 

2. Edison discovered a phenomenon which helped 
provide a basis for electron study. XII, 5 8-59 

3. Electrons are everywhere. XII, 54-55 

B. Pupil Reports: - 

1. How gems get their colors. Ill, 178-179, 191, 
218-219, 239, 247, 252-254, 259, 262, 270-271, 
306-307 

2. The chemical elements found in a leaf. II, 232- 
2 33 

3. How crystals grow. Ill, 172-177 

4. The chemistry of gems. Ill, 170-171 

5. Elements and the colors they impart to gems. 
HI, 179 

6. The chemistry of garnets. Ill, 243-247 

7. The chemistry of turquoise. 111,256-260 

8. Practical applications of atomic structure. XII, 
68-71 

9. The building blocks of the sun. II, 290 

10. Professor J. J. Thomson proved the existence of 
the electron. XII, 51-54 

[322] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 
C. Self -Test Exercises : 

TEST I 
BJK8IFNE2PYL 

Change this code word as follows : 

1 . If atomic investigation is based on the work of Mose- 
ley, change B to M. If not, change to W. VII, 5 

2. Change J to E if nothing smaller than atoms exist. 
If something smaller than atoms does exist, change to O. 
XII, 54-55 

3. Change K to L if atoms in the sun have the same 
structure as on the earth. If not, change to S. II, 5-6 

4. If all elements have the same basic materials for their 
structure change 8 to E. If not, change to C. VII, 5 

5. Change I to O if molecules exist in their ordinary 
state in the sun. If not, change to L. II, 5-6 

6. Change F to M if radioactive materials were the first 
on the earth. If not, change to E. VII, 3 

7. Change N to E if the sun is composed of compounds. 
If compounds do not exist on the sun, change to Y. II, 7, 
289 

8. If most of the elements of the earth are found in the 
sun, change E to S. If not, do not change. VII, 5 

9. If iron cannot be proved to be present in the sun, 
change 2 to X. If iron can be shown to be present in the 
sun, leave blank. II, 256, Plate 63 

10. Change P to L if correct chemical duplicates of 
gems can be made. If not, change to A. Ill, 290 

1 1 . Change Y to C if many elements occur in meteorites. 
If only a few occur change to A. Ill, 65 

[323] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

12. Change L to W, if an electron has weight. If not, 
change to T. XII, 51,54 

Note : If all of the above changes were correctly made, 
you will find the name of a rule upon which atomic research 
is based. 

ANSWER 
Moseley's Law 



TEST II 

Match each item in Column A with the proper item in 
Column B 



a. matter 

b. gaseous 

c. nickel and iron 

d. difference in elements 

e. elements 

f . star formation 



B 

1. arrangement of elec 
trons VII, 6 

2. valuable metals III, 
170 

3. electrons exist XII, 5 1 

4. cathode ray tube XII, 
51-52 

5. elements in sun II, 256, 
Plate 63 



6, sun energy VII, 4 

g. tracing path of electrons 7. electrons and protons 

VII, 5 
h. spectrum analysis 



i. atomic disintegration 
j. Thomson 



8. form of matter in the 
sun II, 7 

9. meteors III, 70 

i o. spiral nebulae VII, 6-7 
[324] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

ANSWERS 

a 7 f 10 

b 8 g 4 

c 9 h 5 

d i i 6 

:e 2 j 3 



325] 



UNIT XXIII 

ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIVING 

THINGS 



A. The Record in The Rocks: 
i . AGE OF THE EARTH : 

1. How old is the earth? VII, 3 

2. How is the earth's age measured? VII, 3 

3. How can we know the approximate age of the 
earth's crust? VII, 10-11 

4. What is the yardstick of nature's time clock? 
VII, 3 

5. Where did the ocean's salts come from? X, 4 

6. What does the percentage of salts in the ocean 
tell us about the age of the earth? X, 3-4 

7. What criticisms have been suggested to show that 
the consideration of ocean salts is unreliable in 
estimating the earth's age ? X, 4 

8. What is the most scientific way of estimating the 
earth's age? X, 5 

9. How slowly does uranium disintegrate ? X, 5 

10. How old is the earth according to studies made of 
uranium products in the earth? X, 5 

[327] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

11. Has the question of the earth's age been finally 
settled? Why? X, 5 

12. How does a geologist measure time? IX, 
255-259 

13. How long were the various geological eras? 
X,73 

14. Name the various grand divisions of geologic 
time. X, 7 

2. FOSSILS: 

1. Name the eras of life on the earth. VII, 1 2 

2. What effect did Darwin's work have on our ideas 
of life on the earth? IX, 237 

3. What do we mean by "fossils?" X, 10 

4. What is the oldest record of a fossil collected by 
civilized man ? IX, 228 

5. Where was the first discovery of an American 
fossil made? IX, 232 

6. What conditions must be present for a fossil to 
be formed? VIII, 282-283 

7. How were ancient plants and animals preserved 
in the rocks ? X, 6-7 

8. What does the presence of carbon in rocks mean ? 
X,43 

9. Just how is a plant fossil made? X, 12 

10. Are fossils being formed exactly as in the past? 
Give an example. X, 1 1 

u. How does an animal become petrified? VIII, 
279-280 

[328] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

12. How do animal remains become embedded in 
rock? VIII, 281 

13. How were prehistoric footprints made into fossil 
tracks? VIII, 271 

14. How are fossil molds or imprints formed? X, 
11-12 

15. How perfect can fossil impressions be? Give ex 
amples. X, 12 

1 6. Why are fossil so few in number? VIII, 283-284 

17. Why are the fossil records so incomplete? X, 26- 
29 

1 8. Why are so few seaweed fossils found? X, 12 

19. Why are fossils not found in igneous rocks? X, 
10 

20. Why are sea plants and animals more often found 
as fossils than those of the land? X, 1 1 

3. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOSSIL STUDY : 

1. What did people once upon a time think fossils 
were? IX, 228 

2. How did the ancient Greeks and Romans explain 
the fossils they found? X, 13 

3. How did some people since the Middle Ages 
look upon fossils ? X, 13-14 

4. How did people in the sixteenth century explain 
fossils? VIII, 281-282 

5. When did people first begin to understand what 
fossils really were? IX, 230 

6. Read the interesting story of a professor who 
thought fossils were not animal remains. VIII, 
282 

[329] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

7. What is the science of paleontology? X, 14-16 

8. What is the work of a paleontologist? X, 16 

9. Who was the father of modern paleontology? 
IX, 232 

10. Who were some pioneer students in the science of 
fossils? What did they find out ? IX, 230232 

n. What president of the United States was a great 
scientist? IX, 233-234 

12. Where do collectors go for fossils? Once found, 
how are fossils extracted from rocks ? VIII, 284- 
285 

13. Where in the United States is there a deposit of 
fossils in almost perfect condition ? How was this 
made possible? IX, 46-47 

14. What caused the tremendous fossil deposits in a 
Colorado lake? X, 80 

15. When was it first found out that Northwestern 
United States had many fossils? What hindered 
exploration there ? IX, 235-236 

1 6. What do museum workers do with specimens re 
ceived from collectors? IX, 220-221 

17. What kind of work is done on fossils collected in 
the field? VIII, 286-290 

1 8. Explain why there are so few fossils exhibited in 
the museums? VIII, 286 

19. How are fossils "restored? 1 ' VIII, 288-289 

20. How can the age of different remains be deter 
mined? VII, 39 

21. How does a paleontologist determine the ancient 
history of a region? X, 17 

[330] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

22. How do paleontologists know when mammals 
arose and when dinosaurs first appeared? X, 15 

23. Were all present day animals in existence in the 
distant past? How do we know ? X, 15-16 

24. How do fossils indicate old land and water 
areas? X, 18 

25. What has shown us that the level of the land con 
tinually changes ? X, 30-31 

26. What happens to the mud that now reaches the 
ocean beds? X, 34 

27. What happened during the Cambrian period? 
X, 35-38 

28. Why are some fossils of western North America 
the same as those found in China? X, 36 

29. Why are some animal fossils found in the British 
Isles and Scandinavia also found in the Appa 
lachian Mountains ? X, 37 

30. What states were once covered by very large 
oceans? X, 37-38 

31. Why are radically different animal fossils found 
in Alabama? X, 37 

32. Why is North America best for the study of ex 
tremely ancient life? X, 7-8 

33. Why is Europe best for the study of more recent 
life? X, 8 

4. LIFE ON THE EARTH DURING DIFFERENT PERIODS 
OF ITS HISTORY: 

I. What successive forms of life occurred on the 
earth in the periods and eras of the earth's his 
tory? VII, 19-20 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. What took place during the first era on the earth ? 
VII, 12-13 

3. How long was the first period? VII, 12 

4. What took place during the second period? VII, 

13 

5. What evidences of life during the second period 
have we found? VII, 13 

6. When were the first fossils formed? VII, 13 

7. What forms of life existed during the Cambrian 
era? VII, 13 

8. What animals lived during the Ordovician era? 
VII, 13 

9. In which era did invertebrates arise? VII, 14 

10. How many known species existed during the 

Devonian period? VII, 15-16 
n. What were animals like during the Eocene 

period? VII, 1 8 

12. What happened to life during the Permian 
period? VII, 15 

13. How many species were alive during the Permian 
period? VII, 1 6 

14. What animals were confined to America in the 
Miocene period? VII, 18 

15. Has life since it began on the earth ever been 
completely wiped from the face of the earth? 
Explain. VII, 37 

1 6. When was life on the earth at its lowest ebb? 
VII, 37 

17. What estimates have been made of time since 
the beginning of the Ice Age ? VII, 68 

[332] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

1 8. When did the Glacial period take place ? VII, 19 

19. What was the weather like during the Ice Age? 
VII, 58 

20. When did the Ice Age end? VII, 68-69 

21. How much time has elapsed since the last Ice 
Age? VII, 69-70 

22. How much ice is calculated to have formed dur 
ing the Ice Age? VII, 62 

23. What evidence do we have today of the effect of 
glaciers ? VII, 60 

24. What animals survived the Ice Age in Europe? 
VII, 68 

25. In what kind of rocks are the majority of fossils 
found? X, ii 

26. What is meant by strata ? VII, 8- 10 

27. How many feet of sedimentary rock have been 
formed since the beginning of the earth? X, 2 

28. Where do scientists usually look for the earliest 
forms of life? X, 40-41 

29. What name has been given to the first sedimen 
tary rocks? X, 41 

30. Where are Archeozoic formations found? X, 
41-42 

31. Why are Archeozoic rocks practically without 
any kind of fossils? X, 42 

32. What kind of plant was found in the Archeozoic 
rocks? X, 43 

33. What name was given to the oldest known form 
of life? X, 43 

[333] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

34. What changes took place during the Proterozoic 
era ? X, 44-49 

35. What evidence is there that the Proterozoic era 
was cool? X, 45-46 

36. What kind of fossils are found in the Proterozoic 
rocks? X, 46-49 

37. What evidences of plant life are found in the 
Proterozoic rocks? X, 47-48 

38. How did the Proterozoic plants affect the de 
velopment of animal life? X, 49 

39. What does "Paleozoic" mean? X, 50 

40. Why do we find more fossils in rocks formed 
during the Paleozoic era than in earlier eras ? X, 
50 

41 . What kind of animals lived in the Paleozoic era ? 

x,ss 

42. What Paleozoic animal became for a time the 
world's dominant animal type? X, 55 

43. Were any vertebrates found in Paleozoic rocks? 
Explain. X, 55 

44. What locality is famous for having fossils whose 
soft internal structure has been preserved? X, 
57-58 

45. What did we learn from the fossils collected by 
Dr. Walcott of the Smithsonian? X, 5 8-59 

46. What kind of sedimentary rock is used today for 
lithographing? X, 59-60 

47. How do we explain the presence of perfect fossils 
in Burgess shale ? X, 60 

[334] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

48. What animals were abundant in the Silurian 
Period? X, 63-64 

49. What plants and animals died out during the 
Permian Period? X, 72 

50. What do Mesozoic and Cenozoic mean? X, 73 

51. What effect did the birth of the Appalachian 
Mountains have on the surrounding land? X, 73 

52. When did the Triassic Period occur? X, 74 

53. What kind of animals roamed the land during 
the Jurassic Period? X, 75 

54. What invertebrate animals were dominant in the 
Age of Reptiles? X, 75 

55. What happened to the ancient Ammonites? X, 
75-76 

56. What animals ruled the land during the lower 
Cretaceous period? X, 77 

57. What caused the formation of large chalk beds? 
X, 7 8 

58. What is meant by the Cenozoic era? X, 78-79 

59. What great changes took place at the beginning 
of the Cenozoic era? X, 78 

60. What is meant by Oligocene? X, 79 

61. What does amber look like? Ill, 268 

62. How did amber originate? X, 80 

63. When did amber form? Ill, 268 

64. What has amber preserved for us? X, 80 

65. What fossils are found in amber? Ill, 268 

66. In what kinds of rock are emeralds found? Ill, 
211-213 

[335] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

67. What is the difference between minerals and 
rocks? Ill, 279-280 

68. What is basalt? 111,287-288 

5. THE RECORD OF INVERTEBRATES IN THE ROCKS : 

1. What kind of climate occurred in the Eocene 
Period? X, 79 

2. What killed many animals in the Miocene 
Period? X, 79 

3. Have jellyfish ever been perfectly preserved in 
rocks? Explain. X, 59 

4. How ancient are the oyster and clam? VII, 13 

5. What peculiar type of shell life existed during the 
Silurian Period? VII, 14 

6. What were the ancestors of our present day squid 
or cuttlefish? X, 76 

7. How ancient is the octopus? VII, 13 

8. How far back has the ancestry of cephalopods 
been traced? X, 322-325 

9. In what way does the cartilaginous skeleton take 
the place of the cephalopod shell? X, 326-327 

10. What caused the greater development of the 
nervous system of the octopus? X, 321-322 

1 1 . How large were the ancestors of our present day 
chambered nautilus ? X, 62-63 

12. What did the ancestor of crustaceans look like? 
X,97 

13. Why do the Chinese treasure fossil crabs? X, 
238 

14. Why were insects able to live and reproduce 
freely in the Carboniferous period? V, 89 

[336] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. Why did insects before the Carboniferous period 
leave no fossils? V, 93 

1 6. How many pairs of wings did the first insects 
have? V, 91-93 

17. What two kinds of insects gave rise to all our 
present day types of insects? X, 71 

1 8. How did ancient roaches compare with present 
day roaches ? V, 89 

19. How ancient is the roach family said to be? V, 
82 

20. How large were roaches in the Coal Measures? 
X, 70-71 

21. What were some of the plant and animal neigh 
bors of the roaches many millions of years ago? 
V, 85-89 

22. How large were the Coal Measures dragon flies? 
X, 7 o 

23. What modern insects had giant ancestors with a 
wing-spread of two feet? V, 93-96 

24. What does the fly group teach us about evolu 
tion? V, 353 

25. What is the meaning of the "halters" or balancers 
behind each wing of a fly or mosquito? V, 319 

26. What caused the change from primitive giant in 
sects to those we now know? X, 71 

27. What did the ancestors of our present day 
scorpions look like? When did they live? X, 64 

28. When did great scorpion-like creatures live on 
the earth? VII, 14 

[337] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

29. What animal today has an embryo stage which 
looks very much like a trilobite ? What does this 
indicate ? X, 5 6 

30. What were trilobites once thought to be? X, 56 

3 1 . Who first showed us the trilobites' relationship to 
the shrimps and crabs of today? X, 56 

32. Why is a trilobite not considered a primitive crea 
ture? VII, 13 

33. What effect did the retreat of the seas have on 
trilobites and sea scorpions? X, 74 

34. When did trilobites decline ? VII, 14 

35. What happened to the trilobites? X, 55-56 

6. THE RECORD OF EARLY VERTEBRATES AND FISHES : 

1. What is the connecting link between crustaceans 
and vertebrates ? VII, 14 

2. What were the oldest known vertebrates ? X, 64- 

65 

3. What were the ancient ostracoderms like ? What 
happened to them? VIII, 10-12 

4. How long have fishes been on this globe? VIII, 
10 

5. What fish stands between the lancelet and the 
shark in development? VIII, 9-10 

6. What does the lancelet teach us about the first 
fishes? VIII, 8-9 

7. Why is the shark considered to be the forerunner 
of our modern fishes? VIII, 12-13 

8. What is the evidence that fishes changed little 
since prehistoric times? VIII, 4 

[338] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

9. When did fishes first appear on the earth? VII, 
H 

10. From what group of fishes did our common bony 
fishes come? VIII, 25 

11. How large must the ancient sharks have been? 
VIII, 3 

12. Name some Devonian fishes. X, 65 

13. What ancient fish was larger than a whale? 
VIII, 14 

14. When did true fishes flourish? VII, 4 

15. What is the origin of the lower jaw in fishes? 
VIII, 65 

j6. How does a fish's skull compare with that of a 
higher vertebrate? VIII, 64 

17. What part of a fish's body tells more about its 
relations than does any other part ? VIII, 60 

1 8. What fishes have lost some fins ? VIII, 42 

19. How did the flat fishes get both their eyes on top 
of their heads? VIII, 68-69 

20. Why is a fish so insensible to pain? VIII, 99 

7. THE RECORD OF AMPHIBIANS : 

1. When did animals first acquire lungs? X, 69-70 

2. When did air-breathing land vertebrates first ap 
pear? X, 22 

3. From what type of animals did amphibia de 
velop? VIII, 161-162 

4. What were the ancestors of amphibians ? VIII, 2 

5. What conditions may have led to the develop 
ment of amphibians from fishes? VIII, 20-21 

[339] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. What did the extinct amphibians, look like? 
VIII, 164 

7. Describe the most perfect amphibian fossil yet 
found. VIII, 164-165 

8. Why are complete fossils of amphibian dinosaurs 
rarely found? VIII, 231 

9. Where was the greatest number of amphibian 
fossils found ? VIII, 165-166 

10. What particular structures are looked for in fos 
sil amphibians ? VIII, 167-168 

11. What was the size of Devonian amphibians? 
VII, 15 

12* How large were fossil amphibia during the Great 
Coal period? X, 70 

13. How big was the largest amphibian fossil ever 
found? VIII, 163 

14. Describe the best known North American 
amphibian now extinct. VIII, 168-169 

1 5 . What did fossil frogs look like ? How large were 
they? VIII, 169 

1 6. What in the life history of frogs and toads shows 
us their relationship to salamanders? VIII, 
195-196 

17. In what ways have cave salamanders been 
changed? VIII, 189-190 

1 8. What happens to the eyes of salamanders that 
live in caves ? Describe the eye changes that occur 
during their lifetime. VIII, 183 

8. THE RECORD OF DINOSAURS AND OTHER REPTILES : 
I . How are the amphibians linked with the reptiles ? 

VIII, 2 

[340] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

2. What does the word "dinosaurs" bring to your 
mind? VIII, 213-214 

3. What w y as the size and shape of various dino 
saurs? VII, 17 

4. Describe some flesh-eating dinosaurs. VIII, 2 1 9- 
226 

5. What was the most ferocious flesh-eating animal 
the world has ever known? Describe it and its 
habits. VIII, 224 

6. When did the dinosaur become supreme? VII, 

7. When did the Age of Reptiles begin? X, 74 

8. What group of animals ruled the earth during 
the Jurassic Period? VII, 17 

9. When did reptiles begin to flourish? VII, 17 

10. What forms of life arose during the Triassic, 
Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods? VII, 16-17 

11. How far back in history do reptiles go? VIII, 
212 

12. Why were the ancient reptiles wiped out? X, 77 

13. What features of the giant dinosaur skeletons en 
abled the animal to stand and move about? VIII, 
229-230 

14. What can you say about the brain capacity of a 
dinosaur? VIII, 235-236, 243 

15. How large were the brains of ancient reptiles? 
X.77 

1 6. What dinosaur had two "brains?" Explain this 
condition. VIII, 243-244 

[341] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

17. Describe the skin of dinosaurs. How can we de 
termine what sort of skin they had ? VIII, 2 1 7 

1 8. What was the outstanding discovery in paleon 
tology in recent times ? VIII, 2 1 7-2 1 8 

19. Have you ever heard rumors that dinosaurs may 
still be found living in some parts of the world? 
What truth is there in the stories ? VIII, 2 1 3 

20. What kinds of dinosaur fossils are found in our 
"Dinosaur National Monument?" Why is this 
place so rich in fossils? VIII, 215-216 

21. What are the South Dakota Badlands famous 
for? X, 78 

22. What states in our country have rich fossil de 
posits of dinosaurs? VIII, 216 

23. What caused all the dinosaurs to perish? VIII, 
249-250 

24. How heavy was the Brontosaurus ? VIII, 230 

25. What is meant by "ichthyosaurs ?" VIII, 251 

26. How did the ichthyosaurs become fitted to sea 
life? VIII, 251-254 

27. What was the size and shape of ichthyosaurs and 
plesiosaurs? VII, 16 

28. Describe the paddle of the ichthyosaurs. VIII> 
254 

29. How did Ichthyosaurus reproduce its kind? 
State the evidence for your statement. VIII, 
252-253 

30. What were the "mosasaurs?" What interesting 
story is connected with the finding of the first 
mosasaur? VIII, 256-257 

[342] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

31. What state is famous for its aquatic dinosaur 
fossils? 111,256 

32. How do we know what mosasaurs ate? VIII, 
258-259 

33. What were the plesiosaurs? How were they 
fitted to sea life ? VIII, 260-261 

34. What ancient turtle weighed three tons? VIII, 
262 

35. What were the pterodactyls? When did they 
live? VIII, 263 

36. What was the first vertebrate to fly? VII, 17 

37. What was the largest flying reptile? VII, 17 

38. Describe the pterodactyls and their habits. VIII, 
264-268 

39. How were pterodactyls identified as having been 
flying reptiles ? VIII, 264 

40. What was the ancestry of our present-day alli 
gators and crocodiles? VIII, 299-300 

41. Describe some "beaked" dinosaurs and their 
habits. VIII, 232-250 

42. What dinosaurs had more than 2,000 teeth in 
their mouths? VIII, 238 

43. How is a dinosaur "mummy" formed by nature? 
VIII, 239-240 

44. Describe some of the tracks and trails left by din 
osaurs. VIII, 269-277 

45. Where and how were the first fossil tracks found 
in North America ? 111,269-271 

46. Why are many people misled into thinking cer 
tain rocks are fossils? VIII, 280 

[343] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

47. Why did the glass snake lizard lose its legs? 

VIII, 334 

48. What has happened to the class of reptiles since 
prehistoric times? VIII, 211-212 

, THE RECORD OF BIRDS : 

1. What evidence have we that birds came from 
reptiles? IX, 48-49 

2. Describe the main features of Archaeopteryx, 
Ichthyornis and Hesperornis. IX, 41-45 

3. What fossil birds had teeth? IX, 43-44 

4. When did toothless birds first appear? IX, 45 

5. What did fossil birds look like ? IX, 42-44 

6. Where were the oldest fossils of birds found? 
What were they like? IX, 41-42 

7. How many fossil bird species have been found? 

IX, 39 

8. Why are there so few fossils of birds in spite of 
their past abundance? IX, 40-41 

9. When did the true birds first appear? X, 79 
10. When did sea birds arise? VII, 17 

n. What catastrophe overtook birds in the North 
ern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene ? IX, 40 

12. Why was the prehistoric bird, Diatryma, 
famous ? IX, 45 

13. What recent bird stood over ten feet high? IX, 
47-48 

14. What bird had an egg with a capacity of two 
gallons ? IX, 47 

C344] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. What bird gave us the idea of the roc of Sin- 
bad's adventures ? IX, 47 

1 6. What kind of birds were known to prehistoric 
men? How do we know this? IX, 3-4 

1 7. Give some evidence to show that the ostrich came 
from a flying ancestor. IX, 13 

10. THE RECORD OF MAMMALS : 

1. How did the phrase "Age of Mammals" get its 
name? IX, 267 

2. Where are the ancestors of modern animals 
found? VII, 1 8 

3. When were modern sea mammals formed? VII, 
18 

4. Describe the titanotheres and their habits. IX, 
xSi, 191-192 

5. How was a great titanothere skeleton found and 
dug up from the Badlands? IX, 181-187 

6. How were the titanotheres wiped out? IX, 194- 
195 

7. Where did mastodons live? VII, 18 

8. Describe three rhinoceroses found in the Dakota 
Badlands. IX, 199 

9. What animals developed at the same time as did 
the grasses? X, 79 

10. What has been the history of mammoths and 
elephants in North and Central America? IX, 
349-358 

11. When did the ox appear? VII, 18 

12. When did deer first appear? VII T 18 

[345] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

13. How did the modern horse develop? IX, 
353-361 

14. What were the ancestors of our present day 
horses like? IX, 193 

15. When did horses first appear? VII, 18 

1 6. When did camels first appear ? VII, 1 8 

17. Where did the possible ancestors of camels first 
appear? IX, 199 

1 8. What was the largest animal that ever lived on 
land or sea? IX, 368 

19. Where were saber-tooth tigers plentiful in the 
United States? IX, 200 

20. What happened to the saber-tooth tiger? VII, 
18 

21. What is the probable ancestor of our domestic 
cat? VI, 92 

22. What do we know about the ancestors of the cat? 
IX, 322 

23. What do we know about the ancestors of the 
dog? IX, 321-322 

24. When did dogs arise ? VII, 1 8 

25. When did rodents arise ? VII, 18 

1 1. THE RECORD OF PLANTS IN THE ROCKS : 

1. How old are the animal and vegetable king 
doms? VII, 3 

2. How lohg have modern species existed? VII, 20 

3. When did plants begin to flourish ? VII, 1 4 

4. When did the modern plant arise ? VII, 1 7 

[346] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

5. When did the earliest flowering plants appear? 
X,77 

6. When did flowering plants assume supremacy? 
X,79 

7. Name some trees which lived in the Cenozoic 
Era. X, 79 

8. How did the trees in Arizona become petrified? 
X, 74-75 

9. What evidence have we that the Rocky Moun 
tain climate "was once milder and damper than 
today? X, 80 

i o. What effect did the Ice Age have on plants and 
animals? X, 82 

1 1. What kind of climate existed the world over in 
the Coal Age? X, 69 

12. What kind of animals lived when "Coal Mea 
sures" plants flourished? X, 69-70 

13. When did giant ferns flourish? X, 67-68 

1 4. How do we know that ferns once were the domi 
nant group of plants? XI, 94 

15. How tall were the ancestors of our horsetail 
plants of today? X, 67 

1 6. Why was the Carboniferous Period so named? 
X,6 5 

17. What kind of plants became prominent during 
the Carboniferous Period? VII, 14 

1 8. -How was coal formed? X, 68 

19. What type of root system did tall plants have in 
the "Great Coal" Period? X, 66 

[347] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

20. What have fossils of bark in the "Coal Meas 
ures" been mistaken for? X, 67 

21. Name some present-day plants, the ancestors of 
which formed our great coal deposits. V, 87-88 

22. What kind of plants replaced the plants of the 
Carboniferous Period during the Permian 
Period? VII, 17 

23. What is the effect of a dry environment upon 
leaves? XI, 271-272 

24. What were some of the factors that led to the de 
velopment of desert plants? XI, 264-270 

B. The Record of Man in The Rocks: 
i . EARLY MAN'S HISTORY : 

1. How are the prehistoric records of man read? 
VII, 5 1-52 

2. How do records of man come to light? VII, 53- 
54 

3. What kinds of scientists have helped decipher 
man's past? VII, 37 

4. When does early man seem to fade from the pic 
ture of the earth ? VII, 2 

5. What period saw the dawn of human life? VII, 
18 

6. During which period did true man arise? VII, 19 

7. How far back does man's history go ? VII, 32 

8. Why is it impossible to answer the question of 
man's original beginning? VII, 32 

9. What are some theories regarding man's origin? 
IX, 330 

10. When may man have first appeared? X, 82 

[348] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

11. Why is it so difficult to trace man's origin from 
primates? IX, 329-330 

12. What evidences are found of man before the 
Stone Age? VII, 43 

13. Where were the remains of earliest known man 
found? VII, 134 

14. How can animals and plants give us information 
about man's history? VII, 38 

15. Why have the bones of man and animals re 
mained as records? VII, 44 

1 6. What animals were alive during the age of the 
"dawn man?" VII, 134 

17. What happened to many types of animals which 
were alive during early man's days on the earth? 
VII, 44 

1 8. What part of the body of man and animals is 
best preserved? VII, 45 

19. What is known about the u dawn man?" VII, 72 

20. What is another name for the "daw r n man?" 
VII, 134 

21. What evidences have we of man and animals of 
the Pleistocene Period? VII, 19 

22. Why is the Piltdown Man called Eoanthropus? 
VII, 140 

23. What deductions maybe made from the Piltdown 
skull? VII, 141 

24. Who was Pithecanthropus erectus? VII, 146-148 

25. What does the skull of Pithecanthropus resem 
ble? VII, 149-150 

[349] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

26. Why is it impossible to place the age of the 
Rhodesian skull? VII, 162 

27. Where may the Rhodesian skull be placed in his 
tory? VII, 161 

28. When did Pithecanthropus erectus live? VII, 
149 

29. To which age does the Pithecanthropus belong? 
VII, 149 

30. Where was the Rhodesian Man found? VII, 
154-158 

31. Why is it difficult to put the Rhodesian skull in its 
proper historical place ? VII, 1 60 

32. Why would it be possible to judge a gorilla's pos 
ture from its skull without our ever having seen 
one? VII, 47 

33. What is the difference in brain case between man, 
gorilla, chimpanzee and orang outang? VII, 45 

34. How can skulls give us information regarding in 
telligence ? VII, 46 

35. What is the relation of chin development to intel 
ligence and historical age ? VII, 47 

36. What was the shape of Briinn Man's skull ? VII, 

7 6 

37. What is the general appearance of the Rhodesian 
skull? VII, 1 60 

2. OLD STONE AGE : 

1 . When did the Stone Age begin ? VII, 42 

2. When did the Mousterian epoch begin in 
Europe? VII, 191 

[350] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

3. What important skull differences are found in the 
La Quina man? VII, 124 

4. What is the difference in skull vault between 
Krapina man and modern man? VII, 108 

5 . What are the comparative sizes of the brain from 
chimpanzee to man? VII, 163 

6. How does a skull reveal the posture of the origi 
nal man or animal? VII, 46-47 

7. What is the importance of the folds of the brain? 
VII, 46 

8. What do teeth tell us about the age, culture and 
intelligence of prehistoric man? VII, 48 

9. What conclusions are drawn from the Heidel 
berg skull? VII, 144-145 

10. What do we know of man before Neanderthal 
man? VII, 133 

11. When did the Mousterian culture of the 
Neanderthal man possibly begin? VII, 166 

12. What animals are found with Neanderthal re 
mains? VII, 95 

13. What animals were alive during the Mousterian 
period? VII, 124 

14. What animals were found to have lived during 
the life of the man of La Chappelle-aux-Saints? 
VII, 1 1 6 

15. To which fossil groups does the fossil man of La 
Chappelle-aux-Saints belong? VII, 118 

1 6. What type of culture did the Neanderthal man 
have? VII, 67-68 

[350 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

17. Where in the Neanderthal group do the Galilee 
skulls belong? VII, 128 

1 8. How do the bones of the Krapina man compare 
with those of the white man today? VII, 106- 
107 

19. What animals were common during the life of 
Krapina man? VII, 104 

20. To what age did the fossil man of La Chappelle- 
aux-Saints belong? VII, 113-116 

21. How do the bones of the fossil man of La Chap- 
pelle-aux-Saints compare with modern human 
bones? VII, 117 

22. What proof have we that Neanderthal man was 
not confined to Europe? VII, 126-128 

23. What proof of Mousterian culture was found in 
Germany? VII, 110-113 

24. How do the teeth of Krapina man compare with 
those of modern man? VII, 108 

25. What evidences of the Stone Age were found 
with the bones of the Krapina man? VII, 106 

26. How long did Neanderthal man survive? VII, 
81 

27. What are the similarities and differences of the 
Krapina skull and modern skulls ? VII, 104 

28. Approximately when did the Stone Age begin? 
VII, 1 66 

29. How much culture was in existence at the begin 
ning of the Stone Age? VII, 166 

30. What do the teeth of the Heidelberg jawbone 
resemble? VII, 143 . 

[352] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

31. What are the characteristics of the Heidelberg 
jawbone? VII, 143 

32. How ancient is the fossil jawbone of Heidelberg 
Man? VII, 142 

33. How were the stone tools of Neanderthal man 
used? VII, 193 

34. What were some of the tools made from bone? 
VII, 194 

35. Why are many of ancient man's materials not 
found today? VII, 187 

36. When did man first appear on the American con 
tinent? VII, 327 

37. Why is it wrong to say that mankind disappeared 
from Europe at the end of the Old Stone Age? 
VII, 234 

38. What is the difference in stone implements be 
tween those of the Mousterian culture and those 
of the Acheulian culture? VII, 193 

39. When were bone instruments first found to have 
been in use? VII, 194 

40. What race superseded the Neanderthal? VII, 
198 

41. Before which epoch had man learned to kindle a 
fire? VII, 192 

42. Why are we led to believe that ancient man used 
handles for his tools? VII, 194 

43. What kind of implements were used by Pre-Chel- 
lean man? VII, 184 

44. How did Pre-Chellean man appear in Europe? 
VII, 182 

[353] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

45. What differences and similarities are there be 
tween the Chellean and Pre-Chellean Age ? VII, 
185 

46. When did the Mousterian culture end? VII, 191 

47. What proof have we that wood was used by Stone 
Age man? VII, 194 

48. Why are there no wood remains of ancient tools ? 
VII, 194 

49. How did man first use clubs? VII, 194 

50. What kind of life did the Pre-Chellean man 
lead? VII, 184 

51. What is meant by the Acheulian epoch? VII, 

i8 7 

52. What kind of climate occurred in Europe during 
the Chellean days? VII, 184 

53. How long did Solutrean culture exist in Europe ? 

VII, 211 

54. What distinguishes the human life of the Solu 
trean epoch? VII, 74-75 

55. What part of Europe did Solutrean culture af 
fect? VII, 207 

56. When did Solutrean culture disappear? VII, 211 

57. What followed the disappearance of the Solu 
trean epoch? VII, 212 

5 8 . What developments took place during the Acheu 
lian epoch? VII, 189 

59. Did the earlier and later type of cave dweller live 
at the same time ? Explain. VII, 199 

60. What two cultures were in simultaneous existence 
in Europe at the beginning of the Great Cold? 
VII, 190 

[354] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6 1. How long ago did Cro-Magnon man appear in 
Europe? VII, 166 

62. When did Cro-Magnon man exist? VII, 73 

63. When did Cro-Magnon appear in Europe ? VII, 
76 

64. Where did the Cro-Magnon race live? VII, 77 

65. What was the appearance of Cro-Magnon man? 
VII, 75 

66. How much of man's culture was in existence when 
Cro-Magnon man appeared? VII, 167 

67. When did the Magdalenian epoch begin? VII, 
214 

68. What evidence of Cro-Magnon man is found in 
Africa? VII, 79 

69. What evidence is there that Grimaldi man had 
his origin in Africa? VII, 79-80 

70. What simple modern tool was used extensively 
by the Magdalenian man? VII, 217 

71. What caused the great artistic era of Magda 
lenian man? VII, 218-219 

72. Which animals were represented on the walls of 
caves? VII, 203 

73. What was the purpose of Cro-Magnon draw 
ings? VII, 220 

74. What evidence is in existence that Cro-Magnon 
man employed medicine men? VII, 222-223 

75. What is the only source of clay sculpture left by 
Magdalenian man? VII, 221 

76. What changes took place regarding food-getting 
by Cro-Magnon man at the end of the Magda 
lenian epoch? VII, 226 

[355] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

77. Where were Cro-Magnon people buried? VII, 
78 

78. Why is it that Cro-Magnon people often had a 
larger brain than that of modern man? VII, 73- 
74 

79. What tools did Cro-Magnon man use ? VII, 201 

80. What caused the decline of the Magdalenian 
man? VII, 225 

8 1. What group displaced Cro-Magnon? VII, 228- 
229 

82. What definite evidence have we of man during 
the Glacial period? VII, 19 

THE ICE AGE : 

1. What is meant by the name, Ice Age ? VII, 56 

2. What are some old theories regarding the cause 
of the Ice Age? VII, 56-57 

3. How much would the temperature of Europe 
have to drop in order to bring on another Ice 

Age? VII, 56-57 

4. How long ago did the Ice Age occur? VII, 57 

5. Has there been more than one Ice Age? Ex 
plain. VII, 56 

6. Explain how the sun might have been the cause 
of the Ice Age. VII, 56-57 

7. What must have happened to winters during the 
Ice Age? VII, 60 

8. What kind of animals lived during the Ice Age? 
VII, 60-6 1 

9. What kind of men lived during the Ice Age? 
VII, 67 

[356] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

10. What kind of life did man lead in the last Glacial 
period? VII, 68 

1 1. What kind of man inhabited Europe at the close 
of the Glacial period? VII, 71 

12. What race other than Cro-Magnon occupied 
Europe at the close of the Ice Age? VII, 74-76 

13. What type of life persisted in the Spanish Pen 
insula while the Glacier was over the rest of 
Europe? VII, 227 

1 4. Why is it believed that the Pre-Chellean age falls 
in the third or second Interglacial period? VII, 
182 

15. What leads us to believe that population was 
sparce in Pre-Chellean times? VII, 182 

1 6. What climatic changes took place during the Old 
Stone Age and the Middle Stone Age? VII, 43 

4. MIDDLE STONE AGE : 

1. What types of man existed after Cro-Magnon 
man? VII, 74 

2. Where is the Stone Age in existence today? VII, 
41 

3. What is the Middle Stone Age? VII, 43 

4. What is the difference between the Old Stone Age 
and the Middle Stone Age? VII, 244-245 

5. How did the Middle Stone Age man live? VII, 
234 

5. NEW STONE AND BRONZE AGES : 

i. What animals were known to early Indus River 
people? VII, 313 

[357] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Why have we practically no traces of Neolithic 
artistry? VII, 263 

3. What people living in the New Stone Age were 
found by explorers ? VII, 263 

4. What kinds of ancient remains have lasted until 
today? VII, 264 

5. What proof do we have that Solutrean man ate 
horses for food? VII, 253 

6. What are the demarcations of the ages of man? 
VII, 266 

7. How can Bronze Age remains be easily identi 
fied? VII, 273 

8. How far are we now from the Bronze Age? VII, 
275 

9. How long and over which area did the Bronze 
Age hold sway? VII, 293 

6. DEVELOPMENT OF MAN : 

1. What are the periods and eras in the history of 
man? VII, 19-20 

2. How does a skull reveal the posture of the origi 
nal man or animal ? VII, 46-47 

3. How can a skull give information regarding in 
telligence ? VII, 46 

4. Why should it be possible to judge a gorilla's 
posture from its skull without our ever having 
seen a gorilla? VII, 47 

5. What part of Piltdown Man establishes him as a 
primitive type ? VII, 138-139 

[358] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

6. What is the difference in tongue muscle projec 
tion in the skull in modern man, ape and prehis 
toric man? 11,47-48 

7. How do the bones of Krapina man compare with 
the white man of today? VII, 106-107 

8. What are the comparative sizes of the brain from 
chimpanzee to man? VII, 163 

9. What are the similarities and differences of the 
Krapina skulls and modern skulls? VII, 104 

10. What is the importance of the folds of the brain? 
VII, 46 

1 1 . What kind of cell changes are the only ones which 
will change future generations? VII, 32 

12. How thick was the skull of u dawn man?" VII, 

136 

13. What kind of brain did Pithecanthropus erectus 
have? VII, 148 

14. What do we know about the posture of Pithecan 
thropus? VII, 151-152 

15. What is the brain capacity of the ape and Pithe 
canthropus? VII, 150 

1 6. Was Pithecanthropus a tree climber or ground 
walker? Explain. VII, 152 

17. Why is Pithecanthropus considered a transitional 
form? VII, 153-154 

1 8. What is the difference in skull vault between the 
Krapina, Neanderthal and modern man? VII, 
108 

19. What information do lower jawbones give to the 
anthropologist? VII, 47 

[359] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

20. How is the weight of the organs, chest and head 
carried in man? VII, 49 

21. Ho\v is the weight of the upper body carried in 
animals? VII, 49 

22. How was the erect body balanced? VII, 48 

23. What were the anatomical peculiarities of Nean 
derthal man? VII, 131 

24. How do the jawbones of the Neanderthal man, a 
European man and a young chimpanzee com 
pare? (See illustration.) VII, 95 

25. Why is it correct to accept reconstruction of 
skulls made from a few fragments? VII, 49-50 

26. What changes in his anatomy took place as man 
developed? VII, 48 

27. How does the shape of the knee affect upright 
carriage? VII, 49-50 

28. What is the relationship of thighbone size to 
height? VII, 49-50 

29. What evidence is there that environment caused 
organic evolution in all forms of living things ? 
VII, 21 

30. What is the origin of species ? VII, 20-2 1 

31. Why is man not believed to have descended from 
amonkey? VII, 21-22 

32. What profound changes in the human being have 
taken place? VII, 35 

33. What is the relative weight and length of a new 
born baby compared with that of an adult? VII, 
34 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

34. What appendages do humans have which are not 
now necessary? VII, 31 

35. What is the size and weight of the human embryo 
during the period of gestation? VII, 33 

36. How does an infant's heart beat? VII, 34 

37. What are the rates of growth of a human being 
at different stages? VII, 34 

38. What is the weight of the parts of the body in 
infants and adults? VII, 34 

39. What change takes place in human beings at 

birth? VII, 33 

40. What changes take place in the heart-beat as a 
child grows? VII, 34 

41. Why are there no two human beings exactly 
alike? VII, 24' 

42. What caused the change in stature of Cro- 
Magnon man? VII, 212 

43. What is the difference between the Cro-Magnon 
and Caspian man? VII, 228 

44. Where are descendants of Cro-Magnon man 
found today? VII, 228 

45 . What caused a different culture to develop among 
the West Coast Indians than among the others ? 
IV, 175 

46. What is the belief of scientists concerning the de 
velopment of man? VII, 31-32 

47. How does the Spy skull compare to the skull of 
Neanderthal and of modern man? VII, 102 

48 . What was the external appearance of early man ? 
VII, 168 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

49. What was the structure of early man's nose, lips 
and eyebrows? VII, 169 

50. Did erect posture and use of arms of body come 
before the development of the brain ? VII, 1 69 

51. What is the similarity of "dawn man's" skull to 
other human species? VII, 136 

52. How do the jawbones of the chimpanzee, Pilt- 
down, Heidelberg and modern man compare? 
VII, 144 

53. What do some believe to be the origin of the 
operculum? X, 288-289 

54. What does the human embryo teach us about our 
ancestors? VIII, i 

55. What is the doctrine of recapitulation? VII, 31 



[362] 



Pupil and Glass 
Activities 



A. Things To Do: 

1 . Visit your local museum for an interview with the 
paleontologist. Ask him about his experiences 
while hunting fossils. Try to get him to address 
your school. X, 16-18 

2. Inquire at your local museum as to where you 
could collect fossils for your home, club, or school 
museum. Make trips to those places with your 
friends. X, 16-18 

3. Visit a bituminous coal mine or sandstone hill to 
look for fossils. 

4. Visit a coal mining district and look in the dump 
pits for fossils in shale or coal. Try to get the 
assistance and guidance of an official. X, 66-69 

5 . Visit your local museum of natural history. Make 
pen, pencil, charcoal, or color portraits of dino 
saur restorations. Exhibit these in your class 
room. VIII, 219-226 

6. Make a trip to the dinosaur section in your local 
museum. 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. Some methods used by scientists to measure the 
age of the earth. VII, 2, 3, 8 ; X, 1-9 

2. The age of remains found in the ground can be 
estimated. VII, 38-40 

[363] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. Life has been extinguished from the earth in the 
past. VII, 15-16 

4. Discuss the way sedimentary rocks form in 
nature. X, 1-3 

5. How nature preserves plants and animals. X, 
11-13 

6. The reasons for our having so few fossils of 
plants and animals that once lived. X, 26-29 

7. The connection between diatoms and the world's 
supply of petroleum. XI, 195-196 

8. The formation of coal. X, 66-68 

9. Roaches had ancestors before the human race 
existed. V, 84-90, 97-98 

10. Prehistoric birds looked very different from mod 
ern birds. IX, 41-49 

11. Man is as old as the earth. VII, 2-4 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. The earth before the age of living things. VII, 
12-13 

2. How geologists read the story locked up in the 
rocks. IX, 188-206 

3. How geologists reckon prehistoric time. IX, 
255-259 

4. The formation of fossils in nature. VIII, 279-290 

5. Early plants of the earth. VII, 14-15 

6. The changes that have taken place in the wings of 
insects since they first appeared on earth. V, 9 1- 

9 6 

[364] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. Report on the type of plant which existed when 
insects first appeared on earth. V, 86-89 

8. The evolution of fishes. VIII, 8-29 

9. The evolution of the amphibia. VIII, 1 73-1 76 

10. What we know about land dinosaurs. VIII, 213- 
250 

n. What we know about prehistoric fish lizards. 
VIII, 251-262 

1 2. What w r e know about flying reptiles in prehistoric 
times. VIII, 263-268 

13. HOW T mammal fossils are located and removed 
from the rocks. IX, 171-187 

14. The evolution of the horse. IX, 353-361 

D. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B. 

A B 

a. age of the earth X, 5 i. Carboniferous period 

b. fossils X, 10 2. prehistoric birds 

c. paleontology X, 14 3. formed our petroleum 

d. pterodactyls VIII, 263 4. carbon in rocks 

e. Paleozoic X, 50 5. two and a half billion 

years old 

f. diatoms XI, 195 6. science dealing with 

fossils 

g. evidence of prehistoric 7. the preserved remains 
plantlife X,43 of prehistoric living 

things 

[365] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

h. coal formed X, 65 8. physiology 

i. wingspread of two feet 9. flying reptiles 

V,95 

j. Hesperornis IX, 44-45 IO - period in earth's his 
tory 

ii. prehistoric dragonflies 

ANSWERS 

a 5 f 3 

b 7 g 4 

c 6 h i 

d 9 i 1 1 

e 10 j 2 

TEST II 

Complete the following sentences so that each makes a 
true statement. 

1. An element which helps us determine the age of the 
earth is X, 5 

2. Remains of ancient plants and animals preserved in 
the rocks are called X, 10 

3. The majority of fossils are found in the type of rock 
known as X, 1 1 

4. The first flowering plants on earth appeared during 
the period. X, 77 

5. During Miocene period many animals in the Rocky 
Mountain region were killed by X, 79 

6. The largest part of the iron used by the United States 

was deposited during the Proterozoic Era by 

and X, 47 

[366] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

7. may have formed the world's supply 

of petroleum. XI, 195 

8. Our present day types of insects arose from prehis 
toric and X, 7 1 

9. The largest animal that ever lived on land or sea is 
the IX, 368 

10. An ancient dinosaur that weighed over twenty tons 
w r as VIII, 230 

1 1 . Prehistoric flying reptiles are known as 

VIII, 263 

12. Scientists have evidence that birds arose from pre 
historic IX, 48 

13. A prehistoric bird which laid eggs each with a 
capacity of more than two gallons was IX, 47 

14. The most ferocious flesh eating animal the world 
has ever known was the , VIII, 224 

15. Some states in the United States which once were 
covered by large oceans, are X, 37 

ANSWERS 

1. Uranium 9. blue whale 

2. fossils 10. Brontosaurus 

3. sedimentary n. Pterodactyls 

4. Lower Cretaceous 12. reptiles 

5. volcanoes 13. Aepyornis 

6. bacteria and algae 14. Tyrannosaurus 

7. diatoms 15. Texas, Oklahoma, 

8. cockroaches and dragon- Missouri and Wiscon- 
flies sin 

[367] 



UNIT XXIV 
PROGRESS AND HISTORY OF MAN 



A. Evidence on Which The History Is Based: 

1. What records do we possess of man's early his 
tory? VII, 38 

2. Who were the men who discovered man's great 
accumulations of the past? VII, 53-55 

3. What evidences are found of the cultural prac 
tices of ancient people? VII, 49-51 

4. What evidence is there of ancient man's ability as 
a plant breeder? XI, 321 

5. How do we use the early discoveries of ancient 
man? XI, 321 

6. Why are restorations of fleshy bone structures 
the only correct ones? VII, 198 

7. What do teeth tell us about the age, culture and 
intelligence of man? VII, 48 

8. How does intelligence develop with time in earth 
history? VII, 2 

9. What is the difference in tongue-muscle projec 
tion in the skulls of modern man, ape and pre 
historic man? VII, 47-48 

[369] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

10. How long has man been master of the earth? 
VII, 20 

11. What are the evidences of Neanderthal exist 
ence? VII, 84-85 

12. What caused the extinction of some races? VII, 
176 

Probable Origin of Man: 

1 . Is man's history completely solved ? VII, 34 

2. When did the first semblance to man arise ? VII, 
18 

3. When is human life believed to have begun? 
VII, 38 

4. During which period did true man arise? VII, 19 

5. What single factor makes Pithecanthropus dif 
ferent from the gibbon or ape ? VII, 153 

6. What is the difference in the brain case of man, 
gorilla, chimpanzee and orang-outang? VII, 45 

7. What bone structure demonstrates that Pithecan 
thropus was a man and not an ape ? VII, 151 

8. What proportion of the human body is similar to 
other animals? VII, 31 

9. What portion of the human body is not found in 
other animals ? VII, 31 

10. Why is it inaccurate to say that man is descended 
from apes? VII, 32 

n. Why was early man like other living creatures in 
the woods? VII, 171 

12. Why is Neanderthal man not classed as Homo 
sapiens? VII, 130 

[370] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

13. What is the relationship of the size of the brain 
case to the intelligence of man and other animals ? 
VII, 45 

14. Which activities are carried on only by man? 

VII, 20 

C. Cave Dwellers: 

1. What is the earliest known bone instrument? 
VII, 135 

2. How did early man fasten things? VII, 174-175 

3. When did man begin to use sticks and stones? 
VII, 166 

4. When did man become a user of tools? VII, 172 

5. How long has man been master of the world? 
VII, 20 

6. How did ancient man solve his food problem? 
XI, 320 

7. How many species of man existed in very early 
times? VII, 167 

D. Old Stone Age: 

1. What was the highest type of cave dwellers? 
VII, 199 

2. What were the three basic tools with which man 
rose over animals ? VII, 173 

3. Why did the cave man use beads and paint ? VII, 
197 

4. What was the purpose other than protection for 
clothes worn by early man? VII, 175 

5. Who were the first to wear some kind of cover 
ing? VII, 192 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. How did man become a tool user? VII, 172 

7. When was the barb used on spear and hunting 
weapon heads? VII, 209 

8. Why are human representations without all the 
fingers found? VII, 204 

9. What may be the significance of the female statu 
ettes? VII, 205 

10. To what extent did magic dominate early man? 
VII, 177 

11. Is there sufficient evidence of cannibalism among 
the men of the Stone Age? VII, 197 

12. How did the Aurignacians earn their livelihood? 

VII, 201 

13. What common purpose has the art of the 
Caspian, Magdalenian and Aurignacian culture ? 
VII, 230-231 

14. Who were the Caspians ? VII, 228 

15. How did Pre-Chellean man appear in Europe? 
VII, 182 

1 6. What kind of implements were used by Pre- 
Chellean man? VII, 184 

17. What was the clothing of Chellean man? VII, 



1 8. When did Mousterian culture appear in Europe ? 
VII, 82 

19. What is the range of Mousterian culture ? VII, 
130 

20. Which skulls are possible links between modern 
man and Neanderthal man? VII, 96-102 

[372] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

21. What is the comparative size of modern and 
Neanderthal skulls? VII, 88 

22. What is the capacity of the Neanderthal skull? 
VII, 88 

23. What is the shape of the Neanderthal skull? 
VII, 91-92 

24. Why were Neanderthal men buried doubled up 
and supplied with food and equipment? VII, 
197, 224-225 

25. How did Neanderthal man distinguish between 
the natural and the supernatural? VII, 196 

26. What race superseded the Neanderthal race? 
VII, 198 

27. To which fossil group does the fossil man of La 
Chappelle-aux-Saints belong? VII, 118 

28. What are the characteristics of Cro-Magnon 
man? VII, 74, 77 

29. Has the Cro-Magnon race completely vanished 
today? VII, 226 

30. Why did the Cro-Magnon man paint himself and 
the dead with red? VII, 206 

31. What were the burial customs of Cro-Magnon 
man? VII, 206 

32. What evidence is found in Africa of Cro-Mag 
non man? VII, 79 

33. What culture replaced Magdalenian culture? 
VII, 226 

34. Why were Magdalenian tools carved ? VII, 216 

35. With which group is Magdalenian culture most 
closely associated? VII, 212 

[373] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

36. What race other than Cro-Magnon occupied 
Europe at the close of the Ice Age? VII, 74-76 

37. What negroid type race existed in early Europe 
at the same time as Neanderthal and Cro-Mag 
non? VII, 79 

38. What type of artistry developed in Solutrean 
times? VII, 209 

39. What parallels exist between the Solutrean and 
Aurignacian groups and the Iroquois and Algon 
quin tribes? VII, 210 

40. What distinguishes the human life of the Solu 
trean Epoch? VII, 74-75 

41. What was the Solutrean attitude toward the 
dead? VII, 211 

42. How do higher cultures affect lower cultures? 
VII, 200 

43. What do higher cultures obtain from lower cul 
tures? VII, 200 

44. What were the bad habits of ancient man in the 
light of modern thought? VII, 178 

45. Which cultural traces are found in present day 
Spain? VII, 227-228 

46. What do many anthropologists believe to be the 
origin of religion? VII, 225 

47. When did burial of the dead begin to take place ? 
VII, 189 

48. Why is it difficult to distinguish the exact dividing 
line between cultures ? VII, 187-188 

49. How much of ancient man's culture do we have ? 
VII, 187 

[374] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

50. What people were still living in the Old Stone 
Age, 300 years ago? VII, 184 

5 1 . How was the quality of ancient races maintained ? 
VII, 196 

52. Where does the Australian Bushman belong in 
the order of present day races? VII, 132 

53. Why is not the Australian Bushman of Neander 
thal origin? VII, 132 

E. Middle Stone Age: 

1. How did the people of Crete dress? VII, 310- 

311 

2. When did pottery and basket weaving begin? 

VII, 238 

3. What was the effect of the bow and arrow on 
man? VII, 237 

4. What was the attitude of Mesolithic man toward 
his stone axe? VII, 235 

5. How far into the present time has reverence for 
the axe been transmitted? VII, 236 

6. What was the purpose of cannibalism? VII, 255 

7. What is the history of the ancient Cretes? VII, 

309 

8. When did European civilization begin ? VII, 309 

9. What were the new inventions of Mesolithic 
man? VII, 234 

10. What kind of harpoon heads were developed? 
VII, 235 

11. How did the Middle Stone Age man live? VII, 
234 

[375] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

F. New Stone Age: 

i . NEW STONE AGE MAN : 

1. When did agriculture begin? XI, 322 

2. Where was agriculture first practised? XI, 322 

3. How was flint mined in Neolithic times? VII, 
248 

4. Why are forest people in Africa, New Guinea 
and the Philippines backward? XI, 204 

5. How do we explain the failure of primitive 
people of today? XI, 319 

6. What vestiges have we of the early "medinne 
man's bag?" VII, 262 

7. What are the homes of the Hottentots? II, 189 

8. What brought about the abandonment of human 
sacrifices? VII, 248 

9. What brought the civilization of ancient Crete to 
a close? VII, 312 

i o. How were the rulers of Crete chosen ? VII, 3 1 o- 



ii. What was the religion of the Cretes ? VII, 310 
1 2. What was Sumerian culture ? VII, 303-304 
1 3. What race followed the Sumerians ? VII, 304 

14. Why can we not say that all people passed 
through the same stages of civilization? VII, 
249 

1 5. How did slavery develop ? VII, 254 

1 6. Why were probably the first rulers of men? VII, 
177 

[376] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

17. What kind of government developed in ancient 
China? VII, 320 

1 8. What civilization developed in the environs of 
the Indus River? VII, 313 

19. What were the industries of the Indus people? 
VII, 313 

20. What was the writing of the Indus valley people ? 
VII, 314 

21. What change in construction did the Persians 
faring to India? VII, 316 

22. What was the effect of w T ar upon ancient life? 
VII, 1 80 

2. EGYPTIAN AND RELATED CULTURAL HISTORY: 

1. Who were the painted pottery people of Baby 
lonia? VII, 302 

2. What was the merit of Babylonian art ? VII, 307 

3. What was the Babylonian attitude toward con 
quered people? VII, 307 

4. Why is it wrong to say that Egypt was the cradle 
of civilization? VII, 295 

5. Which is the only other region which can compete 
with Egypt as to age of civilization? VII, 301 

6. What was the purpose of Egyptian sculpture? 
VII, 299 

7. Why was mummification practised? VII, 300 

8. Why were the pyramids erected? VII, 299 

9. Why was stone used extensively in Egypt? VII, 
297 

[377] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

10. What was the purpose of the common worship 
of one ruler? VII, 305 

11. What were the so-called empires of the Semitic 
period? VII, 305 

12. What does civilization owe to Persia? VII, 308 

13. How do present-day Egyptians compare with 
ancient Egyptians ? VII, 296 

SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICAN INDIANS : 

1. What was the origin of the Aztecs? VII, 337 

2. What kind of culture was developed by the 
Aztecs? VII, 339 

3. How did Aztecs record history? VII, 340 

4. What was the Aztecs' religious attitude to sacri 
fice? VII, 339 

5. What is the origin of Mexico City? VII, 338 

6. What was the origin of the Incas? VII, 341 

7. How old was the Inca empire? VII, 341 

8. Why was the Inca culture lower than other South 
American cultures? VII, 345 

9. What was the religion of the Incas? VII, 346 

10. How was Inca literature possible without writ 
ing? VII, 346 

11. Why did not the Incas achieve a Bronze Age 
civilization? VII, 342 

12. How did the Incas keep records? VII, 344-345 

13. What was the clothing of the Incas? VII, 343 

14. What was the religious significance of the Inca 
ruler? VII, 341 

[378] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

15. What was unusual about the Inca government? 
VII, 342 

1 6. When did Mayan culture begin? VII, 335 

17. Why was not the Mayan culture a civilization? 
VII, 329 

1 8. What was the essential characteristic of Mayan 
culture? VII, 336 

19. What rare condition of government is found in 
Mayan culture? VII, 336 

20. What was the Mayan writing? VII, 332, 334 

21. What kind of Mayan structures are still stand 
ing? VII, 333 

22. HOW T did most of the Mayan population live? 
VII, 336 

23. HOW T was the key to Mayan language lost? VII, 
334 

24. What caused the decline of Mayan culture ? VII, 
335 

25. Why is it possible to reconstruct the time of 
Mayan culture? VII, 335 

26. Why did Mayan culture disappear easily? VII, 
335 

27. What was the Toltec culture? VII, 337 

28. How long did the Toltec culture last? VII, 337 

4. INDIANS NORTH OF MEXICO : 

1. What studies of Indian culture have been under 
taken? IV, 8 

2. How many distinct cultures were found among 
the Indians north of Mexico? IV, 34-35 

[379] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

3. Where have people similar to the American In 
dians been found? IV, 2-3 

4. What great Indian family lived in North Amer 
ica when white man came? IV, 4 

5. How many Indian families live in North Amer 
ica? IV, 3 

6. Into what general types are Indians classed? 
IV, 3 

7. How was It possible for a million people speak 
ing 200 different languages to communicate with 
each other? IV, 10 

8. What are typical examples of an Indian sign 
language conversation? IV, 11-13 

9. Why is the Indian race vanishing? IV, 7 

10. Which California tribe is extinct? IV, 179 

11. Which is the most primitive of West Coast 
tribes? IV, 177 

12. Why is the American Indian culture native to 
the New World? VII, 349-350 

13. What is the crowning achievement of the Ameri 
can Indians? XI, 346 

14. Where does corn appear in the art of the 
Indians? XI, 346-348 

15. What parts of Indian culture do we still retain? 
VII, 351 

1 6. What religious practises did the Indians observe ? 
IV, 28-30 

17. What was the prevalence and significance of 
smoking tobacco ? IV, 26-27 

1 8. How did Indians work stone? IV, 19-20 

[380] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

19. What means of writing did Indians possess? IV, 
17-18 

20. How did Indians coin words? IV, 14 

21. Who were the best basket weavers? IV, 182- 
184 

22. What was the main material with which Indians 
worked? IV, 19 

23. What arts did Indians practise? IV, 23-24 

24. What was the purpose of paint on the Indian's 
body? IV, 24 

25. What is the significance of the Indian war bon 
net? IV, 24 

26. What is the significance of the peace pipe? IV, 
3I-32 

27. What was the effect of white men on the In 
dians? IV, 251-252 

28. What developed from the Indian culture? VII, 

329 

29. What was the importance of the direction of the 
winds to Indian life? IV, 31-32 

30. What historical record did the Indians keep be 
fore the coming of white man 1 ? IV, 250 

31. Where in the colonies were Indians treated 
fairly? IV, 201 

32. What is the history of white man's relation to 
the Indians in the colonies? IV, 252-258 

33. What was white man's attitude toward Indian 
culture ? IV, 7 

5. IMPORTANT AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES: 
I . What was the Cherokee alphabet ? IV, 1 8 

[381] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

2. Who are the Hopi Indians? IV, 130 

3. Who are the Houda Indians? IV, 210 

4. Who were the Hupa Indians? IV, 199-200 

5. What was the Hupa artistry? IV, 206 

6. How did the Iroquois hunt? IV, 77 

7. What inventions did the Iroquois make? IV, 
78-79 

8. How were the Iroquois governed? IV, 84 

9. What was the basis of Iroquois tribal organiza 
tion? IV, 8 1, 84 

10. What was the Iroquois council organization? 
IV, 94-95 

n. What was the place of women in Iroquois life? 
IV, 73 

12. How far did Iroquois power extend? IV, 89 

13. What were the doctrines of Iroquois govern 
ment? IV, 88 

14. How did the Mohave differ from other tribes? 
IV, 176 

15. Who were the Porrios ? IV, 180-181 

1 6. Why are there so many empty pueblos? IV, 113 

17. What was the culture of the Sioux Indians? IV, 
146-149 

1 8. Who are the Tlingit Indians ? IV, 212-213 

19. What was the Yurak culture? IV, 191-196 

20. Which tribes shared the Yurak culture? IV, 
198-199 

21. Who are the Zunis? IV, 115, 130 

22. What do Eskimos call themselves? IV, 38 

[382] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

23. What does the word Eskimo mean? IV, 38 

24. How are Eskimo children educated? IV, 63 

25. What laws do Eskimos observe? IV, 61 

26. What is the Eskimo standard of value? IV, 55- 
56 

27. What is the Eskimo religion? IV, 58 

28. What happened to Eskimo culture? IV, 39 

G. Age of Bronze: 

1. In what important ways were New and Old 
World agricultural methods different? XI, 323 

2. What practises lifted ancient man to a civilized 
state? XI, 97 

3. What is the relation between grasses and the 
civilization of man? XI, 203-204 

4. Why is the w r orld indebted to the American In 
dian? XI, 346 

5. In what modern science is corn a valuable tool? 
XI, 348 

6. What amazing kind of work was carried on in 
the Bronze Age? VII, 283-284 

7. What artistic work developed in the Bronze 
Age? VII, 280-281 

8. How were the Bronze Age people dressed? VII, 
272-273 

9. How were early measurements made? VII, 280 

10. When did the potter's wheel appear? VII, 273 

11. When did true porcelain originate? VII, 274 

12. When did jewelry develop? VII, 281 

13. How did money originate? VII, 278-279 

[383] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

14. What were early kinds of money? VII, 279-280 

15. What did some primitive people do to their 
stone battle-axes when they first saw bronze 
ones? VII, 271-272 

1 6. What protection against bronze arms was de 
veloped? VII, 272 

17. How did picture writing begin? VII, 290 

1 8. How were sounds first written? VII, 290 

19. Why is writing a fundamental achievement? 
VII, 289 

20. When did the knowledge of writing begin ? VII, 
167 

21. What part of man's history is recorded in writ 
ing? VII, 167 

22. What enabled the people of Crete to rapidly de 
velop a Bronze Age civilization? VII, 309 

23. Why is the alphabet the best system of writing? 
VII, 291 

24. What race inhabited China before the Chinese? 
VII, 318 

25. What culture did the conquerors of early China 
possess? VII, 318 

26. When was the Chinese Empire established? 
VII, 325 

27. What changes caused the overthrow of Chinese 
Feudalism? VII, 324 

28. When did the great thinkers and philosophers of 
China begin their work? VII, 324 

29. Where did Chinese obtain their Bronze culture? 
VII, 320 

[384] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

30. When does the historical period of China begin ? 
VII, 321 

31. What happened to many small Chinese cities? 
VII, 321 

32. What mystical properties were attributed by the 
ancients to ruby and sapphire? Ill, 209-210 

33. What changes in warfare did the Bronze Age 
bring about? 11,285 

34. How were the Indo-Europeans able to conquer? 
VII, 288 

35. How is food supply related to the development 
of art and science? XI, 319 

36. Where did the Bronze Age last the longest? 
VII, 284-285 

37. When did the Aryan invasion of India take 
place? VII, 3 1 4-3 T 5 

H. Age of Iron: 

1. What is the real measure of man's progress in 
civilization? XI, 319 

2. When was iron adopted in Egypt? VII, 300 

3. What town developments took place in the Mid 
dle Ages? VII, 282 

4. Which activities are only carried on by man? 

VII, 20 

5. Why is man master of the Earth? VII, 20 

6. Why is this called the Steel Age and another the 
Copper Age? VII, 39-41 

7. What is the effect of war on present civilization ? 
VII, 181 

[385] 



Pupil and Class 
Activities 



A . Th ings To Do: 

1. Carve wooden models of early bronze axes. 
Paint with bronze gilt. VII, 270-271 

2. Sew from rough cloth the garments of a man and 
woman of the late Bronze Age. VII, 274-275 

3. Make clay copies of Pueblo water jars. Orna 
ment them with black ink. IV, 1 2 

4. Make a chart of the Cherokee alphabet. IV, 16 

5. Using ordinary beads, make some of the Eskimo 
ornaments shown on page 49. IV 

6. Using odd pieces of fur make an Eskimo doll. 
IV, 51 

7. Using two pieces of wood, and following the 
drawing on page 52, carve a model of an Eskimo 
woodpecker toy. IV, 52 

8. Construct a Wichita grass lodge from hay, straw 
or grass. IV, 161 

9. Using white pine or balsa carve a totem pole. IV, 
213 

10. Paint Indian designs on shallow bowls. IV, 232 

11. Weave an Indian sitting cradle from raffia. IV, 
184 

12. Make an Indian dog travels for carrying your 
equipment on a hike. VII, 255 

[386] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

13. Make wooden models of earlier digging imple 
ments. 11,258-260 

14. Construct a Tasmian canoe model from bark 
lashed together in the manner shown in the dia 
gram. VII, 240 

15. Make a stone hatchet from a stone and wood. 
VII, 235 

1 6. Make an early stone oil lamp from clay. Fill with 
animal fat and light a wick which stands in the fat. 

VII, 220 

17. Carve a set of bone implements using triangular 
files. VII, 215 

1 8. Make a set of Aurignacian implements. VII, 200 

19. Make a set of Acheulian fist axes. VII, 1 89 

20. Make a set of Chellean tools. VII, 1 86 

21. Make pointed stone eoliths like those of 1,000,- 
ooo years ago. VII, 1 83 

22. Chip a stone into an eolith. VII, 171 

23. Make wood copies of the oldest tools known. 
VII, 135 

24. Make a set of Mousterian stone tools. VII, 191 

25. Make plaster casts of modern and Neanderthal 
man's skull to the same scale in order to compare 
the structure. VII, 1 1 8 

26. Make large drawings of the skeletons of Nean 
derthal and modern Australian man to the same 
scale. VII, 115 

27. Make plaster or clay models of prehistoric skulls. 
VII, 42-55 

[387] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

28. Draw large outline diagrams which show the size 
of the brain from chimpanzee to modern man. 
VII, 163 

29. Make models of the development of the jawbone 
in man. VII, 144 

30. Visit a local museum of Natural History or an 
Indian Museum. 

B. Class Discussions: 

1. The plow is in universal use today. VII, 258-261 

2. The little Island of Crete affected the civilization 
of large areas for many years. VII, 308-3 1 2 

3. Egypt was the seat of civilization. VII, 294-308 

4. Writing is the most important aspect of a civiliza 
tion. VII, 288-293 

5. Until the coming of the Bronze Age, man made 
little progress. VII, 40-44 

6. The Chinese civilization was developed com 
pletely independent of all other cultures. VII, 
3 I 7-3 2 5 

7. Machines are causing civilization to go backward. 
XII, 309-35 2 

8. Farm machines have lessened the importance of 
the farmer. XII, 303-308 

9. Aztecs possessed a civilization. VII, 337-340 

10. The Mayans had a great civilization. VII, 329- 
336 

11. Civilization originated in the Indus valley. VII, 



12. Man used horses for drawing carts before he 
rode horseback. VII, 285-289 

[388] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

13. White man has had a constructive influence upon 
the Indians. IV, 5-8 

14. Gems were known only in modern times. Ill, 
316-319 

15. Indians possessed traces of European culture be 
fore the coming of white men. XII, 349-35 i 

1 6. White man had nothing to learn from the Indians 
about good diet and cooking. IV, 25-26 

17. Indians were poor organizers. IV, 71-103 

1 8. The Plains Indians lived solely a nomadic life. 
IV, 152-154 

19. The wheel was invented in many places on the 
earth. VII, 256-257 

20. The Middle Stone Age shows little advance over 
the Old Stone Age. VII, 234-245 

2 1 . Solutrean tools were superior to other contempo 
rary tools. VII, 207-209. 

22. It was man's physical superiority which enabled 
him to conquer the beasts of the jungle. VII, 1 68- 
172 

23. Little change in the skull of man has taken place 
in the development of man. VII, 130-131 

24. Negroid and white races were limited to Africa 
and Europe respectively. VII, 79-82 

25. Cro-Magnon man physically, was the most su 
perior man ever to inhabit the earth. VII, 77-79 

26. Cro-Magnon men made drawings on their caves 
to fulfill a creative urge. VII, 201-206 

27. Cro-Magnon man was more intelligent than 
modern man. VII, 73-78 

[389] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

28. Rhodesian Man is related to Neanderthal man. 
VII, 160-164 

29. All races of man developed from the same stock 
and became different because of local variations. 

IV, 1-2 

30. Piltdown Man was really an ape. VII, 135-141 

31. Pithecanthropus erectus was not a man. VII, 



32. It is impossible to learn anything from the frag 
mentary remains of man. VII, 49-50 

C. Pupil Reports: 

1. Man's three greatest achievements. VII, 173 

2. The hold of "magic'' upon ancient man. VII, 
177-181 

3. The importance of the harvester and reaper to 
American development. XII, 303-308 

4. How Indians name things. IV, 14-16 

5. The Cherokee alphabet, IV, 1 6 

6. The religion of the native Indian. IV, 28-34 

7. The sign language of the Indians. IV, 1 1-12 

8. A day in an Eskimo's life. IV, 45-49 

9. A Pueblo village. IV, 131 

10. How Gushing studied the customs of the Zuni 
Indians. IV, 118-128 

11. The appearance of a cliff dwelling. IV, 102-1 10 

12. What caused the differences between the culture 
of Indians on the west and inland. IV, 175-178 

13. Tribes of the west coast. IV, 175-213 

[390] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 

14. Krapina man an almost modern man. VII, 
104-109 

15. The cultures of the Old Stone Age. VII, 53-55 

1 6. The relationship between the balancing of the 
head on the spine and man's development. VII, 
46-49 

17. The eras of life on the earth. VII, 13-22 

1 8. The evolution of the jawbone. VII, 46 

D. Self -Test Exercises: 

TEST I 

Change the letters in this code word as follows : 
BJESXWNORIV 

1. If no evidence concerning the existence of man 7000 
years ago has been found, change B to V. If evidences of 
man more than 100,000 years ago has been found, change 

tO P. VII, 2. 

2. If man descended from primates, change J to O. If 
man descended from previous living things, change to A. 

VII, 22. 

3. If the Pueblo Indians were the Cave Dwellers, change 
E to S. If the men of La Chappelle-aux-Saints were Cave 
Dwellers, change to L. IV, no, VII, 114-118. 

4. If Neanderthal man lived in the Old Stone Age, 
change S to E. If Java man belongs in the Old Stone Age, 
change to M. VII, 182-192 

5. If Middle Stone Age man improved his weapons, 
change X to O. If Middle Stone Age man did not improve 
his weapons, do not change. VII, 235. 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 

6. If woven clothing was worn in the New Stone Age, 
change W to L. If only skins were worn, change to A. VII, 
261-262. 

7. If there are no people at the present time in the Stone 
Age stage of development, change N to L. If people have 
recently been found living in the Old Stone Age, change to L 
VII, 184. 

8. If iron quickly replaced the use of bronze, change O 
to B. If bronze was superior to early iron, change to T. 
VII, 306. 

9. If the brain case of earliest known man and apes are 
the same, change R to C. If not, change to H. VII, 151. 

10. If brain cases showed the development of intelli 
gence, do not change. If brain cases are not valid evidence, 
change to O. VII, 131. 

11. If the difference between a civilization and a lower 
type of civilization is the quality and quantity of goods pro 
duced, change V to A. If writing is an essential difference, 
change to C. VII, 345. 

Note: If the above is correctly done] it will spell 
the name of an early era in the develop 
ment of the earth. 

ANSWER 

Paleolithic 

TEST II 

Match each item in column A with the proper item in 
column B. 

A B 

a. man on earth I. tools invented. VII, 20 

b. grasses 2. Piltdown. VII, 135 

[392] 



SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY 



c. early writing 

d. growth of intelligence 

e. reverence 

f . man, master of earth 

g. highest type cave man 
h. earliest bone instrument 

i. end of Neanderthal 

j. earliest know r n man 



3. Java. VII, 1 8 

4. stone axe. VII, 235 

5. civilization. XI, 203- 
204 

6. Cro-Magnon. VII, 
198, 199 

7. Indus valley people. 
VII, 314, 315 

8. Less than one million 
years ago. VII, 2 

9. Mousterian. VII, 82 
10. Pleistocene. VII, 19 



ANSWERS 



a 10 
b 5 
c 7 
d 8 



f i 
g 6 

h 2 

i 9 
J 3 



TEST III 



In the first group you will find incomplete sentences. The 
second consists of completion of the first group. Re-write 
the sentences by matching proper second halves of sentences 
to make a true statement. 



a. The record of man in the 
rocks VII, 52-53 



b. Men who study the rec 
ord of man in the rocks 
VII, 135 



1. during the Ice Age 
small populations of 
Chellean men were 
alive. 

2. during the Pleistocene 
period. 



[393] 



STUDY GUIDE IN GENERAL 
3. used tools. 



c. Early man fades from 
the earth. VII, 2, 18-19 

d. "Dawn man" VII, 135 4. is called Eoanthropus. 

5. is read by the markings 
of the folds of thebrain. 

6. is called Pithecanthro 
pus. 

7. superseded by Cro- 



e. Piltdown man VII, 140 

f. Java man VII, 146, 148 



g. The skull's stage of 
brain development VII, 

46 

h. Neanderthal man was 
VII, 198 



Magnon man. 

is read in the strata and 
accumulations found in 
strata. 

are called anthropolo 
gists. 



i. Man did not disappear 

from Europe but VII, 

234 
j. Cro-Magnon, a possibly 10. is not considered to be 

physically superior man more intelligent than 

and possessing a larger modern man. 

brain than modern man 

VII, 73-76 



ANSWERS 



a 8 
b- 9 

C 2 



f 6 

g 5 
h- 7 
i I 
j 10 



[394] 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Abalone, capturing men, X, 

293 

Aberration, chromatic, II, 310 
Absorption lines, II, 124 
Acheulian culture, VII, 190 
Epoch VII, 187-189 
Epoch, developments of, 

VII, 189 
Acorns, XI, 116 
Adaptations : 

Air bladder, VIII, 89, 90 
Alligators, VIII, 305 
Amphibians, VIII, 177-1 79 
Animals, heat retention in, 

VIII, 38 

Animals, movement of, V, 

1 06, 107 
Ant-eater, spiny, IX, 270- 

271 

Armadillo, IX, 263 
Barnacles, X, 141-142 
Bat, IX, 317 
Beavers, VI, 118-121 
Beetles, V, 108 
Birds, IX, 13-15, 37-33, 80, 

IOO-IO2, 128, 138-139 
Bivalves, X, 261-269 
Box turtle, VIII, 318 
Breathing without lungs, V, 

113-114, 116; X, 258, 

295-297 

Budding, XI, 58-71 
Bulbs, .XI, 64, 68 
Butterflies, V, 307-308, 318 
Camels, VI, 153 



Carnivores, IX, 248 
Carnivorous plants, XI, 75- 

76 
Caterpillar, V, 108, 286- 

289, 293 

Chameleon, VIII, 324 
Cicada, V, 186, 190, 199, 

206-2 1 2 

Copepods, X, 128-133 
Crabs, X, 197, 199, 227, 

228, 244-245 

Crickets, V, 49, 56-58, 108 
Crustaceans, X, 91, 103, 

185-186, 205-207 
Cypress trees, XI, 10 
Dandelions, XI, 55-56 
Daphnia, X, 119-121 
Desert life, XI, 264, 281 
Duck, IX, 126 
Feathers, IX, 15 
Fins, VIII, 63-64 
Fishes, VIII, 5-7, 3O-35, 5O, 

53, 57, 66-69, 82-84, 86- 

88, 99, 129, 143, 148; 

IX, 368 

Fish-lice, X, 137 
Flowers, XI, 41, 44, 47, 5 1- 

52 

Flying squirrel, IX, 334 
Frogs, VIII, 193-194, 195, 

208 
Gastropods, X, 287-290, 

293-307, 3i5-3i6 
Grasshopper, V, 13, 29-31, 

108 

Halophytes, XI, 7^-79 
Hawks, IX, 127 



[397] 



INDEX 



Heron, IX, 127 
Hippopotamus, VI, 147-148 
Horned toad, VIII, 331 
Housefly, V, 343-346 
Ichthyosaurus, VIII, 251- 

254 
Insects, V, 107-115, 236, 

245; XI, 72-74; VI, 219 
Kangaroos, IX, 284-285 
Leaves, XI, 3, 23-25, 32-33, 

299-300 

Lemmings, IX, 235-236 
Lemurs, flying, IX, 316 
Lobster, X, 98, 103, no- 

112 

Locusts, V, 1 8 
Lung fishes, VIII, 19 
Mimosa, XI, 72-74 
Mollusks, X, 259 
Molting, V, 184, 274; 

VIII, 175; X, 103, 105- 

106 

Moths, V, 307-308 
Octupus, X, 330, 335, 342- 

343 

Owls, IX, 1 60 
Parasites, V, 19-25, 180; X, 

129-131 

Phototropisms, XI, 307-314 
Pigeons, IX, 134 
Pitcher plant, XI, 76 
Plesiosaurus, VIII, 260-261 
Plover, IX, 59, 60 
Puff-adder, VIII, 345-346 
Rattlesnake, VIII, 341, 350- 

351 

Rhinoceros, VI, 207-208 
Rodents, IX, 249-250, 331- 

333 

Roots, XI, 6-7, 10 
Salmon, VIII, 118, 122-123 
Sap-sucker, IX, 133 
Sea-horse, VIII, 31 
Seeds, XI, 55-59 



Shark sucker, VIII, 46-47 
Snakes, VIII, 41, 340, 342- 

343 

Spider crab, X, 226 
Stickleback, VIII, no 
Symbiosis, XI, 92 
Trees, XI, 21 
Turtles, VIII, 306-307, 309 
Walking-stick insect, V, 71 
Whale, IX, 253-254 
Xerophytes, XI, 78 
Yucca, XI, 50-51 
Adductor muscles, X, 256-257 
Aedes aegypti, V, 338-339 
Aepyornis, eggs of, IX, 85 
Aerial, underground, XII, 133 
Aeroplane, Langley method of 

production of, XII, 225 
Aestivation of lungfishes, VIII, 

19 
Afterglow of meteorites, III, 

32 

Agar, XI, 89, 184 
Agates, III, 228, 229, 230 
Age of reptiles, beginning of, 

X, 74, 75 
Ages of man, demarcations of, 

VII, 266 

Agriculture, Indian, IV, 22 
Middle stone age women in, 

VII, 243 
New and Old World, XI, 

323 

Origin of, XI, 322 
Power machines for, XII, 

308 
Survival of Indus valley and, 

VII, 314 
Air: 

Bladder, VIII, 89-90 
Blanket, II, no 
Composition of, II, 44 
Formation of, VII, 9 
Mass, II, 42, 117 



[398] 



INDEX 



Pressure for brakes, XII, 
196 

Pressure of upper atmo 
spheric, II, 43, 45 

Pressure of, and sunspots, 

n, 138 

Refraction of, II, 102 
State of, II, 43 
Temperature at different 

altitudes, II, 44 
Airships, testing characteristics 

of, XII, 81-85, 232-233 
Airworthiness of airships, XII, 

232-238 

Alabaster, III, 283 
Albatross, feeding of baby, IX, 

98 

Young of, IX, 98-99 
Albinism, in birds, IX, 28-29 
Albite, III, 262 
Alcohol, diseases caused by, 

VII, 178-179 
Alexanderson, XII, 133 
Alexandrite, III, 248 
Algae, XI, 87-89, i75-i8 3 
Calcareous, X, 46-47 
Eozoon, X, 43 
Filamentous, XI, 39 
Food for sardines, XI, 191 
Fossil, X, 46, 58-59; XI, 

195 

Habitat of, XI, 87 
Importance of, XI, 188-189 
Kinds of, XI, 175 
Reproduction of, XI, 38 
In silver polish, XI, 194 
Spores of, XI, 72 
Use in dynamite of, XI, 87- 

88 

Uses of, XI, 184-196 
Alligators, ancestors of, VIII, 

299-300 

Food habits of, VIII, 305 
Growth of, VIII, 304 



Reproduction of, VIII, 303 
Use of skin of, VIII, 305 

Alloys, meteoric nickel and 
iron, III, 70 

Alphabet, VII, 291 

Alps, origin of, X, 79 

Alternator, XII, 39-40 

Alternating current alternator, 

XII, 31; XII, 36 
Frequency, XII, 40 
Objections to, XII, 35 
Origin of, XII, 32, 35 
Single phase, XII, 41 
Two phase, XII, 41 
Three phase, XII, 41 

Alternator, electric, XII, 41 
Field poles of, XII, 40 
Radio, XII, 40, 47 
Turbine drive for, XII, 39- 
40 

Atmosphere, altitude of, II, 45 

Altricial young, IX, 92 

Amber, III, 267-269 
Appearance of, III, 268 
Formation of, III, 268 
Fossils in, III, 268 
Greek, III, 267 
Origin of, III, 257, 268; 

X, 80 
Tests for, III, 267 

American continent, origin of 
man on, VII, 327 

American Indian plants, VII, 
327-328 

Amethyst, III, 226-227 

Ammonia, heat absorption by, 

XII, 241 

Properties of, XII, 241 
Solubility of, XII, 240 

Ammonites, ancient, X, 7 5 -76 

Amphibia, X, 69 

Ancestors of, VIII, 161-162 
Burrowing, VIII, 1 77-179 
Characteristics of, VIII, 1-2 



[399] 



INDEX 



Development of, VIII, 20- 

21 

Eggs of, VIII, 174 
Evolution of, VIII, 173-176 
Examples of, X, 70 
Extinct, VIII, 164 
Food of, VIII, 175-176 
Fossils of, VIII, 164-165 
Molting of, VIII, 175 
Origin of, VIII, 173 
Prehistoric habitat of, VIII, 

l6 3 
-Relationship to reptiles of, 

VIII, 2 

Size of Devonian, VII, 15 
Size of largest fossil of, 

VIII, 163 
Skin of, VIII, 175 
Structure of fossil of, VIII, 

167-168 

Voices of, VIII, 176 
Amphibious, meaning of, VIII, 

161 
Andes Mountains, origin of, 

X, 78 
Anemones, used by crabs, X, 

227-228 

Angiosperms, VII, 17; XI, 95 
Animals, ancestors of modern, 

VII, 1 8 
Carriage of body of, VII, 

49 

"Coal Measures", X, 69-70 

Devonian period, VII, 15- 
16 

Disappearance of early, VII, 
47 

Domestication of, VII, 255- 
256 

Domestic, conditions devel 
oping, VII, 250251 

During life of lat Neander 
thal, VII, 116 

Effect of Ice Age on, X, 82 



Eocene period, VII, 18 
Heat retention in warm 
blooded, VIII, 38 
Hunted as pets, VI, I, 10 
Jurassic, X, 75 
Life of majority of, V, 127- 

128 

Life of social, V, 128 
Movement during the glacier 

in Europe, VII, 232 
Of Cretaceous period, X, 77 
Of the time of La Chap- ' 

pelle-aux-Saints, VII, 116 
Of the time of Krapina, 

VII, 104 
Of the Miocene period, VII, 

18 
Of the Mousterian period, 

VII, 124 
Of the Neanderthal times, 

VII, 95 

Origin of, VII, 93 
Origin of sacred, VII, 251 
Paleozoic, X, 55 
Permian, VII, 15, 16 
Petrification of, VIII, 279- 

280 
Power of movement in, V, 

106-107 
Prehistoric representation of, 

VII, 52, 202-203 
Remains, preservation of, 

.VII, 45 

Silurian, X, 63-64 

Anopheles, V, 330-340 

Anteater, spiny, IX, 270-271 

Antivenin, VIII, 351 

Antlers, IX, 343 

Ants, white, V, 128 

Ape, Barbary, VI, 48 

Brain capacity of, VII, 150 
Study of, IX, 327-329 

Aphids, eggs of, V, 167 
Enemies of, V, 173-181 



[400] 



INDEX 



Food of, V, 172 
Generations of, V, 155-156 
Offspring of female, V, 163 
Parents of summer, V, 162 
Parasitism of, V, 178 
Protection of, V, 173-174 
Reproduction of corn, V, 

172-173 
Sexual generation of, V, 

166-168 
Aphis lion, V, 174-176 

Usefulness of, V, 174-176 
Aphis, wooly, V, 172 
Appalachian Mountains, X, 73 

Formation of, X, 72 
Appendages, unnecessary, VII, 

31 

Arago, XII, 3-4. 13 
Arc, flaming, XII, 148 
Lamp, XII, 145 
Light, XII, 28, 135, I45> 

147, 198 

Light, Edison, XII, 138 
Arcelin, VII, 53 
Archaeopteryx, VII, 17; IX, 

41-45^ 

Archaeozoic, X, 41 
Plants, X, 43 
Rocks, X, 41-42 
Archelon, weight of, VIII, 

262 
Architecture, Cretan, VII, 



Origin of, VII, 264 
Arctic summer, temperature 

of, IV, 67 

Argon in lamps, XII, 147 
Aristotle, student of Crustacea, 

X, 94-95 

Armadillo, IX, 363 
Armature, early, XII, 20 
Arnold, XII, 133 
Artemia, X, 114-115 



Arthropod, example of, V, 26 

Six-legged, V, 28 
Aryans, brick making of, VII, 
28 

Invasion of India, VII, 314- 

315 

Asia, southwest, retention of 
primitive traits in, VII, 

301 

Aster family, XI, 129-130 
Astronomical mirror, cleaning 

of, II, 95 
Atmosphere, composition at sea 

level, II, 44 
Formation of, VII, 9 
Atomic gradation, law of, VII, 

5 

Differences, spectrum con 
trolled by, VII, 6 
Atoms, annihilation of, VII, 

4,7 

Composition of, II, 290 
In cooling stars, VII, 7 
Structure of, XII, 55 
Of sun, II, 5-6 
Aurignacians, VII, 2OI 
Culture of, VII, 206 
Shelter of, VII, 217-218 
Australian Bushman, origin of, 

VII, 132 

Autogiro, XII, 238 
Automobile, Duryea, XII, 219 
Early transmission of, XII, 

216 

Engine, XII, I74;i75 
First U. S. gasoline, XII, 
. 216 

Haynes, XII, 220221 
Multi-cylinder, XII, 176 
U. S. production of, XII, 

224 

Avocet, American, IX, 74 
Axe, reverence for, VII, 236 
Axolotl, VIII, 186-187 



[ 4 0l] 



INDEX 



Azilian epoch, VII, 43, 52 
Aztecs, attitude toward sacri 
fice, VII, 339 
Culture of, VII, 339 
Origin of, VII, 337 
Records in history of, VII, 

40 
Azurite, III, 275 

B 

Baby, size of newborn, VII, 

34- 
Babylonia, painted pottery, 

people of, VII, 302 
Babylonians, treatment of pris 
oners by, VII, 307 
Bacteria, beneficial, XI, 28 
Legume, XI, 27-28 
Reproduction of, XI, 38 
Work of, XI, 89 
Bactrian camel, VI, 155 
Badlands, IX, 177-181, 188- 

191, 2OI, 2O4-2O6 
Balance of Nature: 

Algae, food for sardines, 

? J I91 . 
Animals, life of majority of, 

V, 127-128 
Aphids, parasitism of, V, 

178 

Aphis lion, V, 174-176 
Beetle, ladybird, V, 173-175 
Birds, food of, IX, 40, 126- 

. I42 
Birds, species exterminated 

by man, IX, 1 1 
Bison, depleted by man, VI, 

163, 166, 167, 1 68, 173 
Botfly, V, 352 
Copepods, X, 128-137 
Grasshoppers, insect enemies 

of, V, 19-25 
Hawks, IX, 140-142 
Hyperparasites, V, 181 



Insect parasites, V, 179 
Mollusks, X, 133-134 
Owl, IX, 140-142 
Rodents, IX, 140-142 
Sea animals and algae, XI, 

190-191 
Toads, VIII, 197-198 

Bamboo, XI, 229, 235 
Uses of, XI, 229 

Bananas, XI, 114 

Barb, uses of, VII, 209 

Bark, fossils of, X, 67 
Furrowing of, XI, 14 
Importance to Indian of, 

IV, 22-23 
Production of, XI, 13-14 

Barley, place and time of first 
cultivation, XI, 209-210 

Barnacles, X, 138, 142-143 
Adaptions of, X, 141-142 
Difficulty of classifying, X, 

I39-HO 

Food from, X, 237 
Free swimming stage of, X, 

140-141 
Injury to shipping by, X, 

142-143 
Rock, X, 138 
Sex differences in, X, 143- 

144 

Barracuda, VIII, 57~59 
Barriers affecting distribution 

of fishes, VIII, 149-150 
Basket, origin of, VII, 238 
Basket makers, Indian, IV, 

182-184 

Basalt, III, 287-288 
Bat, IX, 243, 3i6 

Flying adaptions of, IX, 

317 

Habits of, IX, 317-320 
Vampire, IX, 318 
Beans, germination of, XI, 60- 
61 



[402] 



INDEX 



Bear baiting, VI, 96-97 
Bears, VI, 94-106 
As pets, VI, 98 
In summer, VI, 100 
Size of baby, VI, 99 
Beasts of burden, origin of, 

VII, 255-256 
Beaver dams, IX, 334 
Beavers, home-building of, VI, 

118-121 
For National Zoological 

Park, VI, 117 
Beehive, V, 128 
Beetles, blister, V, 22-25 
Lady, V, 175, 230 
May, V, 230 
Mouth parts of, V, 108 
Value of ladybird, V, 173- 

175 

Wings of, V, 318 
Bell, XII, 99 

Early telephone, XII, 102 
Original invention of, XII, 
IOI 

Telephone, XII, 103-104 
Telephone, operation of, 

XII, 104, 105 
Ben Day screen, XII, 374 
Benitoite, III, 352-353 
Berliner, XII, 109-110 
Beryls, III, 210 

Color of, III, 210-211 
Composition of, III, 210 
Crystalline shape of, III, 

211 

Bessemer, XII, 342 

Converter, XII, 343 
Betelgeuse, density of, II, 288- 

289 
Beverages, source in plants, 

XI, loi 
Bibliography of desert plants, 

XI, 284 
Of field work, XI, 377 



Of grasses, XI, 250 

Of maize, XI, 349 

Of radiant energy and 

plants, XI, 315 
Of sea plants, XI, 197 
Of systematic botany, XI, 

164 

Biological Survey, IX, 64, 65 
Bird calls, IX, 103-113 
Birds, actions of male, IX, 71 > 

72 
Adaptations for flying, IX, 

.13-15 

Air for embryo of, IX, 80 
Altitude of flight of migra 
ting, IX, 56 
Banding of, IX, 63-67 
Barred, IX, 34-35 
Beaks, IX, 126-127 
Bones, IX, 14 
Characteristics of, IX, i 
Classification of, IX, 143- 

166 

Color of, IX, 25 
Color patterns in, IX, 32-33 
Colors of male, IX, 36 
Communication among, IX, 

110-113 

Control of, IX, 136-137 
Destruction of, IX, 40 
Distances of flight, IX, 58- 

59 
Domestication of, IX, 2-3, 

4-5 

Ecuador, species of, IX, 2 
Eggs of temperate zone, IX, 

86 

Embryo, IX, 91-92 
Wild food of, IX, 130-131 
Birds, fish-eating, IX, 138-139 
Food of, IX, 126-142 
Food of migrating, IX, 56 
Food of night flying, IX, 

134 



[403] 



INDEX 



Fossil, IX, 41-42 
Gravel eaten by, IX, 128 
Heel pads of, IX, 100 
Imitation among, IX, 107- 

109 

Insect-eating, IX, 134-137 
Localities of, IX, 1-2 
Mouth of, IX, 101-102 
Native land of love, VI, 255 
Nest soup, IX, 77 
Number of species of, IX, 

H3 

Of prey, IX, 141 
Orders of, IX, 143-166 
Origin of, IX, 48-49 
Origin of sea, VII, 17 
Origin of toothless, IX, 45 
Origin of true, X, 79 
Pleistocene, IX, 40 
Polygamous, IX, 73 
Prehistoric, IX, 41-49 
Protective coloration of, IX, 

37-38 
Regions of abundance of, 

IX, 2 

Scarcity of fossil, IX, 40-41 
Seafood of, IX, 127-128 
Shellfish food of, IX, 137 
Skeleton of, IX, 14-15 
Snake-eating, IX, 140 
Sounds of, IX, 103-105 
Species exterminated by man, 

IX, ii 
Birds, specimens, IX, 8 

Stomachs, contents of, IX, 

125 
Velocity of flight of, IX, 57- 

58 

Weed seed food of, IX, 129 
Winter residence of, IX, 

128 

World distribution of, IX, i 
Birthstones, III, 186 



Bison, VI, 165-166 

Abundance of American, 

VI, 166 

Center of population of VI, 

166 

European, danger of extinc 
tion of, VI, 173 
Mating of domestic cattle 

with, VI, 1 68 
Population, 1870, VI, 166 
Population, 1907, VI, 167 
Slaughter of, VI, 163, 167 
Steps for protection of, VI, 

167 

Bivalves, X, 264 
Burrowing, X, 269 
Feet of, X, 261 
Life history of, X, 266-268 
Reproduction of, X, 264 
Black bulb thermometer, II, 

245 
Bladderwort, carnivorous habit, 

XI, 75 

Blast furnace, XII, 340-341 
Raw materials, XII, 338- 

339 

Products of, XII, 338-339 
Blood, as food for insects, V, 

320 
Neanderthal concept of, VII, 

196-197 

Boat names, VII, 241 
Boats, Inca, VII, 344 
Bobbin, sewing machine, XII, 

259 

Bobolinks, IX, 129-130 
Body, balance of erect, VII, 

48 

Boiler, fire tube, XII, 157 
Bolometer, II, 76-77, 122 
Bolton, XII, 360 
Bone instruments, origin of, 

VII, 194 



[404] 



INDEX 



Bones of Krapina man, VII, 

106-107 
Of La Chappelle-aux-Saints, 

VII, 117 

Preservation of, VII, 44 
Boron, effect of, XI, 297 
Botanists, work of, XI, 157- 

160 
Botany, origin of, XI, 133 

Primitive, XI, 133 
Botfly, V, 352 

Effect on live stock, V, 352 
Bow and arrow, origin of, 

VII, 229, 236 
Effect of, VII, 237 
Bowfin, nest of, VIII, 109-110 
Box Turtle, VIII, 315, 318 
Hibernation of, VIII, 318 
Reproduction of, VIII, 316- 

317 
Boyce Thompson Institute, XI, 

303, 306 

Brakes, air, XII, 196 
Brain cases, comparative sizes 

of, VII, 163 
Differences in, VII, 45 
Fish, VIII, 99 
Folds of, VII, 46 
Intelligence and size of, 

VII, 45 
Pithecanthropus erectus, VII, 

148 

Sizes of, VII, 163 
Primate and man, VII, 45 
Brakes, railroad, XII, 33 
Branly, XII, 129 
Bread mold, spores of, XI, 

39-40 
Breathing habits of birds, IX, 

68-78 

Breathing of insects, V, 114 
Breathing rate of infants, VII, 
35 



Breathing without lungs, V, 
113-114, 116; X, 258, 
295-297 

Breeding, mental qualities 
needed for plant and ani 
mal, XI, 320-321 
Reasons for slow progress in 
plant and animal, XI, 
320-321 
Territory of bird, IX, 68-70 

Bricks, Aryan, VII, 308 

Brightness, apparent, of stars 
and planets, III, 55 

British Thermal Unit, XII, 

159 
Brontosaurus, VII, 17 

Weight of, VIII, 230 
Bronze, early process for, VII, 

268 
Form of instruments of, 

VII, 269 
.Lost wax casting process of, 

VII, 269-270 
Superiority of, VII, 267 
Bronze Age, arms protection 

against, VII, 272 
Artistry of, VII, 280-281 
Basis of, VII, 268 
Brick development of, VII, 

282-283 

Changes of, VII, 285 
Civilization of, VII, 309 
Dress of, VII, 272-273 
Effect of axes in, VII, 270 
End of, VII, 284-285 
Extent of, VII, 293 
Origin of, VII, 275 
Remains of, VII, 273 
Tool hafting, VII, 270 
Wall decorations of, VII, 

284-285 

Work of, VII, 283-284 
Brooms, manufacture of, XI, 

229-230 



[405] 



INDEX 



Bninn man, skull of, VII, 76 
Bryophyta, XI, 93 
Budding, XI, 68-71 
Bud scales, function of, XI, 

20-21 

Buffalo, African, VI, 172 
Bugs, pill, X, 157 

Damage done by, X, 245 
Bulbs, XI, 68 

Propagation by, XI, 64, 68 
Bull boat, VII, 276 
Burial, Stone Age, VII, 224- 

225 

Burin, VII, 202 
Bushman, position of Aus 
tralian, VII, 132 
Butterflies, food of, V, 307 

Proboscis of, V, 307-308 

Wings of, V, 318 
By-products of coke, XII, 338 
Byssus, X, 261-262 
Bullfight, origin of, VII, 252 
Bumblebee, XI, 47-49 
Burgess Pass, fossils from, X, 
57-60 



Cable, XII, 93 

Electrostatic effects on, XII, 

91 
Induced earth currents in, 

XII, 91, 98 
Recording messages over, 

XII, 99 

Speed of early, XII, 98 
Telephone, XII, in 
Cacti, uses of, XI, 125-126 
Cady, XII, 133 
Calcite, III, 276 

Crystal forms of, III, 276 
Calcium, effect of lack of, XI, 

296 

Calorie, XI, 294 
Cambium, XI, 13-14 



Cambrian changes, X, 35-38 

Period, X, 35-38 
Camels, ancestors of, IX, 199 

Bactrian, VI, 155 

Domesticated in U. S., VI, 

154 

Dromedary, VI, 155 
Duration of use of, VII, 

275 

Egyptian, VII, 300 
Food of Bactrian, VI, 155 
In Australia, VI, 154-155 
Origin of, VI, 155; VII, 18 
Patience of, VI, 154 
Relatives in Western Hemi 
sphere, VI, 156 
"Ship of the desert/' VI, 

153 

Water needs of, VI, 153 

VII, 18, 275 
Camera, original amateur, 

XII, 364 
Canaries, IX, 4-5 
Canfield, III, 300 
Cannibalism, VII, 197 

Purpose of, VII, 255 
Canoe, Iroquois, IV, 77, 78 

Largest Indian, IV, 210 
Carapace of turtles, VIII, 309 
Carbohydrates, XI, 27 

Storage of, XI, 29 
Carbon Dioxide in refrigera 
tion, XII, 243-244 

Intake of, II, 224-225 
Carbon filament, Edison, XII, 
136 

Swan, XII, 136 
Carbon in Iron, XII, 342 
Carboniferous period, X, 65 
Carburetor, XII, 174, 178 
Carnelian, III, 230, 318 
Carnivores, adaptions of, IX, 
248 

Families of, IX, 322-323 



[406] 



INDEX 



Carnivorous plants, adaptations 

of, XI, 75-76 
Caroline Island outrigger, VII, 



Carriage, origin of, VII, 256 
Caspians, VII, 228 
Cassowaries, IX, 146-147 
Cat, ancestors of domestic, VI, 

92, 322 
Caterpillars, adaptations of 

legs of, V, 286 
Behavior of starving tent, 

V, 278-279 
Brain of, V, 285 
Energy for metamorphosis, 

V, 292 

Eyes of, V, 285, 301 
Food of tent, V, 277 
Food necessities of, V, 291 
Mouth parts of, V, 108, 

286 

Number of eyes of, V, 301 
Silk of, V, 287-289 
Stomach as food for, V, 293 
Cathode radiations, XII, 51, 

52 

Cathode rays, XII, 67 
Catkins, XI, 116-117 
Cattle, hybrids between bison 

and, VI, 1 68 
Cave dweller, VII, 199 

Origin of, VII, 192 
Cave man, use of beads and 

paint by, VII, 197 
Caves, cause of dwelling in, 

VII, 214 

Occupation of, VII, 192 
Caviar, source of, VIII, 23 
Cecropia Moth, V, 228-229 
Cell, cleavage, VII, 26 
Colonizing of, VII, 28 
Composition of, xVII, 26 
Concentration of molecules 
in, VII, 298 



Determination of differences 
of the animal in, VII, 25 

Effect of high desert tem 
perature on living, XI, 
259-262 

Embryonic division, VII, 29 

Experiments influencingbasic 
changes in, VII, 33 

Food-carrying in young bark, 
XI, 12, 13 

Functions of, VII, 25-26 

Membrane, XI, 297 

Plant, XI, ii 

Properties of, VII, 25 

Reproduction of, VII, 27 

Stimulation, nerves of, V, 
119 

Typical plant, XI, 12 
Cenotes, VII, 334 
Cenozoic era, X, 73, 78-79 
Centipedes, V, 82, 83 

Value of, V, 82-83 
Cephalopods, examples of, X, 

321-327 

Eyes of, X, 336 
Food of, X, 333 
Jaws of, X, 334 
Luminous, X, 343-345 
Origin of, X, 332-335 
Shelled, X, 325 B 
Cereal plants, distribution of, 

XI, 325 

Cereals, difficulty of domesti 
cation of, XI, 325 
Chalcedony, III, 228 
Chalk beds, formation of, III, 

78 

Chambered Nautilus, X, 325 
Ancestors of, X, 62-63 

Chameleon, VI, 264, 265 
Adaptations of, VIII, 324 
Peculiarities of, VIII, 324 
Tongue of, VIII, 324 

Chanute, XII, 225 



[407] 



INDEX 



Cheetah, African, VI, 90-91 
Chellean Age, VII, 185 
Climate, VII, 183, 184 
Clothing of, VII, 185 
Cherokee alphabet, IV, 16, 18 
Chesapeake Bay, life of, X, 34 
Chimpanzees, intelligence of, 

VI, 32-33 
Old, VI, 31-33 
Table manners of, VI, 30- 

33 

Chin and intelligence, VII, 47 
China, bronze culture qf, VII, 

320 

Dragon boats, VII, 241 
Early inhabitants of, VII, 

317, 3i8 
Extinction of cities of, VII, 

321 
Government of ancient, VII, 



Historical period of, VII, 

321 
Chinampas, floating islands, 

VII, 338 
Chinese empire, origin of, VII, 

324 _ 

Feudalism, overthrow of, 
^ VII, 324 

Chippewa houses, IV, 72 
Chitin, V, 256 
Chlorophyll, XI, 290 

Absorption of light rays by,' 

XI, 292 

Formulae for, XI, 290 
Iron needed for, XI, 290 
Part in photosynthesis, XI, 

289-290 

Production of, XI, 290 
Chlorosis, XI, 8, 9 
Chocolate, source of, XI, 123 
Chromatic aberration, II, 310 
Chroma topho res in octopus, X, 
342-343 



Chromosomes, VII, 25-28 
In cell division, VII, 26-27 
Phases of, VII, 26 
Chrysalis, V, 251 
Chrysoberyl, III, 247, 248 
Chrysolite, III, 249-250 
Chumash Indians, extinction 

of, IV, 179 

Cicada, abdomen, V, 206-207 
Burrows of, V, 187-189 
Common names of, V, 184 
Damage done by, V, 185 
Digging adaptations of 

nymph, V, 190 
Food of, V, 200-204 
Huts, V, 192-193 
Instincts of newborn, V, 

224-225 

Life history of, V, 186-199 
Mouth parts of, V, 186 
Number of eggs of, V, 214 
Music production, V, 199, 

207-212 
Nymphs, V, 187-190, 194- 

195 

Nymphs, food of, V, 187 
Relatives of, V, 205 
Sex in, V, 199 
Short period of freedom of, 

V, 185 

Song of, V, 183, 184 
Stomach of, V, 204-206 
Underground life of, V, 184 
Wholesale death of, V, 214 
Cilia, XI, 72 
Circulation of blood in fishes, 

_ VIII, 97-98 
Cities, origin of early great, 

VII, 315 
Civilization, and agriculture, 

XI, 219 

Concentration of, VII, 189 
Development of, XI, 197 



INDEX 



Effect of grasses on, XI, 

201-215 
Food requirements of, VII, 

243 

Measures of, XI, 319 
Oldest, VII, 301 
Origin of, VII, 295 
Origin of European, VII, 

309 

Stages of, VII, 249 
Clam, origin of, VII, 13 

Sand, X, 273-275 
Classification, structure in, V, 

26 

Clay sculpture, Magdalenian, 
VII, 221 

Cleavage in cells, VII, 26 
Cliff dwellers, IV, no 
Climate, changes in Rocky 

Mountain, X, 80 
Coal age, X, 69 
Effect of variations of sun's 

intensity on, II, 4, 5 
Formation of present Euro 
pean, VII, 232 
Origin of present, VII, 68, 

X, Si 

Original Polar, VII, 68 
Relation of population shifts 

in Europe to, VII, 232 
Solutrean, VII, 207 
Clipper ships, XII, 188 
Cloth feed, sewing machine, 

XII, 259 

Cloth, Indian, IV, 23 
Clothes, origin of, VII, 192 
Clothing, Caspian, VII, 229 
Clothing, Eskimo, IV, 50-53 
Clouds, types of, II, 104-105 
Clubs, origin of, VII, 194 
Coal balls, X, 12-13 
Coal, Devonian plants and, 

VII, 15 
Formation of, X, 66-68, 71 



Heat efficiency of, XII, 158- 

159 

Heat from, XI, 294 
Cobra, menace of, VIII, 351- 

352 

Poison of spitting, VI, 269 
Cocoons, V, 251, 252, 286 
Construction of tent, V, 

282-283 

Cockroach, American, V, 79 
Coherer, XII, 129 
Coke, by-products of, XII, 338 
Cold production by heat, XII, 

239 

Coleoptiles, XI, 310, 312 
Coleostat, II, i, 84 
Collecting, plant, XI, 363-376 
Collotype, XII, 373 
Color, cause of difference in 
ruby and sapphire, III, 
203 
Changes in crustaceans, X, 

205-207 

Differences in male and fe 
male fish, VIII, 101 
Effect of elements in gems, 

III, 179 

Of amethyst, III, 226 
Of benitoite, III, 252, 253 
Of chrysoberyl, III, 247 
Of diamonds, III, 191 
Of fishes, VIII, 34 
Of hottest stars, II, 289 
Color of jade, III, 254 

Of old and new stars, VII, 

8 

Of Spodumene, III, 250 
Production, chemistry in 

animals of, X, 207-209 
Transmission in the atmos 
phere, II, 113-114 
Colorado River, change of 
course of, XII, 209 



[409] 



INDEX 



Colored objects, seeing of, II, 

99-100 

Colpitts, XII, 133 
Combustion : 

In internal combustion en 
gine, XII, 171-180 
Of coal and oil, in U. S., 

XII, 150 
Thermal values in, XII, 

159 

Commutator, XII, 18 
Compass, effect of steel ship 

on, XII, 190 
Effect of sun on Magnetic, 

II, 260, 261 

Compass, gyroscope, XII, 190 
Composite bow, VII, 323 
Composites, XI, 130 
Compound, gem, III, 171 
Mineral, III, 170, 171 
Sun's lack of, II, 7, 289 
Compression, origin of, XII, 

172 

Condenser, XII, 118 
Condenser, earth and sky as, 

XII, 118 

Condenser, Watt's XII, 160 
Conifers, XI, 94 
Conservation, realization of 

need for, VI, 2, 3 
Constellation of Cancer, X, 92 
Continents, effect of Ice Age 

on, VII, 103 
Continents, emergence of, X, 

7 

Control of flies, V, 343 
Conus, a dangerous snail, X, 

301-302 
Coolidge and tungsten, XII, 

145, 146 
Copepods, adjustment to host 

of, X, 133 
Beauty of, X, 126 
In ocean levels, X, 127 



Parasites of, X, 134-136 

Parasitic, X, 128-137 
Copper, earliest use of, VII, 
266 

Mayan, VII, 334 

Plating, XII, 136 
Copper Age, VII, 39-41 
Copperhead snake, habitat of, 
VIII, 347 

Harmfulness of, VIII, 348 
Copra, XI, 113 
Coral, III, 271 

Colors of, III, 270, 271 
Corms, propagation by, XI, 

64, 68 
Corn, ancestors of, XI, 214 

Ancient development of, XI, 
327-328 

And crows, IX, 131 

An ideal food plant, XI, 



Chemical treatment of seed, 

IX, 131 

Colored, XI, 328 
Comparison of modern with 

ancient, XI, 327 
Criticism of mutation theory 

of production of, XI, 

345-346 
Designs by Indians of, XI, 

346-348 
Difficulty of determining 

ancestor of, XI, 324 
Germination of, XI, 60 
Hand cultivation as an aid 

in development of, XI, 

324 

Hybrid nature of, XI, 345 
Hybridizing with related 

forms, XI, 345 
Importance to Indian of, 

XI, 213, 323, 324 
In science, XI, 348 



[410] 



INDEX 



Most ancient of cultivated 
cereals, XI, 324 

Mutations producing mod 
ern, XI, 343 

Nature of, XI, 213-214 

Need for man's aid in grow 
ing, XI, 326 

Origin a mystery, XI, 336, 
337 

Place of selection in pro 
duction of, XI, 34^-343 

Products, XI, 217-218 

Recent mutations of, XI, 
344 

Relatives of, XI, 331 

Smut, XI, . 40 

Sugar production of, XI, 
295 

Theories of origin of ear in, 
XI, 339, 340 

Treatment of seeds, IX, 131 
Corona, sun's, IV, 265-269, 

285 

Corundum, III, 204 
Cotton, economic importance 

of, XI, 123 
Cotton Gin, XII, 301 
Cowbirds, IX, 135 

Neglect of nesting duties by, 

IX, 89-90 

Crabs, circulation in, X, 107 
Blue, X, 1 01 
Burrowing of fiddler, X, 

171 
Capture of robber, X, 175- 

177 

Conservation of, X, 192-199 
Conservation in Andalusia 

of, X, 230-231 
Conservation in Florida of, 

X, 230 

Damage to rice in India by, 
X, 240-242 



Damage to rice in Porto 
Rico by, X, 243-244 

Damage to rice in Spain by, 
X, 243 

Digging powers of, X, 244, 

245 
Discarded shells as food for, 

X, 106 
Fiddler, in deafness cure, X, 

239 

Food of, X, 106 
Food of fiddler, X, 171 
Food of robber, X, 1 77-178 
Fossils of, X, 238 
Frequency of molting in, X, 

172 
Habits of robber, X, 174- 

176 
Hardening of shells of, X, 

105-106 

Heart of, X, 107 
In sanitation, X, 245 
Life history of, X, 168-171 
Life span of, X, 172 
Materials in shells of, X, 

97-98 
Menace to coconuts due to 

robber, X, 178 
Menace to tomato crop in 

Florida, X, 244 
Methods of catching, X, 

230 

Mountain, X, 188 
Robber, X, 178 
Scarcity of, X, 230 
Size of catch of, X, 229 
Soft-shell, X, 105 
Sounds made by, X, 197, 

199 

Stomach of, X, 106-107 
Stone, X, 230 
Tail of, X, 102 
Crayfish, eyes of, X, 239 
Food from, X, 234 



[411] 



INDEX 



Largest fresh water, X, 173 
Menace to corn and cotton, 

X, 244 
Creation, Seneca Myth of, IV, 

222-225 

Creek log house, IV, 288 
Cretaceous period, animals of, 

X, 77 

Crete, dress of, VII, 310, 311 

Cretan architecture, VII, 310 

Civilization, extinction of, 

VII, 312 
Rulers, choice of, VII, 310, 

3ii 
Cretans, ancient, VII, 309 

Religion of, VII, 310 
Crickets, mouth parts of, V, 

108 

Relatives of, V, 58-71 
Song of, V, 49, 56-58 
Crocodiles, American, VIII, 

302-303 

Ancestors of, VIII, 299, 300 
Food habits of, VIII, 305 
Habitats of, VIII, 302 
Mating of, VIII, 300, 301 
Nile, VIII, 302 
Cro-Magnon, VII, 228 
Age of, VII, 73 
Anatomy of, VII, 73, 74 
Appearance in Europe, VII, 

76 

Appearance of, VII, 75 
Burial of, VII, 78, 206 
Changes in stature of, VII, 

212 

Characteristics of, VII, 74 
Continuity of, VII, 226 
Descendants of, VII, 228 
Displacement of, VII, 228, 
229 

Drawings, VII, 220 
In Africa, VII, 79 



Increase of animal popula 
tion by, VII, 203 

Life of, VII, 77 

Medicine men, VII, 222, 
223 

Migrations of, VII, 198 

Origin of, VII, 166 

Origin in Europe of, VII, 
198 

Post- VII, 74 

Tools, VII, 201 

Total culture of, VII, 167 
Crops, care by women of, VII, 

243 

Rotation, XI, 28 
Cross-pollination, XI, 44 
Cross-section of a twig, XI, 

12-13 
Crust, formation in meteorites 

of, III, 58 
Crustaceans, a food for chub, 

X, 151-152 
Ability to withstand high 

temperature, X, 185-186 
Amputations of limbs in, X, 

103 

Ancestors of, X, 97 
Appendages of, X, 102, 104 
As pests, X, 89 
Changes of color in, X, 205- 

207 
Chemical elements in, X, 

238 

Classification of, X, 113-114 
Depth in ocean, X, 185-186 
Difference between insects 

and, X, 100 
Duration of phosphorescence 

in, X, 203-204 
Examples of, X, 90-91 
Giant among, X, 173 
Homes of, X, 210-228 
Importance to sea life of, 

X, 89-90 



[412] 



INDEX 



In hot springs, X, 153-154 
Largest and smallest species 

of, X, 96 
Larvae used in identifying, 

X, 128-129 
Luminescence of, X, 88, 

200-205 

Noises of, X, 192-194 
Number of species of, X, 91 
Production of light in, X, 

165, 200-203 
Protective coloration among, 

X, 205-207 
Reason for molting in, X, 

91 
Reproduction of, X, 107- 

108 

Segmentation in, X, 98-99 
Spread by seaweeds of, X, 

189 

Spread by ships of, X, 188 
Types of habitats of, X, 89 
Unusual habitats of, X, 

186-187 
Uses of appendages of, X, 

102 

Young of, X, 108-109 
Crystals, cleavage, III, 181 
Color variation in, III, 179, 

1 80 

Constants of, III, 172 
Control of broadcast by, 

XII, 127 
Cutting properties of, III, 

1 80 
Determination of shape of, 

HI, 173 
Earth-water formed, III, 

175 
Factors of arrangement of 

faces of, III, 174 
Formation of, III, 174-175 
Growth, III, 172 



Impairment of transparency 

of, III, 176 
Largest, III, 173 
Minimum number of faces 

of, HI, 173 
Needs for natural formation 

of, HI, 174 
Oscillator, XII, 133 
Shapes, III, 172 
Sizes of, III, 172-173 
Smooth cleavage of, III, 

181 
Uneven cleavage of, III, 

181 
Zonal development of, III, 

176 
Culex mosquito, V, 331, 335- 

338 
Cultivated plant, oldest, XI, 

324 
Cultural practice, evidences of 

ancient, VII, 49, 51 
Culture, archaic, VII, 328, 

329, 341 

Assyrian, VII, 306, 307 
Conquerors of China, VII, 



Division of, VII, 187, 188 
Neanderthal, VII, 67, 68 
North American Indian, IV, 

34, 35 

Spanish traces of Stone Age, 
VII, 227, 228 
Studies of Indian, IV, 8 
Toltec, VII, 337 
Currents, measurements of 

minute, XII, 123 
Gushing, IV, 118-128 
Cuttings, XI, 68-71 
Cuvier, student of fossils, IX, 

230, 231 

Cyanite, III, 275 
Cycads, XI, 95 



[413] 



INDEX 



Cyclone Mouse Trap, IX, 

238, 240 
Cyclops, habitat of, X, 127- 

128 

Reason for name of, X, 127 
Cypress trees, knees of, XI, 10 



Daguerreotype, XII, 358 
Exposure and development, 

XII, 358-359 
Daimler, XII, 215 
Dakota Badlands, X, 78 
Dandelions, XI, 65-66 
Daphnia, life history of, X, 

118-120 
Relations with surface film, 

X, 121 

Winter eggs of, X, 119-120 
Darwin, Charles, X, 1-2 
Davy, XII, 4 
Dawn man, VII, 72 

Age, animals of, VII, 134 
Dead, origin of burial of, VII, 

189 
Deciduous trees in tropics, XI, 

21 
Decline of Mayan culture, 

VII, 335 
Deer, dehorning of male, VI, 

183, 185 
Migration of prehistoric, 

VII, 18, 19 

Origin of, VII, 1 8 
DeForest, XII, 60, 61 
Density of Antares, II, 288, 

289 

Deperet, VII, 54 
Deserts, conditions in, XI, 

253-263 

Life of, XI, 264-281 
Devonian fishes, X, 65 
Diamonds, ancient beliefs 

about, III, 203 



Artificial, III, 289 
Best colors, III, 191 
Black, III, 191 
Colors of, III, 191 
Estimating value of, III, 

191 

Formation of, III, 196 
Geology of land bearing, 

III, 207 

History of, III, 190 
Matrix of, III, 193-194 
Mineral relations of, III, 

191 

Mining of, III, 193 
Physical properties of, III, 

190 

Size of synthetic, III, 289 
Sources of, III, 191-195 
Superior colors of, III, 191 
Synthetic, III, 289 
U. S. sources of, III, 199, 

200 

Diatomaceous earth, XI, 87, 

88, 192-196 
Diatoms, XI, 180-183; X, 80- 

81 

Deposits of, X, 80 
Sources of petroleum in, XI, 

185-186 
Use of, X, 8 1 
Diatryma, IX, 45 
Dicotyledons, XI, 95-96 
Dielectric, XII, 118 
Diesel engine, XII, 175 
Four-cycle, XII, 175 
Two-cycle, XII, 176 
Differential, XII, 216 
Diffraction grating, II, 310- 

3ii 
Diffusion through plant cells, 

XI, 29 

Digestion, V, no 
Dinosaurs, VII, 17; VIII, 
219-226 



[414] 



INDEX 



Amphibious, VIII, 226-228, 

230, 231 

Beaked, VIII, 232-250 
Brain capacity of, VIII, 

235-236, 243 J X, 77 
Carnivorous, VIII, 219-226 
Covering of, VIII, 217 
Climatic conditions during 

life of, VIII, 214 
Definition of, VIII, 213-214 
Eggs of, VIII, 217-219 
Extinction of, VIII, 249- 

250 

Land, VIII, 213-215 
Mummy of, VIII, 239-240 
National monument, VIII, 

215-216 

Origin of, VII, 17 
Rumors of surviving, VIII, 

213 

Sizes of, VII, 17 
Skeletons of, VIII, 229-230 
Supremacy of, VII, 17 

Tracks of, VIII, 269-277 
Dioecious, XI, 45-46 
Diplodocus, largest dinosaur, 

VIII, 226-231, 286 
Direct current, XII, 23, 24 
Dynamo, XII, 18-24 
Motor, XII, 42-44 
Disease-causing fungi, XI, 

9i 

Disease, early man's expla 
nation of, VII, 177, 178 

Disease germs carried by house 
flies, V, 347 

Diseases of ancient man, VII, 
196 

Dispersion in gems, III, 181 

Distribution, causes of plant 
XI, 81-85 

Dodder, XI, 30, 31-32 

Dodo, IX, 159 



Dog, ancestors of, IX, 321- 

322 

Eskimo, IV, 47, 50 
Mesolithic man's use of, 

VII, 239 
Origin of domestic, VII, 

230, 238 
Rarity of South American, 

VI, 221 
Dogs, domestication of, VII, 

239 

Donkey, Babylonian, VII, 305 
Dorsal fin as bait, VIII, 47 
Down feathers, function of, 

IX, 17, 18 
Dragon flies, prehistoric, V, 

< 93-96 

Size of fossil, X, 70 
Draw boy fork, XII, 187, 288, 

289 
Drugs from plants, XI, 100, 

101, 108 
Ducks, annual slaughter of 

wild, IX, 39, 40 
Beak of, IX, 126 
Care of young of, IX, 94- 

97 

Sale of wild, IX, 39 
Wild, as food for man, IX, 
39 

Duckbill, IX, 272-277 

Breeding habits of, IX, 279 
Food of, IX, 277-278 

Dulse, XI, 185 

Dunmore, XII, 123 

Duryea, XII, 215 

Dust, area of volcanic, II, 35, 

40 

Cosmic origin of, III, 61 
Relationship of rain to II, 

103 
Dyes from plants, XI, 103, 

109 
Dynamite, XI, 194 



[415] 



INDEX 



Dynamo, alternating current, 

XII, 22, 37 
A. C. and D. C., XII, 22, 

40 

Edison, XII, 143, 144 
Faraday, XII, 14 
Field of, XII, 19 
Field excitation of, XII, 30 
Polyphase, XII, 29 
Three-phase, III, 29 
Turbine driven, XII, 164, 

170 
Winding of, XII, 126 



Early man's fasteners, VII, 

174, 175 
Earth, age of, VII, 3 

Calculation of age of, VII, 

3; X, 1-9 
Changes in level of, X, 30, 

3i 

Cherokee legend of forma 
tion of, IV, 218-220 
Constant temperature of, II, 

246-248 

Crust, age of, VII, 10-11 
Movement of, VII, 9, 10 
Thickness of, VII, 9, 10 
Eras of life on the, VII, 12 
Formation of, VII, 3 
Origin of, VII, 8, 9 

Past changes in surface of, 

Xo 
, o 

Place in the solar system of, 
VII, i 

Radioactive matter and for 
mation of, VII, 3 

Size of, VII, i 

Surface, formation of, VII, 

9 
Yurak conception of, IV, 

198 
Eastman, XII, 361-366 



Echidna, IX, 270-271 
Eclipses, formation of, II, 265- 

267 

Ecology, science of, XI, 78 
Ectoderm, development of, 

VII, 29, 30 

Ecuador bird species, IX, 2 
Edentates, examples of, IX, 

250 
Edison, base, XII, 142 

Beginnings in electricity by, 
XII, 137 

Dynamo, XII, 144 

Effect, XII, 58, 59 

First practical invention of, 
XII, 137-138 

Incandescent lamp, advan 
tage of, XII, 140 

In telegraphy, XII, 137, 
138 

Lamp, XII, 141 

Efficiency of, XII, 142 

Light of, XII, 142 

Eel, cause of migration of, 

VIII, 118, 123 
Life of, VIII, 119-120 
Odyssey of, VIII, 118-121 
Spawning of, VIII, 119 

Efficiency, survival value of, 

V, 124 
Egg, bird, IX, 79-90 

Cell, development of, XI, 
42 

Cells, VII, 24 

Cells, formation of, VII, 27 

Of Culex, V, 331 

Food in hen, VII, 23 

House fly, V, 343 

Laying,^, 4, 5 

Incubation of bird, IX, 90 

Of plant, XI, 41-42 

Of roach, V, 80, 81 

Of tent caterpillar, V, 262 

Pigments of bird, IX, 84 



INDEX 



Protection from sun, IX, 88 
Shapes of bird, IX, 79 
Egypt, crops of early, VII, 297 
Old and new, VII, 296 
Origin of use of iron in, 

VII, 300 

Sculpture of, VII, 299 
Use of stone in, VII, 297 
Egyptian year, VII, 298 
Einstein theory of refraction, 

ii, 285 

Electric current flow, XII, 56, 

. 57 . 
Distribution, origin of, XII, 

144 

Motor, A. C, XII, 44, 45 
Motor, constant speed, XII, 

45 
Motor, D. C. wound, XII, 

43-44 

Motor, Henry, XII, 72, 73 
Motor, repulsion, XII, 29- 

30 
Motor, synchronous, XII, 

4 6 

Power, steam generated, 

XII, 47 

Refrigerator, XII, 249 
Electrical, speed of, changes, 

XII, 57 
Distribution, Edison, XII, 

144 

Signalling, early, XII, 79 
Electricity, steam power man 
ufacturing of, XII, 47 
Transmission of, XII, 37 
Electrolux, XII, 244 
Electrolysis, XII, 4 
Electromagnet, XII, 3, 4, 15 
Cores, XII, 19 
Formulae, XII, 2O 
Electromagnetic waves, XII, 
117 



Electromagnetism, XII, 1-2 
Discovery of, XII, 10 

Electrons, VII, 5 

Activity of matter caused 

by, XII, 56 
Emission XII, 59 
Free, XII, 53, 54 
In wire, XII, 56, 58 
Limitation of emission of, 

XII, 63 

Orbit distances of, XII, 55 
Orbits of, XII, 55 
Size of, XII, 51 
Use of, XII, 54 
Weight of, XII, 51, 54 

Elements, composition of, VII, 

5 

Essential, XI, 296, 297 
Gem, III, 170 
Gem colors from, III, 79 
Meteoric, III, 65 
Structure of, VII, 5 
Sun, VII, 5 
Elephants, VI, 126-145; VII, 

18 
Indian, how captured, VI, 

137-139 

Jumbo, VI, 130132 
Length of life of the, VI, 

136 

North and Central Ameri 
can, IX, 349^350 
Elevation, effect of glacier on, 

VII, 61, 62 

Embryo, difference between 
vertebrate and inverte 
brate, VII, 25 
Evidences in the, VIII, i 
Nourishment of, VII, 30 
Size of, VII, 33 
Size of yolk in, VII, 30 
Emeralds, III, 210 

Cause of value of, III, 210 
Composition of, III, 210 



[417] 



INDEX 



Confusion with Tourmaline, 

III, 213-214 
Crystalline shape of, III, 

211 

Geology of, III, 211-213 
Rarest gem, III, 212 
Source of, III, 211 
Emus, IX, 146-147 
Endocrines, IX, 35 
Endoderm, VII, 30 
Energy of light, XI, 287-288 
For plants, XI, 288 
Of Man and Universe, VII, 

4 

Release of, V, loo-ioi 
Sources of mechanical ener 
gy, XII, 150 
Sun spots' effect on radiant, 

II, 139, 141 
Engines, action of gas, XII, 

172 
Action of four-cycle, XII, 

172 

Aeroplane, first, XII, 226 
Automobile, XII, 174, 175 
Auto "V", XII, 176-178 
Brayton, XII, 216 
Cooling of, XII, 176 
Early commercial gas, XII, 

171 

Early Wright, XII, 230 
Efficiency of sun, II, 212, 

213 

Fitch's steam, XII, 182 
Gas, XII, 174, 175 
Gas, Daimler, XII, 215 
Radial, XII, 179 
Rotating steam, origin of, 

XII, 182 
Sun, II, 214, 215 
Engraving material, XII, 353, 

356 
Tools, origin of, VII, 202 



Entoloden mortoni, IX, 191- 

2OO 
Environment, organic changes 

caused by, VII, 21 
Enzymes, function of, V, 1 1 1 ; 

XI, 29 

Eoanthropus, VII, 140 
Eocene climate, X, 79 

Sea mammals of, VII, 18 
Epiphytes, XI, 79, 114, 115 
Eras of life on the earth,VII, 

12 

Erosion, X, 3 
Eryops, VIII, 168-169 
Eskimos, culture of, IV, 39 

Dogs, control of, IV, 47 

Education of, IV, 63 

Food of, IV, 44 

Laws of, IV, 6 1 

Meaning of, IV, 38 

Origin of, IV, 3 

Religion of, IV, 58 

Sled, IV, 64 

Standard of value of, IV, 
55, 56 

Summer life of, IV, 40 

Winter life of, IV, 40 
Estufa, IV, in, 112 
Euclase, III, 273 
Europe, formation of present 
climate in, VII, 232 

Recent fossils in, X, 8 
Evaporation from leaves, XI, 

25 
Evolution, causes of, V, 101 

Theory of, XI, 145-147 
Exhaust gases, XII, 172-174 
Existence of electrons, XII, 

5i> 52 
Eyes, of caterpillar, V, 285 

Cephalopods, X, 336 

Color efficiency of, II, 101 

Construction of fishes, VIII, 
66, 73 



[418] 



INDEX 



Development of, in fishes, 
VIII, 71, 72 

Efficiency of Cuban fire 
flies', II, 269-270 

Efficiency of fully developed 
fishes', VIII, 72 

Fish, VIII, 72 

Of lobster, X, no 

Number in caterpillars, V, 
301 

Of scallops, X, 257, 258 

Of simplest fish, VIII, 71, 

72 . 
Eyeglass, origin of, XII, 311 



Facetting, III, 306 
Falcons, IX, 5 
Fangs in snakes, VIII, 41 
Faraday, XII, 4-5, 11-16 

Discoveries of, XII, 4-16 
Fats, production of, XI, 295, 

296 
Feathers, IX, 15 

Colors of, IX, 25-38 

Construction of, IX, 15-17 

Contour of, IX, 17-18 

Forms of, IX, 24 

Growth of, IX, 20 

Kinds of, IX, 15-20 

Pigments in, IX, 25-34 
Feldspars, III, 262-264 

Colors of, III, 262, 264 
Female statuettes, significance 

of, VII, 205 . 
Ferns, XI, 93-94 

Characteristics of, XI, 93 

Giant, X, 67-68 

Relatives of, XI, 94 

Spore of, XI, 40, 94 
Fertilization in plants, XI, 39- 

4i> 53 
Of yucca, XI, 50 



Fertilizers, discovery of, XI, 

296 
Fibers from plants, XI, 101, 

1 02, 109 

In weaving, VII, 262 
Fiddler crabs, X, 168-172 
Life history of, X, 168, 

171-172 
Fins, VIII, 63, 64 

Attachment of, VIII, 63, 64 
Caudal, VIII, 47, 48 
Flexibility of, VIII, 39, 41 
Formation of, VIII, 38-39 
Function of, VIII, 38 
Function of pectoral, VIII, 

42, 43 
Function of ventral, VIII, 

43-45 

Types of, VIII, 3 9> 41 
Fire drill, VII, 172, 238 
Firefly, efficiency of eyes of 

Cuban, II, 270 
Fire, legend of origin, VII, 

22O, 222 

Origin of, VII, 172-173 
Origin of making, VII, 192 
Fish lice, adaptations of, X, 

137 

life of, X, 136-137 
lizards, VIII, 251-262 
Fishes, adaptation of, VIII, 

53, 57, H3, 148 
Alimentary canal of, VIII, 

95-97 
Ancestors of amphibia, VIII, 

i7, 18 

Ancestors of bony, VIII, 25 
Brain of, VIII, 99 
Breathing of, VIII, 86, 87; 

IX, 368 
Cannibalism in, VIII, 114- 



Classification of bony, VIII, 
26-29 



[419] 



INDEX 



Color of, VIII, 34 
Construction of eyes of, 

VIII, 66-73 
Deep sea, VIII, 154 
Deep sea, eyes of, VIII, 7 1 
Definition of, VIII, 4-5 
Difference in color of male 

and female, VIII, 101 
Distribution of, VIII, 2 
Ear of, VIII, 73-74 
Effects of floods upon, VIII, 



Effect of temperature changes 

on, VIII, 152-153 
Efficiency of fully developed 

eye of, VIII, 72 
Eggs, hatching of, VIII, 

105 
Electric organs of, VIII, 82- 

83 
Evolution of, VIII, 4, 8, 

Eyes of, VIII, 72 

Features of bony, VIII, 16, 

17, 25-26 

First verterbrate, VIII, I 
Food of, VIII, 138-142; 

X, 125-126 
Four-eyed, VIII, 70-71 
Ganoid, VIII, 21-25, 36 
Habitats of, VIII, 2 
Hearing of, VIII, 73-74 
Largest and smallest, VIII, 

3 

Littoral, VIII, 154 
Loss of fins in, VIII, 42 
Luminous, VIII, 8081 
Materials in skeletons of, 

VIII, 61 
Method of feeding, VIII, 

75 

Migrations of, VIII, 129 
Movements to deep sea of, 

VIII, 128 



Number of eggs of, VIII, 

103 
Origin of, VII, 14; VIII, 

10 

Origin of lower jaw in, 

VIII, 65 " 

Origin of true, VII, 4 
Pelagic, VIII, 153-154 
Porcupine, VIII, 36 
Production of electricity in, 

VIII, 82-84 

Protection of, VIII, 50-52 
Reason for wide ^ distribu 
tion of, VIII, 2" 
Regeneration in, VIII, 50 
Ribs of, VIII, 61-62 
Scales of, VIII, 34 
Sense of, VIII, 99 
Senses of touch in, VIII, 

66-67 

Sex glands of, VIII, 102 
Shapes of, VIII, 5, 7 
Shutting of eyes of, VIII, 66 
Skull of, VIII, 64 
Species of, VIII, 3 
Speed of, VIII, 30 
Spine of, VIII, 62 
Suffocation of, VIII, 86 
Teeth all over body of, 

VIII, 37 

Teeth of, VIII, 57 
Toothless, VIII, 59 
Variation of, VIII, 3-4 
Vertical distribution of, 

VIII, 153 

Theories of, VIII, 150-151 
Fishing and spawning seasons, 

VIII, 125-126 
Fist axe, VII, 186, 187 
Fitch, XII, 181-182, 184 
Fitch's steamboat, XII, 181- 

182, 184 

Flamingo, legs and neck of, 
VI, 237, 238 



[420] 



INDEX 



Flatfishes, eyes of, VIII, 68- 

69 

Flatworms In mollusks, X, 316 
Flaws in minerals, III, 177 
Fleas, importance of water, X, 
118 

Sand, X, 157, 158 

Water, X, 118 
Flickers, food of, IX, 136 
Flies, birthplace of, V, 343 

Biting, V, 320, 321 

Characteristics of, V, 315 

Horn, V, 348 

Stable, V, 347, 348 

Wings of, V, 315 
Flint chips, advantages of, 

VII, 193 
Flippers, VI, 123 
Floods, continental, X, 36 

History of, X, 36 
Flower, adaptation for repro 
duction, XI, 41 
Flowering, effect of light upon, 
XI, 303 . , 

Plants, families of, XI, 96 
Flowers, colors of, XI, 46, 47 

Insect-pollinated, XI, 46 

Insects and tubular, XI, 51, 
52 

Odors of, XI, 47 

Wind pollinated, XI, 44 
Flukes, X, 316-320 
Fly bite, infection by, V, 322 

Effect on cattle of ox war- 

ble, V, 352 

Fly larvae, V, 324-325 
Fly, ox warble, V, 352 

Robber, V, 324 

Shuttle, XII, 299 

Tsetse, V, 348-349 

Food of, V, 350 
Flying squirrels, adaptations 

of, IX, 334 
Fogs, formation of, II, 105 



Food adaptations of snake's 

mouth, VIII, 340 
Food, arts and sciences rela 
tionships to, XI, 319 
Barnacles as, X, 143, 237 
Carnivores IX, 248 
Crayfish as, X, 234 
Digestion of, V, no 
Gathering adaptations, V, 

107 
Gathering, Magdelenian, 

VII, 226 

Horses as, VII, 253 
Iroquois preparation of, IV 

73 
Iroqiiois preservation of, IV, 

73 

Lizard as, VI, 265 
Mollusk supply, V, 265, 266 
Octupus as, VI, 268 
Of Apaches, IV, 144 
Of Eskimos, IV, 44 
Of Indians, IV, 70-71 
Of man, XI, 104-110 
Of Sioux, IV, 152 
Origin of modern plant, 

VII, 17 

Pilgrims, XI, 213 
Plants, modern, XI, 321 
Plants used by man, XI, 98- 

100 

Poisonous snakes for, VIII, 

354-355 
Preservation of, XII, 239- 

247 
Problem, ancient man's, XI, 

320 

Salamander as, VIII, 186 
Snails as, X, 312-313 
Foraminifera's aid to petrole 
um industry, X, 23 
Ford, XII, 224 
Forest floors, XI, 32 
Formation of fruit, XI, 42 



[421] 



INDEX 



Fossils, X, 66-69 

- In Alabama, X, 37 
In amber, III, 258 
Assembly of, VIII, 286-290 
Burgess shale, X, 60 
Common to Europe and Ap 
palachian Mts., X, 37 
Dentition of birds, IX, 43- 

44 _ 
Deposits in the Colorado 

Lake, X, 80 

Estimating age of, VII, 39 
Excavation of, VIII, 284- 

285; IX, 171-187 
Exploration of, VIII, 284- 

285; IX, 230 
Exposed on rock, X, 61 
First one found, IX, 228 
Footprints, VIII, 271 
Formation of, VIII, 279- 

290 

Formation of plant, X, 12 
Hoax, VIII, 282 
Imprints, X, 11-12 
Indicators of land and water 

areas, X, 18 
Locality for, X, 57-58 
Museums, VIII, 286 
Natural imitations of, VIII, 

280 

Oil, X, 19-25 
Impressions, perfection of, 

X, 12 
Place where first found, IX, 

232 

Plant, X, 43 
Present-day formation of, 

X, ii 
Relation of petroleum to, X, 

19-24 
Restoration of, VIII, 288- 

289 

Rich deposits of, VIII, 216 
Scarcity of, VIII, 283-284 



Scarcity of land, X, 1 1 
Source of amphibian, VIII, 

165-166 

Students of, IX, 230-232 
Fowl, origin of domestic, IX, 3 
Frequency, alternating current, 

XII, 40 
Determination of radio, XII, 

119-120 

Friction, XII, 194-195 
Frogs, VIII, 193 

Adaptations to jumping, 

VIII, 193-194 
Adaptations to temperature 

changes, VIII, 195 
Ancient idea of origin of, 

VIII, 195 

Behavior, VIII, 202 
Flying, VIII, 208 
Fossils of, VIII, 169 
Life history of, VIII, 196- 

197 
Relations to salamander, 

VIII, 195-196 
Fruit crops, Indian, IV, 77 
Fuel, consumption in U. S., II, 

,194 

Diesel ignition of, XII, 175 
Gas engine ignition of, XII, 

174-177 
Internal combustion engine, 

XII, 171 

Takia as VI, 157 
Fruiting, effect of light upon, 

XI, 303 
Fulton, XII, 1 86 

Steamboat, XII, 187 
Fungi, XI, 288-289 

Diseases due to, XI, 91 
Furnace, products of blast, 

XII, 338-339 
Materials used in blast, 

XII, 338-339 
Reverberatory, XII, 346 



[422] 



INDEX 



Gaff-topsail catfish, VIII, 113 
Galaxy, number of stars in 

our, VII, i, 2 
Galvanometer, XII, 7, 8, 9 
Reflecting, XII, 98 
Ultra-sensitive, II, 80 
Gametophyte, XI, 268 
Ganglion, V, 118 
Ganoid fishes, VIII, 36 
Garden pea, germination of, 

XI, 60 
Garnets, III, 243-246 

Metal basis of, III, 244 
Solubility of, III, 245 

Gas engine, action of, XII, 

172 

Earliest, XII, 171 
Efficiency of, XII, 179-180 
Four-cycle, XII, 172 

Gas expansion engines, II, 
207-208 

Gas, natural, XII, 34 

Pressure engine, II, 207-208 
Refrigerator, XII, 248 

Gases, behavior in vacuum, 

XII, 49 

Conductivity of, XII, 49 
Effect of high voltage upon, 

XII, 50 

Laws of, XII, 239-240 
Gasoline intake, XII, 172 
Gastropods, X, 284-287 
Eggs of, X, 306-307 
Feet of, X, 293-294 
Dangerous to man, X, 316 
Moisture conservation in, 

X, 289-290 
Sense of smell of, X, 308- 

309 

Shells of, X, 287-288 
Smoke screens of, X, 315- 



Thread-spinning, X, 290 



Without shells, X, 291 
Geckos, VIII, 326 
Gem, brilliant cut, III, 308- 
309 

Collector, III, 291 

Determination of beauty of, 

in, 178 

Determination of cutting, 

HI, 306 

Diamond cut, III, 182 
Elements, III, 170 
Parts of brilliant cut of, 

HI, 308 

Proportions of, III, 309 
Gems, attribution of mystical 

properties to, III, 209- 

2IO 

Beryl group of, III, 210 
Biblical, III, 316, 319 
Cabochon cut, III, 314 
Cameo, III, 314 
Carving, artistic, III, 314 
Chemistry of synthetic, III, 

290 
Choice by ancient man of, 

III, 306 
Color formation in, III, 

178-179 
Color from elements in, III, 

179 
Commercial manufacturing 

of, III, 289 

Compounds of, III, 171 
Curved surface bounding 

cut, III, 308 

Cuts bounded by plane sur 
faces in, III, 308 
Cuts of, III, 308 
Dispersion in, III, 181 
Double brilliant, III, 310 
Effects of elements on colors 

of, III, 244 

Half brilliant cut, III, 310 
Hardness, III, 182 



[423] 



INDEX 



Intaglio cut, III, 314 
Light factors in cutting, III, 

306-307 
Magical properties of, III, 

183-185 

Mineral, III, 170 
Minerals, commercially and 

scientifically important, 

in, 294 

National Museum collection 
of, III, 295 

Refraction in, III, 181 

Rose cut, III, 312 

Scientific property measure 
ment of, III, 183 

Size of cut, III, 307 

Star cut, III, 311-312 

Step cut, III, 313 

Synthetic, III, 289 

Table cut, III, 314 

Trap brilliant cut, III, 311 

Trap cut, III, 313 

Undetermined color causes 

in some, III, 179 
Genetics, corn, XI, 348 
Genus, defined, V, 27 
Geological eras, length of, X, 

7, 73 

Time charts, X, 15, 60 

Time clock, X, 6 
Geologist, IX, 255-259 
Geology of diamond-bearing 

land, III, 207 
Geotropism, XI, 63 
Germ cells, V, 103 
Germ cells, servants of, V, 104 
Germination, XI, 59-62 

Stages of, XI, 59 
Gestation, period of chick, 

VII, 23-24 

Gila monster, VIII, 336 
Gill rakers, VIII, 87-88 
Gills, VIII, 65-84 

Parasites on, X, 128-137 



Straining action of, VIII, 

65-66 

Types of, VIII, 84-85 
Giraffes, VI, 176 
Girdling of trees, XI, 14-15 
Glacial era, climatic conditions 

of, VII, 188 
Effect on animal life by, 

VII, 232 
Glacial period, VII, 19 

Man's life of last, VII, 68 
Glacial stages in the Alps, 

VII, 65-66 
Glacier, VII, 57 

Effect on elevation, VII, 

61-62 
Effect on land surface, VII, 

60-62 

Effect on sea water, VII, 62 
Effect on vegetation, VII, 

60 

Formation of, VII, 57 
Present day, VII, 57 
Spanish peninsula, VII, 227 
Glass, age of, XII, 322 
Composition of, XII, 323 
Efficiency for astronomical 

mirrors, II, 97 
Optical, XII, 324 
Glass, transmission of light 

through, II, 314 
Uses of, XII, 311 
Glider, XII, 225 

Flyers, early, XII, 225 
Gold, Bronze Age, VII, 266 
Fool's, III, 278 
Mayan, VII, 334 
Goodyear, XII, 317 
Gorilla^ VI, 23, 28 

Inferior to man, VI, 28-29 

Posture of, VII, 47 

Steps taken to protect, VI, 

28 
Grafting, XI, 68-71 



[424] 



INDEX 



Granite, III, 287 

Sources of, III, 286-287 
Grass, XI, 226, 227 

Crops, value of, XI, 216, 

217 

Effect of abundant, XI, 201 
In development of civiliza 
tion, XI, 346 
Products, XI, 216-218 
Grasses, XI, 238-249 

As land builders, XI, 226- 

229 
Cultivated in prehistoric 

times, XI, 203-205 
How long cultivated by 

man, XI, 204-205 
Relation to beef, XI, 218 
Relation to dairy products, 

XI, 218 

Relation to hogs of, XI, 218 
Relation to horse power, 

XI, 218 
Relation to leather of, XI, 

218 
Relation to poultry of, XI, 

218 
Relation to wool of, XI, 

218 
Reproduction of, XI, 238- 

241 

Sugar source in, XI, 212 
Grasshoppers, characteristics 

of, V, 28-29 
Difference between katydids 

and, V, 32-33 
Ears of, V, 29-31 
Eggs of, V, 6-8 
Hatching of eggs, of, V, 8-9 
Insect enemies of, V, 19-25 
Kinds of, V, 28-29 
Mouth parts of, V, 108 
Plagues of, V, 17-19 
Poison for, V, 19 
Relatives of, V, 28-84 



Sex differences of, V, 3 
Spiracles of, V, 13 
Gravitation, III, 2-3 

Between heavenly bodies, 

111,3 

Gravity's effect on meteors, 

III, 2 
Grazing animals, best food for, 

XI, 201-203 
Great Auk, IX, 87 
Great Cold, culture during, 

VII, 190 

Great Salt Lake, VIII, 2 
Grebe, IX, 93-94, 150 
Greely, Arctic expedition and 

shrimp, X, 236-237 
Green turtles, VIII, 311-312 
Grid, XII, 60 
Grimaldi Man, origin of, VII, 

80-8 1 
Growth, light and plant, XI, 

302 

Twigs, XI, 14 
Guano, IX, 139 
Guinea fowl, eggs of, IX, 82 
Gull, food of black headed, IX, 

137; X, 164-165 
Gymnosperms, examples of, 

XI, 94-95 
Gypsum, III, 284 



H 



of, 



Hadrosaurs, dentition 

VIII, 238 
Haliotis, X, 293 
Halophytes, XI, 78, 79 
Hammond, XII, 133 
Harpoon, origin of, VII, 235 
Hawks, food habits of, IX, 

140, 141 

Home life of, IX, 97 
Hooked beak, IX, 127 
Relation to rodents, IX, 
140-142 



[425] 



INDEX 



Worth protecting, IX, 141 
Hazeltine, XII, 133 
Health: 

Aedes, V, 338-339 
Alcohol, diseases caused by, 

VII, 178-179 
Anopheles, V, 330, 340 
Antivenin, VIII, 351 
Blood, food for insects, V, 

320 

Control of flies, V, 343 
Copperhead snakes, VIII, 

348 ^ 

Crahs in sanitation, X, 245 
Cro-Magnan medicine men, 

VII, 222-223 
Culex mosquito, V, 331, 

335-338 

Disease, early man's explan 
ation of, VII, 177-178 
Disease germs carried by 

houseflies, V, 347 
Disease, Indian treatment 

of, IV, 60, 79, 100 
Diseases of prehistoric man, 

VII, 176, 196 
Disease and ultra-violet 

light, II, 233-241 
Drugs from plants, XI, 

IOO-IOI, 108 

Flies, birthplace of, V, 343 
Food preservation, XII, 

242-243 

Housefly, V, 342-348 
Infection from fly's bite, V, 

322 

Indians, IV, 27-28 
Irradiation in medicine, II, 

238-239 

Liver fluke, X, 316-318 
Mollusks and flatworms, X, 

316 

Mosquito, bite of, V, 338 
Mosquito and man, V, 331 



Phagocyte, V, 301 

Plants in sick room, XI, 

28-29 

Psittacosis, IX, 160 
Rattlesnakes, VIII, 341, 

348-351 

Rickets, II, 235-241 
Seaweeds in bacteriology, 

XI, 89 

Sleeping sickness, V, 348- 

349 

Stegomyia, V, 338 
Sweat houses of Indians, 

IV, 26, 182, 192 
Trypanosomes, damage by, 

V, 349 

Tsetse fly, V, 348 
Tuberculosis, II, 235-241 
Use of X-Rays, XII, 65-68 
Ultra-violet light and dis 
ease, II, 233-241 

X-Rays, use of, XII, 65-68 
Yellow fever, V, 338-340 
Heart-beat of infants, VII, 34 
Heat energy, conversion of, 

XII, 155 
Latent, XII, 240 
Production of cold, XII, 

239 

Heaviside layer, XII, 117 
Heddenite, III, 251 
Heddle, XII, 272, 279-280 
Heidelberg jawbone, VII, 143 
Heliotropism, XI, 32 
Hellbender, reputation of, 

VIII, 181-182 
Hematite, III, 279 

Hen, domestication of, VII, 

308 

Henry, Joseph, XII, 5-7 
Henry, discoveries of, XII, 

72-78 
Henry, electric motor of, XII, 

72, 73 



[426] 



INDEX 



Herbarium, XI, 149-152 

Labels, XI, 153 

Use of, XI, 153-155 
Heredity, VII, 23 
Herkimer diamond, III, 225 
Hermit crab, X, 221, 222 
Herons, great blue, IX, 152 

Legs and neck of, IX, 127 
Herrings, XII, 225 

Food of, X, 125 
Hertz, XII, 128-129 
Hesperornis, IX, 41, 45 
Heterotis, nest of, VIII, no 
Hiawatha of Longfellow, IV, 

17,86 
High cylinder temperature, 

importance of, XII, 166 
Himalaya Mountains, origin, 

. of, X, 79 
Hippopotamus, VI, 149 

Pigmy, VI, 149 

Tusks of, VI, 150 

Under water stay of, VI, 
I47-U8 

Weight of baby, VI, 147 
Histolysis in insects, V, 259- 

260 
History, written records of, 

VII, 167 

Hogs, relation of grasses to, 
XI, 218 

Wart, capture of, VI, 158- 

159 
Honeybees near orchards, XI, 

52 

Wings of, V, 318 
Honeydew, V, 155 
Honeymouse, IX, 287 
Hopi Indians, IV, 130 

Silversmiths, IV, 138 
Hopperdozer, V, 19 
Hormones, causing migrations, 

IX, 54-55 
In insects, V, 119 



Hornbill, VI, 256 

Horn flies, menace of, V, 348 

Horned toad, VI, 263 

Protective coloration of, 

VIII, 331 

Horns, hollow, IX, 343 
Horse, Babylonian, VII, 305, 

306 

Chariot, origin of, VII, 288 
Development of modern, 

IX, 353-361 ^ ^ 

Effect * on civilization of, 

VII, 306 

Evolution of, IX, 353-361 
Introduction into Egypt of, 

VII, 300 
Origin of use of saddled, 

VII, 323 
Solutrean source of food in, 

VII, 253. 

Transportation, VII, 286 
Horsefly, bite of, V, 322-323 
Horseless carriage, defect of, 

XII, 220 

Horsepower, XII, 159 
Horseshoe crab, X, 156 
Horse tails, XI, 94 

Ancestors of, X, 67 
Hottentots, homes of, II, 189 
Houda Indians, IV, 210 
House Kwatintl Indian, IV, 

209 
Housefly, bite of, V, 347, 348 

Breeding places of, V, 343 

Dangers of, V, 347 

Disease germs carried by, V, 
347 

Food of, V, 346-347 

Mouth parts of, V, 345, 346 

Life history of, V, 342-345 
Howe Sewing Machine, XII, 

252 
Human, dawn of, VII, 18, 19, 



[427] 



INDEX 



32, 38; IX, 329, 330 ;X, 
82 

Egg, size of, VII, 23 
Embryo, size of, VII, 23 
Life, origin of, VII, 38 
Sacrifice, abandonment of, 

VII, 248 

Humidity, II, 103 
Humming birds, food of, IX, 

133 

Nest of, IX, 74, 75 
Hupa, artistry, IV, 206 
Indians, IV, 199, 200 
Indians, food of, IV, 202 
Hurricane, West Indies, II, 

1 06 

Hussey, XII, 305 
Hybrids, between bison and 
domestic cattle, VI, 168 
Between zebra and ass, 

Y 1 .- 2 ^ 

Hybridization, experiments in, 

VI, 213 
Hydrocarbons, source of, VII, 

5 

Hydrophytes, XI, 78 
Hyena, VI, 113 
Hyla, tree toads, VIII, 205- 

207 
Hyperparasite, V, 181 



Ice Age, animal survival of, 

VII, 68 

Animals, VII, 60, 6r 
Cause of, VII, 56, 57 
Characteristics of, X, 81-82 
Close of, VII, 68 
Definition of, VII, 56 
Drop in temperature needed 

in next, VII, 56-57 
Effects of, X, 8 1, 82 
Effect on continents of, 

VII, 63 



Effect on plants and ani 
mals, X, 82 

Effect on soil of, VII, 61 
Effect on wind of, VII, 61 
End of, VII, 65 
Man, VII, 67 
Number of, VII, 56 
Origin of, VII, 57 
People of Europe during, 

VII, 74, 76 
Quantity of ice during, VII, 

62 

Sun's cause of, VII, 56, 57 
Weather of, VII, 59, 61 
Winters, VII, 60 
Ice as a mineral, III, 175 
Iceland spar, III, 277 
Ice sheet over Europe and 
North America, X, 81, 
82 

Icthyornis, IX, 41-45 
Ichthyosaurs, VIII, 251 
Adaptations of, VIII, 251- 

254 

Paddle of, VIII, 254 
Reproduction of, VIII, 252- 

253 
Size of, VII, 1 6 

Igloo, IV, 4042 

Igneous rocks, absence of fos 
sils in, X, 9 

Iguanidae, VIII, 329-336 

Imperial valley, soil conserva 
tion of, X, 210-213 

Inca, architecture, VII, 343- 

344 

Civilization of, VII, 342 
Clothing, VII, 343 
Constructions of, VII, 344 
Culture, place of, VII, 345 
Empire, origin of, VII, 341 
Food of, VII, 341 
Government of, VII, 342 
Literature, VII, 346 



[428] 



INDEX 



Origin of, VII, 341 
Originators of maize, XI, 

329-330 

Records of, VII, 346 
Religion of, VII, 346 
Religious significance of, 

VII, 341 
Incandescent lamps, early, 

XII, 135, 136 
In use, XII, 145 
Incubation, IX, 87, 88 
Incubation of bird's eggs, IX, 

9 . 
Incubation, help by male, IX, 

8 9 

Incubation of patches, IX, 88 
Incubation, temperature of, 

TV QQ 
J.A., oo 

Indians, achievements of Am 
erican, XI, 346 

Agriculture, IV, 24 

Arts of, IV, 23-24; XI, 346- 
348 

Culture, developments from, 
VII, 329 

Culture of New World, 
VII, 349, 350 

Culture retention of, VII, 
351 

Culture, white man's uses 
of, IV, 8 

Culture, white man's atti 
tude to, IV, 7 

Culture of west coast, IV, 
175 

Food of, IV, 21 

Historical record of, IV, 
250 

History of white man's 
treatment of, IV, 252- 
258 

Importance of bark to, IV, 
22, 23 



Importance of corn to, XI, 

213, 323, 324 
Languages of, IV, 10 
Life of, IV, 31, 32 
Loom, XII, 276 
Migrations of, IV, 5 
Migrations, origin of, IV, 3 
North American families of, 

IV, 3 

Origin of, IV, I, 2 
Origin of American, IV, 2, 

3 
Population, North and 

South America, IV, 5 
Preparation of food, IV, 

177 
Religious practices of, IV, 

28-30 

Sign language of, IV, 11-13 
Stone work, IV, 20 
Tipi, IV, 158 
Tlingit, IV, 213 
Treatment by colonials of, 

IV, 201 

Types of, IV, 3 
Use of paint by, IV, 24 
Vanishing race, IV, 7 
War bonnet, significance of, 

IV, 24 
White man's effect upon, 

IV, 251-252 

Word coining of, IV, 14 
World's debt to, XI, 346 
Writing of, IV, 17, 1 8 
Induced current, XII, 21 
Induction for signalling, XII, 

116 

Indus, animals of, VII, 313 
Civilization of, VII, 313 
Industry of people of, VII, 

313 
Valley people, writing of, 

VII, 314 



[429] 



INDEX 



Inertia, effect on brakes, XII, 

196 
Infant, changes in heartbeat 

of, VII, 34 
Infanticide, VII, 179 
Infection due to fly bite, V, 

323 

Insects, air for, V, 114-116 
Ancestors of, X, 71 
Blood of, V, III-H2 
Blood circulation in, V, 112 
Breathing of, V, 114 
Carboniferous, V, 89 
Castes among, V, 134 
Changes in wings of, V, 91- 

96 
Circulatory system of, V, 

III-II2 

Consciousness in, V, 121 
Control of segments in, V, 

118 

Damage done by, V, 152 
Eating stages of, V, 236 
Effect of decapitation on, V, 

118-119 
Egg and sperm of, V, 122- 

123 

Energy of flying, V, 116 
Evolution of, X, 71 
Food adaptations of, V, 107 
Food distribution in, V, 

112-113 

Four kinds of social, V, 128 
Halters of, V, 319 
Heart of, V, 112 
Heat energy of, V, 116 
Maturing of, V, 184 
Metamorphosis of, V, 245 
Methods used to kill suck 
ing, V, 154 

Mouth parts of, V, 108-109 
Nerve cord of, V, 117-119 
Number of species of, VII, 

20 



Parasites of, V, 179 
Removal of wastes from 

cells of, V, ii 6 
Reproducing stage of, V, 

235, 236 

Segmented animals, V, 12 
Song of, V, 49 
Starvation of larva, V, 292- 

293 

Sucking and piercing mouth 

of, V, 108-109 
Tubular flowers visited by, 

XI, 51-52 

Wings of early, V, 91-93 
Insectivores, IX, 247-248. 

3I3-3I6 

Instinct, V, 120 
Instrument, VII, 184 
Interference, II, 310 

Internal combustion engines, 
complication of, XII, 176 
Efficiency of, XII, 158 

Invertebrates, number of 
species of, VII, 20 

Iodine from kelp, XI, 186, 

187 

lonization, XII, 59-60 

Irises, origin of new varieties 

of, XI, 53 
Iron, ancient manufacturing 

of, XII, 338 

Composition, XII, 336, 337 
Converter, XII, 342, 344 
Geology of, X, 45 
Impurities, XII, 342 
Introduction in different 

parts of world of, VII, 41 
Lack of, XI, 8 
Manufacturing of, XII, 

338 
Open Hearth process, XII, 

346, 347 
Ore, formation of, X, 47-48 



[430] 



INDEX 



Origin of Egyptian use of, 

VII, 300 

Origin of use of, VII, 41 
Ships, XII, 189 
Source of, XII, 337 
Spectrum, II, 285 
Sun's, II, 256 
Usability of meteoric, III, 

104-105 
Uses of meteoric, III, ICK> 

101, 104, 105 
Iroquois, IV, 4 

Agriculture crops, IV, 80 
Council organization, IV, 

94, 95 

Dwelling, IV, 73 
Government, doctrines of, 

IV, 88 

Government of, IV, 84 
Hunting of, IV, 77 
Inventions of, IV, 78, 79 
Long house, IV, 88 
Power, IV, 84 
Tribal organization, IV, 

81-84 
Irradiation, in medicine, II, 

238, 239 
Irrigation, XI, II 

Death of some crops by, XI, 

II 

Used by Indians, VII, 328 
Islands, chinampas or floating, 

VII, 338 - 
Itacolumite, III, 194 



Jade, III, 255-256 
Chinese, III, 258 
Mexican, III, 255 
Working of, III, 254 

Jadeite, III, 254 

Java, VII, 134 



Jawbone of Heidelberg man, 

VII, 142 
Jawbones, VII, 95, 144 

Lower, VII, 47 
Jays, IV, 132 

Food of, IX, 131-132 
Jefferson, IX, 233-234 
Jellyfish, fossils of, X, 59 
Jet, III, 270 

Jewelry, origin of, VII, 281 
Jumbo elephant, VI, 130-133 
June bugs, V, 230 
Jupiter, solar rays intensity on, 

II, 249 
Jurassic animals, X, 75 

K 

Kangaroos, adaptations of, IX, 

284, 285 

Babies, IX, 280, 281 
Habits of, IX, 285-287 
Pouch of, VI, 219 
Rats, IX, 334 
Kansas, fossils in, VIII, 256 
Karak plank house, IV, 188 
Katydid, difference between 
grasshopper and, V, 32-33 
Difference between locust 

and, V, 3 

Relatives of, V, 37-55 
Song of, V, 33-37, 39, 4i, 

43-44, 47-49, 53 
Kea and sheep, IX, 160 
Food of, IX, 1 60 
Menace of, VI, 252 
King, Dr., Ill, 304 
Kolster, XII, 133 
Krapina, bones of, VII, 106- 

107 

Skull vault, VII, 104-108 
Stone age evidence of, VII, 
106 



Teeth of, VII, 108 



[430 



INDEX 



Knee shape, VII, 49, 50 
Knees of cypress trees, XI, 10 



La Chappelle-aux-Saints, age 

of, VII, 113-116 
Place of, VII, 118 
Lamps, early, XII, 135 

Edison, XII, 135 
Lamprey, food of, VIII, 5-6 
Lancelet, VIII, 8-10 
Land bridges, VII, 63, 64 
Gibraltar and Africa, VII, 

65 
Land, changes in level of, X, 

30-31 

Indian clearing of, IV, 22 
Links, Africa to Europe, 
VII, 227 

Asia and North America, 

VII, 326 

Land surface, glacier's effect 

upon, VII, 60-62 
Langley, XII, 225 
Langmuir, XII, 133 
LaQuina man, skull of, VII, 

124 

Largest animal, IX, 368 
Larva, V, 245-246 
Larvae, breathing of fly, V, 

326-327 
Damages of Hessian fly, V, 

352 

Effect of fly, V, 352 
Food of mosquito, V, 333 
Habits of, V, 234-235 
Of fishes, VIII, 133-134 
Reproduction of salamander, 

VIII, 187 

Latent heat, XII, 240 
Lateral line of a fish, VIII, 

77-79 
Latex, tapping of, XII, 316 



Latitude, intensity of sun's 
variations in different, II, 
157 

Lazuli, III, 260-261 
Lazulite, III, 261 
Lea, III, 297 
Leaf, adaptations, XI, 299-300 

Rosette, XI, 32-33 
Leatherback turtles, VIII, 

3IO-3H 

Leaves, adaptations, XI, 23-25 
Arrangement of, XI, 17-18 
Breathing of, XI, 24-25 
Chemical elements of, II, 

232-233 
Direction of growth of, XI, 

32 
Effect of environment upon, 

XI, 271-272 
Food-making in, XI, 3 
Growth of, XI, 4 
Insects of, V, 71-73 
Shape of, XI, 301-302 
Work of, XI, 22 
Lemmings, migrations of, IX, 

335"336 

Lemurs, flying, IX, 316 
Lenses, origin of, XII, 311 
Leonid meteors, III, 31 
Leopards, VI, 87 
Capture of, VI, 85 
Reason for killing, VI, 85 
Lepisma, V, 93 
Lice, fish, X, 129-137 
Lichens, XI, 92-93 
Life cycles: 

Bivalves, X, 260-268 
Cicada, V, 186-199 
Crabs, X, 168-171 
Culex mosquito, V, 331-335 
Daphnia, X, 118-120 
Eel, VIII, 119-120 
Grasshopper, V, 6-9 
Houseflies, V, 342-345 



[432] 



INDEX 



Roach, V, 80-82 
Robber crab, X, 178 
Salmon, VIII, 124 
Spotted salamander, VIII, 

185-186 

Termites, V, 135-139 
Life, definition of, V, 101 
Of Middle Stone Age Man, 

VII, 234 

Processes, needs of, VII, 4, 5 
Sequence of, X, 15-16 
Temperature ranges for, II, 

244 
Light, analysis, of white, II, 

309 

Composition of, II, 306-307 
Duration of, XI, 302-303 
Effect of atmosphere on, II, 

116-117 
Energy, XI, 287, 288 

Storage of, XI, 287-295 
Factors in cutting gems, III, 

306-307 
Gases in the atmosphere, II, 

. 43, 44 
Given out by crustaceans, 

X, 200-203 

Interference of, II, 310 
Loss in passage through 

atmosphere, II, 118-119 
Measurement of speed of, 

II, 303-305 

Organs of fishes, VIII, 81 
Reflection of, II, 308 
Speed of, II, 6, 303 
Transmission through at 

mospheric water of, II, 



Transmission through glass 
of, II, 314 

Wavelength of, II, 303 

Year, VII, i 
Lilienthal, XII, 225 
Limestone, III, 280 



Limnoria, injuries to subma 
rine cables by, X, 219 
Lines of force, XII, 20 
Linnaeus, IX, 218-219, and 

XI, 142-144 
Contribution of, XI, 142- 

144 
Lions, VI, 68-93 

Abundance of African, VI, 

70 
Circus training of, VI, 76- 

77 
Population of, in Africa, 

VI, 70 

Liquor, problem of, VII, 179 
Liver fluke, life history of, X, 

316-318 

Lizards, difference between 
salamander and, VIII, 
32i 
Economic value of, VIII, 

338 

Food, VI, 265 
Flight of dragon, VIII, 327 
Frilled, VIII, 327-328 
Glass snake, VIII, 334 
Largest in world, VIII, 336 
Poisonous, VI, 262-263 
Use of tongue in classifica 
tion, VIII, 321-322 
Without legs, VIII, 321 
Llama, beast of burden, VI, 

156 

Use of female, VI, 156 
Value of dead, VI, 157 
Wool of, VI, 157 
Loading coil, XII, in, 112 
Lobster, ability to see in dark, 

X, no 
Amputation of limbs, X, 

103 

Eyes of, X, no 
Gills, X, 107 
Greatest weight of, X, 172 



[433] 



INDEX 



Keenest senses in a, X, no 
Life span of, X, 172-173 
Materials in shells of, X, 

97-98 

Movement of, X, 98 
Nervous system of, X, 107 
Once regarded as pests, X, 

229 
Protection of eggs of, X, 

108 
Regeneration of limbs in, X, 

103 

Scarcity of, X, 229 
Sense of, X, no 
Sense of balance in, X, ni- 

112 
Senses of touch and smell, 

X, in 

Speed of movements, X, 98 
Locomotion in snakes, VIII, 

342-343 
Locomotive, first, XII, 192 

Original, XII, 193 
Locusts, V, 1-2 

Difference between katydids 

and, V, 3 

Migration of, V, 1 8 
Seventeen-year, V, 182 
Lodge, XII, 129 
Loess, meaning of, X, 1 1 ; VII, 

61,62 

Loom, African, XII, 276 
Earliest known, XII, 266 
Early, XII, 269 
Essentials of, XII, 277-278 
Loon, IX, 149 
Lowell, XII, 133 
Luminescence, X, 88 
Luminescence, origin of, in sea, 

X, 2OO-2O I 

Luna moth, V, 228-230 
Lungfish, VIII, 4, 5, 19-20 
Lungs, origin of, X, 69-70 



Characteristics of, VIII, 

118-119 
Lybia tesselata, X, 227-228 

M 

Machines, advantage of, XII, 

149, 150 
Disadvantages of, XII, 149- 

150 

Energy of, XII, 150, 151 
Magdelenian culture, associ 
ated group of, VII, 212 
Extinction of, VII, 226 
Epoch, surface conditions, 

VII, 214, 215 
Era, origin of, VII, 214 
Man, VII, 217 
Man, art of, VII, 218-219 
Man, decline of, VII, 225 
Tools, carving of, VII, 216 
Maggots, V, 252 
Magnetic field, XII, 20-21 
Effect of iron on, XII, 20, 

21 

Induction, XII, 21 
Metals, XII, 9 
Magnetism, effect of sun on, 

II, 259, 261 

Maize, crowning achievement 
of American Indian, XI, 
346 

Importation of, XI, 323 
Originated by Incas, XI, 

329-330 

Products, XI, 217, 218 
Products of, XI, 217-218 
Spread of cultivation of, 

VII, 329 

Malachite, III, 275-276 
Malaria, life history of para 
site, V, 342 

Malphighian tubules, V, 116 
Mamba, VIII, 354 



[434] 



INDEX 



Mammals, IX, 218-219 
Age of, IX, 267 
Ancestors of egg-laying, IX, 

269-270 
Characteristics of, IX, 242- 

243 
Classification of, IX, 251- 

254 
Classification of placental, 

IX, 246-255 

Collection of, IX, 207-217 
Egg-laying, IX, 244, 269 
Examples of placental, IX, 

246-255 

Kinds of, IX, 243-255 
Number of species, IX, 220 
Number of species of, VII, 

20 

Placental, IX, 245-246 
Species of placental, IX, 311 
Mammology, IX, 219, 228- 

241 

Mammoth, conquest by Nean 
derthal man, VII, 195 
North and Central Ameri 
can, IX, 349-350 
Man, activities peculiar to, 

VII, 20 

Age of, VII, 2-4 
Agriculture of Neolithic, 

VII, 242, 258 
Anatomical development of, 

VII, 48 

Animal life of, VII, 21-22 
Animal structures in, VII, 

31 
Appearance of early, VII, 

168 
Ascendency above animal 

level, VII, 171 
Basic tools of, VII, 173 
Before knowledge of metals, 

VII, 42 



Birds known to prehistoric, 

IX > 3-4 
Embryo-cell division in, VII, 

29 

Carriage of body of, VII, 49 
Changes in, VII, 35 
Change at birth of, VII, 33- 

34 

Conquest of stronger crea 
tures by, VII, 170 
Descent of, VII, 21, 22, 32 
Development of, VII, 31-32 
Diseases of ancient, VII, 

196 

Early culture, VII, 44 
Effect of magic on, VII, 177 
Embryo of, VII, 31 
End of old stone age, VII, 

234 

Enemy of plants and ani 
mals, X, 82 
Eras of, VII, 19, 20 
First rulers of, VII, 177 
Glacial period, VII, 19 
Habits of ancient, VII, 178 
History of, information 

about, from plants and 

animals, VII, 38 
Solution of problems about, 

VII, 34 
Homo sapiens, mammal, 

VII, 12 
Individual differences, VII, 

24 
Mastery of earth by, VII, 

20 
Non-animal structures of, 

VII, 31 

Origin of, VII, 18 
Period of the dawn of, VII, 

19 
Plant breeding of early, XI, 

321 
Pleistocene period, VII, 19 



[435] 



INDEX 



Pre-Neanderthal, VII, 133 
Pre-stone age, VII, 43 
Primitive treatment of dis 
eased, VII, 178 
Purpose of clothes of early, 

VII, 175 

Rates of growth of, VII, 34 
Reproduction of, VII, 35 
Skull of Dawn, VII, 136 
Structure of early, VII, 169 
Weight of, VII, 34 
Mandibles, V, 107 
Manometer, XI, 6 
Mantis, food of, V, 73-75 
Shrimp, X, 179 
Shrimp, food of, X, 180-183 
Value of, V, 75 
Maples, germination of, XI, 

61-62 
Marble, American, III, 280- 

283 

Foreign, III, 282, 283 
Marconi, beam transmitter, 

XII, 134 

Wireless, XII, 129-133 
Mars, solar radiation on, II, 

"249 
Marsh grass and land, XI, 

227-228 
Marsupials, IX, 280310, 244- 

245 
Abundance of Australian, 

IX, 283 

Flesh-eating, IX, 298-303 
Habits of, IX, 280-310 
Intelligence of, VI, 217 
Kinds of, IX, 280 
Mole, IX, 308-310 
Pouch of, IX, 280-282 
Reasons for scarcity of, IX, 

282-283 

Materials of man, VII, 187 
Mastodon, VII, 18; IX, 176- 

177, 349-351 



Matrix, diamond, III, 193-194 

Matter, electrons causing ac 
tivity of, XII, 56 
Forms of, XII, 49 
In sun, form of, II, 7 
Origin of star, II, 297, 298 

Maxwell, XII, 20 

May Beetles, V, 230 

Mayan architecture, VII, 331 
Building, VII, 333 
Calendar, VII, 334 
Culture of, VII, 329 
Culture, disappearance of, 

VII, 335 

Culture, origin of, VII, 335 
Culture, reconstruction of, 

VII, 335 

Government, VII, 336 
Language loss, key to, VII, 

334 

Population, life of, VII, 336 
Rooms, size of, VII, 331- 

332 

Stone, VII, 331 
Writing of, VII, 332, 334 
Maximum efficiency of steam 

engine, XII, 158, 159 
Mayet, VII, 54 
McCormick, XII, 305 
Measurements, early, VII, 280 
Mechanical beast, XII, 181 
Mechanical energy, U. S. pro 
duction, XII, 150 
Medicine bag, early, VII, 262 
Megalobatrachus, VIII, 182 
Melanism in birds, IX, 29 
Mercury arc, Cooper Hewitt, 

XII, 70 

Mercury, life on, II, 248 
Mercury steam engine, XII, 

47, 48, 158, 159 
Merit of Babylonian Art, VII, 

307 



[436] 



INDEX 



Mesoderm, development of, 

VII, 30 

Mesozoic, X, 73 

Metals, early Indian use of, 

IV, 21 

Magnetic, XII, 9 

Man before knowledge of, 

VII, 42 

Neolithic, VII, 265 
Nugget of, early use of, 

VII, 24 

Origin of use of, VII, 167 
Metallurgy, origin of, VII, 

266 
Mesolithic inventions, VII, 

234 

Mesophytes, XI, 78 
Metamorphosis, V, 226-231 

In man, V, 305 
Meteor, III, 4-6 
Meteoric minerals, III, 66-67 
Meteorites, afterglow of, III, 
4, 32, 5* 
Composition of iron III, 

73 
Composition of stony, III, 

73, 75 

Oldest known, III, 7, 8 
Shape of, III, 57 
Meteors, III, I 

Alloy composition, III, 70 
Alloys of nickel and iron in, 

HI, 70 

And earth formation, III, 4 
Area of disturbances, III, 

16-17 

Areas of fall of, III, 42 
Attitude of ancients to, III, 

37-38 ^ 
Composition of, III, 64, 68- 

69,75 
Cosmic dust from, III, 62 



Danger to life of, III, 36, 

37 

Dark days, cause of, III, 63 
Early beliefs of wise men 

on, III, 25 

Early names of, III, 79 
Elements in, III, 65 
Effect of friction on, III, 57 
Fall of, III, 15 
Famous U. S. shower of, 

III, 19 
First U. S. account of fall 

of, III, 13-15 
Gravitation on, III, 2 
Greek reports of, III, 6 
Identification of, III, 50 
In atmosphere, III, 3, 54 
Invisibility of, III, 4 
Iron and nickel in, III, 70 
Location of striking point 

of, III, 46-47 
Most famous, III, 22-24 
Number becoming shooting 

stars, III, 54 
Opposite to earth rotation, 

III, 27, 28 
Origin in planetesimal 

bodies, III, 60 
Precious stone in, III, 69 
Rate of fall of, III, 27, 28 
Reaching the earth, III, 54 
Relation to earth rock, III, 

74 

Rate of striking, III, 29, 30 
Rock not found in, III, 69 
Size, computation of, III, 55 
Source of, III, 84, 9 
Source of light in, III, 31, 

32, 50, 65 

Source in oxygen insuffi 
ciency, III, 65 
Scriptures' description of 

fall of, III, 6 
Speed of, III, 27 



[437] 



INDEX 



Speed of impact on earth, 

III, 29, 30 

Speed of motion of, III, 3 
Surface of, III, 50 
Total weight of all, III, 56- 

57 

Types, III, 79, 81 
Variations in speed of, III, 

27 

Visibility of, III, 2 
Weight of, III, 67 
Mexican onyx, III, 282 
Mexico City, origin of, VII, 

338 

Mice, rate of reproduction of, 

IX, 336-338. 
Microphone, Berlin, XII, 109 

Edison, XII, 109 
Middle Ages, town develop 
ments of, VII, 282 
Middle Stone Age, VII, 43 
Climate of, VII, 43 
Life of, VII, 234 
Migration, IX, 55-57 

Distances covered in, IX, 

58-62 

Destructions of, IX, 58-60 
Of fresh water fishes, VIII, 

119, 124 

Prehistoric, IX, 53-54 
Of hirds, IX, 63-67 
Of Indians, IV, 5 
Superstitions about, IX, 50 

53 
Sense of direction in, IX, 

62-63 

Of Solutreans, VII, 210 
Theories about, IX, 5055 
Time of day of, IX, 55 
Mimosa, behavior of, XI, 72- 

74 
Mineral, collections, III, 290, 

294, 295 
Compounds, III, 170 



Definition of, III, 279, 280 
Formation without water of 

some, III, 175 
Gem, III, 170 
Gem uses of, XII, 171 
Hardness, III, 182 
Meaning of "ite" endings 

of, III, 188 
Of more than one shape, 

III, 174 
Origin of names of, III, 

188, 189 
Number of species of, III, 

170, 171 

Return to soil of, XI, 8 
Ruby and sapphire in one, 

in, 203 

Wear-resistence of, III, 
182-183 

Mineralogists, early, III, 295- 
296 

Miocene, death of animals in 
the, X, 79 

Mirrors, II, 308 

Mitosis, VII, 26-28 

Moa, IX, 47-48 
Egg of, IX, 47 

Model plane tests, XII, 232, 
236 

Mohave, IV, 176 

Molds, XI, 39-40 

Molecules : 

In air, II, 102 

In cells, XI, 297-298 

In sun, II, 5, 7 

Mollusks, X, 251-356 
Adaptations of, X, 259 
Age attained by, X, 255 
As basis for trade, X, 283 
Breathing of, X, 259 
Eggs of, X, 305, 260 
Eyes of, X, 257-258 
Fertility of, X, 264-266 
Food from, X, 257 



[438] 



INDEX 



Four classes of, X, 255 
Gills of, X, 258 
Habitats of, X, 254-255 
Harvesting of, III, 219 
How they differ from ar 
thropods, X, 252 
Intermediate hosts for flat 

worms, X, 316 
Life span of, X, 255 
Meaning of, X, 252-253 
Optic chiasma in, X, 252 
Parasites of, X, 133-134 
Pearl-bearing, III, 218, 219 
Position among inverte 
brates, X, 251-252 
Shell, X, 253-254 
Shells used in classifying, X, 

254 

Silurian, VII, 14 

Sourse of dyes, X, 314, 315 

Uses of shells of, X, 253 
Molting, X, 103, 105 

How performed, X, 103- 
105 

Of amphibians, VIII, 175 

Of caterpillars, V, 274 

Of cicada, V, 184 
Molts, crab, X, 105, 106 
Money, early, VII, 279-280 

Origin of, VII, 278-279 
Mongoose, VI, 22-2-224 
Monitor of Komodo, VIII, 

336 ' 
Monkeys, VI, 40-67 

In Western Hemisphere, 
VI, 51-53 

Rhesus, VI, 45-46 

Trained to pick coconuts, 
VI, 49 

Variation among, IX, 326 

Wooly, VI, 54-55 
Monocotyledons, XI, 95-96 
Moon, life on, II, 242 

Surface of, II, 244 



Temperature on, II, 246 
Moonstone, III, 230, 265 
Morphologist, work of plant, 

XI, 157-158 

Morse, original telegraph, 

XII, 81, 85 
Relay, XII, 81, 82 

Moseley, VII, 5 
Moseley's Law, VII, 5 
Mosquito, bite of, V, 338 
Differences between male 

and female, V, 335-33& 
Difference between other 

flies and, V, 335 
Food of, V, 338 
Food of female, V, 337-338 
Food of male, V, 337-338 
Habitat of young stages of, 

V, 331 

Important to man, V, 331 
Larvae, V, 333 
Larvae, breathing of, V, 

332-333 

Larvae of malaria and 

Culex, V, 340-341 
Life during winter, V, 338 
Life history of, V, 335~336, 

340-341 
Life history of Culex, V, 

331-335 

Pupa of, V, 334 

Skin piercing, V, 335*336 

Wiggler, V, 329-331 
Mosasaurs, VIII, 256-257 

Food of, VIII, 258-259 
Mosses, XI, 93 

Club, VIII, 87-88 

Spores of, XI, 40 
Moth, Cecropia, V, 228 

Cocoons of apple-tree tent, 
V, 282 

Eggs of apple-tree tent, V, 
262-263 

Eggs of tent, V, 311-312 



[439] 



INDEX 



Emergence from cocoon, V, 

305-306 

Food of, V, 307 
Luna, V, 228, 230 
Ovary, V, 3 1 1 
Proboscis of, V, 307-308 
Promethea, V, 228 
Storage of sperm cell by, V, 

3ii 

Mother, function of, VII, 23 
Mountain-top plants, XI, 305- 

306 

Mountains, old age of, X, 3 
Mouse, IX, 335 
Mousterian culture, VII, 190 
Culture, end of, VII, 191 
Evidence of, VII, 110-113 
Origin of, VII, 82, 166 
Range of, VII, 130 
Epoch, origin of, VII, 191 
Mouth parts of insects, V, 
3^2, 330, 334, 346, 347 
Mud, fate of ocean, X, 34 
Formation, X, 2 
Formation of inch layer of, 

X, 2 

In ocean beds, X, 34 
Mudpuppy, VIII, 188 
Habits of, VIII, 188-189 
Mummification, development 

of, VII, 300 
Practice of, VII, 300 
Mushrooms, XI, 92-93 
Growing of, XI, 92 
Musk ox, VI, 169 
Mutations : 

Corn origin theory of, XI, 

345-346 
Corn mutations, XI, 343, 

344 

Murex, source of dye, X, 314 
Murres, eggs of, IX, 79 
Museums, collections of birds 
in, IX, 7-8 



Muscles, adductor, X, 256, 

257 
Mussels, X, 276-278 

Attachment of, X, 261 
Mycelium of fungus, XI, 92 
Myiasis, V, 352 
Mynah, crested, VI, 259-260 

N 

Nagana, V, 348-349 
Narwhal, IX, 373-374 
National Zoological Park, ori 
gin of, VI, 3-5 

Nautilus, Chambered, X, 345 
Neanderthal, anatomy of, VII, 

131 
Blood concept of the, VII, 

196, 197 

Buildings, VII, 264, 265 
Burial of men, VII, 197 
Classification of, VII, 130 
Clothing, VII, 192 
Evidences of man, VII, 84, 

85 
Outside of Europe, VII, 

126-128 

Stone tools, VII, 193 
Sagittal sutures, VII, 87 
Shape of skull, VII, 91, 92 
Suppression of, VII, 198 
Source of, VII, 81 
Winter life, VII, 195 
Nebulae, II, 280 
Spiral, II, 297 
Nectar in plants, XI, 47, 51- 

52 
Necturus maculosus, VIII, 

188 

Needle, origin of, VII, 202 
Negroid race in Europe, VII, 

79 

Neolithic artistry, VII, 263 
Flint mining, VII, 248 
Shelter, VII, 236 



[440] 



INDEX 



Neon light, colors of, XII, 50, 

5i, 70 
Neptune, temperature on, II, 

249 
Nervous system: 

Brain cases, ape, man and 

Pithecanthropus, VII, 45, 

46, 148, 163, 169 
Caterpillars, V, 285 
Chimpanzee intelligence, 

VI, 32-33 
Chin and intelligence, VII, 

47 
Dinosaurs, VIII, 235-236, 

243 ; X, 77 

Fishes, VIII, 99 
Gastropods, X, 308-309 
Insects, VII, 117-119 
Lobsters, X, 107 
Oyster, X, 263 
Snakes, VIII, 342 
Stimulation of nerve cells, 

V, 119 

Nests, birds', IX, 68, 79 
Cleaning of birds', IX, 101 
Fouling of birds', IX, 101 
Simplest kinds of, IX, 73 
Types of, IX, 73-78 
Newcomen steam engine, XII, 

159, 160 
New Stone Age, people, VII, 

263 

Remains of, VII, 264 
Newton, II, 74 
Newts, in aquaria, VIII, 187 
Niagara Falls, electric power, 

XII, 154 
Niepce, Sainte- Victor de, XII, 

360 

Nitrogen fixation, XI, 27-29 
Lack of, XI, 8 
In lamps, XII, 147 
North America, fossils of, VI, 
7-8 



Northern lights, II, 259 
Nuclei, comparison of human 

and chick, VII, 23 
Nymph, V, 185 
Nymphs, of cicadas, V, 223, 

225 



Oared ships, disadvantages of, 

VII, 277 
Oars, vision of bending of, II, 

H5 
Oats, origin of cultivation of, 

XI, 209, 210 

Place and time of first cul 
tivation, XI, 209-210 
Obsidian, III, 287 
Ocean shells, origin of, X, 4 
Oceans, once covering some 

states, X, 37, 38 
Formation of, VII, 9 
Octopus, X, 345-352 

As a mollusk, X, 251, 252 
As food for man, X, 352 
Chromatophores of, X, 342, 

343 

Eggs of, X, 341, 342 
Food capture by, X, 333 
Ink sac of, X, 335 
Movement of, X, 328-329 
Origin of, VII, 13 
Regeneration of arms in an, 

X, 330 

Sex in, X, 337-339 
Shell of, XI, 325 
Swimming mechanism of, 

X, 330 
Use of fleabane in hunting 

the, X, 352-354 
Oersted, XII, i, 2 
Offspring and parents, V, 103 
Oil deposits, formation of our, 

X, 81 
Flash point of, XII, 175 



[441] 



INDEX 



Heat efficiency of, XII, 158, 

159 
Old Stone Age, climate of, 

VII, 43 
Mass migrations of, VII, 

198 

Oligocene, X, 79 
Oynx, III, 228 

Mexican, III, 282 
Opals, III, 232-234 
Operculum, origin of, X, 288- 

289 

Opossum, VI, 218 
Orang-utan, VI, 33-36 
Orbits, moon, earth, sun, 

planets, III, 3 
Orchard trees, pollination of, 

XI, 52-53 

Orchids, origin of new varie 
ties, XI, 53 

Ordovician era, VII, 13 
Origin of insect wings, V, 91- 

92 

Orionids, meteors, III, 32 
Ornithology, IX, 5-8, 11-12, 

114-115 

Economic, IX, 124-125 
Osmosis, XI, 297-298 
Osprey, nest of, IX, 75 
Ostrich, IX, 144-145 
American, IX, 145-146 
Evolution of, IX, 13 
Habits of, IX, 144-145 
Ostracoda, food of, X, 123- 

124 

Reproduction of, X, 124 
Otters, causes for their rarity, 

VI, 116 
Otto, XII, 215 
Ovary of moth, V, 311 
Oviparous fishes, VIII, 104 
Ovipositor, V, 199-200, 212- 

214 



Owl, diet of a barn, IX, 141- 

142 

Food habits of, IX, 140-141 
Hooked beak of, IX, 127 
Nocturnal habits of, IX, 

1 60 
Relation to rodents, IX, 

140-142 

Snowy, VI, 257 
Worth protecting, IX, 141 
Ox, migrations of prehistoric, 

VII, 18, 19 
Origin of, VII, 1 8 
Ox warble fly, V, 352 
Oxen, origin of use of plow, 

VII, 26 1 

Oxides, definition of, III, I/O 
Oxygen, released by plants, 

XI > 2 ? 

Oyster, blood circulation, X, 

263 

Brain of, X, 263 
Control of, X, 265-266 
Damaged by crustaceans, X, 

245-247 

Economics of, X, 275 
Eggs of, X, 264-265 
Food digestion in, X, 262- 

263 

Food of, X, 260-261 
Origin of, VII, 13 
Value in economics, X, 275 
Ozone, importance of, II, 314 
Quantity in atmosphere, 

VII, 5 . 
Ozone and life, II, 314 



Painted terrapin, VIII, 314- 

315 

Pauite Lodge, IV, 173 
Paleontology, X, 14, 16, 17 

Father of, IX, 232 
Paleontologist, X, 16-18 



[442] 



INDEX 



Paleozoic, X, 50 
Animal, X, 55 
Era, animals of, X, 55 
Era, fossils of, X, 50 
Rocks, fossils of, X, 55 

Paper, composition of, XII, 

313 

Hand process, XII, 313-314 
Manufacturing of, XII, 

312-314 

Origin of, XII, 312 
U. S. consumption of, XII, 

309 

Papyrus, XI, 112 
Parakeet, Carolina, extermina 
tion of, VI, 254 
Parasites, attacks of insect, V, 

1 80 

Defined, XI, 89 
Extermination of insect host 

by, V, 179-180 
Fish habitat of copepod, X, 

129-131 

Life of a fish, X, 129-131 
Work of, V, 19-25 
Parks, bison-raising, VI, 167 
Paroquet, Carolina, extermina 
tion of, VI, 254 
Parrots, IX, 4-5 

Food of mountain, IX, 160 
Reason for killing moun 
tain, VI, 252 
Parson's steam turbine, XII, 

171 

Efficiency of, XII, 170 
Pressure equalization of, 

XII, 170 

Parthenogenesis, V, 104, 162 
Passamaquoddy birch - bark 

house, IV, 73 

Passeriformes, IX, 165-166 
Pasteur, work of, XI, 90 
Peace pipe, significance of, IV, 



Pearl, III, 217-218, 221, 223; 

X, 276-278 
Abalone, III, 222 
Baroque, III, 222 
Colors of, III, 219 
Conservation of beds of, III, 

219, 220 

Cultured, III, 224 
Formation in mollusk, III, 

218, 223, 224; X, 276- 

277 

Luster of, III, 218 
Luster of mother of, III, 

218 
Mollusk - producing, III, 

218 

Mother of, III, 22O 
Cause of luster in, III, 218 
North and South American 

sources of, III, 221 
Production of cultured, III, 

219 
Removal from mollusk of, 

III, 220 

Peat, origin of, XI, 93 
Pebble flints, VII, 193 
Pelicans, cannibalistic, IX, 99 
Care of young, IX, 99-100 
Feeding of baby, IX, 99- 

100 

Pouch of, IX, 99 
Pellets, composition of, IX, 

141 
Pelton wheel, XII, 150-151 

Control of, XII, 152 

Efficiency of, XII, 151-152 
Penguins, IX, 148 
People, backward (New 

Guinea, Philippines, Africa), 

XI, 204 

Permalloy, XII, in, 112 
Perseus meteors, III, 32 
Persia, civilization's debt to, 

VII, 308 



[443] 



INDEX 



Construction of buildings in, 

VII, 315, 3i6 
Perthite, III, 264 
Peru, birthplace of maize, XI, 

329-330 
Peruvian knot writing, VII, 

345 
Pet, woolly monkey as a, VI, 

54-55 

Petals, XI, 46 
Petroleum, diatoms and, XI, 

195-196 

Origin of, XI, 195 
Relation of fossils to, X, 

19-24 

Phagocyte, V, 301 
Phalangers, flying, IX, 297- 

298 

Phenocite, III, 274 
Philosophers of China, VII, 

324 

Phosphorus, lack of, XI, 296 
Photoengraving, XII, 366-367 
Photography, chemistry of, 

XII, 356-361 
Difficulty of shooting star, 

III, 6 

Dry plate, XII, 360 
Glass plate, XII, 360 
Origin of pratical, XII, 

357 

Roll film, XII, 363-364 
Sensitized paper, XII, 358- 

359 
Photosynthesis, II, 232 

Ancient ideas concerning, 

XI, 295-296 
Chemical formulae of, XI, 

289 

Efficiency in, XI, 295 
Efficient rays for, XI, 293 
Experiments upon, XI, 296 
Light factor for, XI, 292 
Raw materials of, XI, 289 



Time of, XI, 300 

Use of chlorophyll in, XI, 

289, 290 

Phototropic, XI, 307-308 
Phototropism, XI, 307-314 
Phylum, V, 26 
Picture writing, origin of, 

VII, 290 

Pictures, colored, XII, 369 
Piette, VII, 52 
Pigeon, passenger, VI, 250; 

IX, 87 

Pigeon's milk, IX, 134 
Pigments of bird eggs, IX, 84 
Pigs, VI, 162 

Ancient, VII, 18 

As pets, VI, 162 
Piltdown Man, VII, 134 

Skull, VII, 141 
Pioneer gas engine, XII, 171 
Pipes, volcanic, III, 196 
Pistol crab, X, 192-194 
Pitcher plants, XI, 76 
Pith, XI, 12, 14 
Pithecanthropus erectus, VII, 
146-149, 153-154 

Age of, VII, 149 

Brain capacity of, VII, 150 

Differences of, VII, 153 

Posture of, VII, 151, 152 

Skull of, VII, 149-151 

Structure of man in, VII, 

I5i 

Placentals, IX, 311-375 
Plane, Langley's, XII, 227 
Planets, invisibility of other 
solar system, III, I, 2 

Names of, II, 242 
Plants, adaptations to light, 
XI, 290-291 

American Indian, VII, 327, 

328 

Arctic summer, IV, 68 
Ascent of sap in, II, 227 



[444] 



INDEX 



Before insects came, V, 86- 

89 
Breeding of early man as a 

breeder of, XI, 321 
Carboniferous period, VII, 

14 

Carnivorous, XI, 75 
Climbing of, XI, 34-37 
Classification of, XI, 148 
Collecting trips for, use of, 

XI, 376 

Collections of, XI, 154-156 
Development of desert, XI, 

264-270 
Distribution, causes of, XI, 

81-85 

Dormant, XI, 72 
Drowned, XI, 9 
Drug sources in, XI, 100 

101 
Drying and pressing, XI, 

365-366 

Dyes in, XI, 103 
Effect of Ice Age on, X, 82 
Efficiency of use of sunlight 

on, XI, 293-294 
Eggs of, XI, 41-42 
Energy of, II, 230 
Energy storage in, XI, 294 
Eocene, X, 79 
Factors controlling light for, 

XI, 301 

Food of, V, 1 06 
Food storage of, II, 233 
Groups of, XI, 86 
Grown in fluids, XI, 296 
Growth and darkness for, 

XI, 301 
Growth, elements needed in, 

XI, 296-297 
Hunting, in Mexico and 

South America, XI, 353- 

354 



Importance of classifying, 

XI, 157-160 
Light in experiments on, 

XI, 303 

Light and, XI, 302 
Light factors in, XI, 294 
Light rays needed in, II, 

234 

Lumber from, XI, 102-103 
Man's debt to, XI, 97 
Movements of, XI, 71, 76, 

312-313 

Natural groups of, XI, 86 
Nutrition : 

Boron, effect of lack of, 

on soil, XI, 297 
Cell membrane, XI, 297 
Cells, molecules in, VII, 

298 

Chlorophyll, absorption of 
light rays by, XI, 292 
formulae for, XI, 290 
function in photosynthesis, 

XI, 289-290 
Elements, essential, XI, 

296-297 

Irrigation, XI, II 
Nitrogen, fixation, XI, 

27-29 
. lack of, XI, 18 

Photosynthesis, XI, 289- 

296 
Plants grown without 

soil, XI, 296 

elements needed in, XI, 
296-297 

Root-hairs, XI, 5-6 
Roots, XI, 3 
Water needs of plants, II, 

224, 232 

Xylem, II, 227-228 
Ocean, XI, 169-170 
Origin of, VII, 14, 17 



[445] 



INDEX 



Origin of flowering, X, 77 

Pale, XI, 8 

Parasites, food of, XI, 30- 
3i 

Products of, XI, 101-104, 
295-296 

Propagation, XI, 66-67 

Propagation of new, XI, 
53-54 

Reaction to light of differ 
ent wavelengths, XI, 304- 
306 

Root system of prehistoric, 

X, 67 

Sea, XI, 167-169 
Sick room, XI, 28-29 
Societies of, XI, 77, 85 
Spiny desert, XI, 272-273 
Students of, XI, 157, 160 
Subtropical, XI, 359-360 
Supremacy of flowering, X, 

79 

Temperate zone, XI, 360 
Tropical, XI, 358-359 

Plate, XII, 61 

Platypus, IX, 269, 270, 272- 
279 

Pleistocene, meaning of, X, 81 
Plesiosaurs, adaptations of, 

VIII, 260-261 
Size of, VII, 16 
Pliocene, meaning of, X, 81 
Plover, IX, 60 

Migration of, IX, 59-60 
Pole pieces, supplementary, 
XII, 34 

Poles, original climate of, VII, 

68 
Pollen, XI, 41 

Grains, overproduction of, 

XI, 44 

Transportation of, XI, 44 
Pollination, XI, 43, 51 



Methods of, XI, 52, 53 
Of Bartlett pears, XI, 52- 

53 

Of strawberries, XI, 52 
Polygamy among birds, IX, 73 
Pond scum, XI, 88 
Population, effect of climate on 

shift of, VII, 232 
Effect of reaper on, XII, 

308 

Prevention of growth of In 
dian, IV, 24 

Porcelain, origin of, VII, 274 
Porcupine, IX, 338-339 
Fish, VIII, 36 
Relatives of, IX, 338-339 
Porpoises, IX, 367 
Porrios, IV, 180-181 
Potassium, lack of, XI, 296 
Potato, origin of Irish, VII, 

328 

Origin of sweet, VII, 328 
Propagation of, XI, 67 
Post-Solutrean Epoch, VII, 
212 

Pottery, VIII, 238 

Poultry, probable ancestor of, 

VI, 247; IX, 3 
Ultra-violet rays and, II, 

236, 237 

Powder downs, IX, 18-19 
Power : 

Heat for, XII, 155, 159 
Use of, in U. S., XII, 48, 

150 

Water, XII, 151, 155 
Powhatan's mantle, IV, 252 
Praying Mantis, V, 73-76, 107 
Pre-chellean Age, VII, 185 

Time of, VII, 182 
Pre-chellean Man, appearance 

of, VII, 182 
Life of, VII, 184 



[446] 



INDEX 



Origin in Europe of, VII, 

182 
Pre-chellean Times, population 

of, VII, 182 
Tools of, VII, 184 
Precocial young, IX, 91-92 
Preservation of animal re 
mains, VII, 45 
Pressure, cylinder, XII, 172 
Measurement of upper at 
mospheric, II, 43-45 
Sun spots and atmospheric, 

II, 138 

Primates, IX, 324-330 
Primitive people, failure of, 

XI, 319 

Printing pictures, use of elec 
tricity in, XII, 307 
Promethea Moth, V, 228, 229 
Propagation by plants, XI, 68- 

69 

Propulsion of water - craft, 

VII, 277 
Protective coloration among 

crustaceans, X, 205-207 
Proteins, production of, XI, 

295, 296 

Proterozoic changes, X, 44-49 
Era, X, 44-49 
Era, temperature of, X, 45- 

46 

Plants, X, 49 
Rocks, fossils in, X, 46-49 
Rocks, plant evidence on, X, 

47-48 

Weather, X, 45-46 
Proto, homo, VII, 152 
Protons, VII, 5 
Protoplasm, VII, 25 

Appearance of, XI, 12 
Pseudotriton, VIII, 183-185 
Psittacosis, IX, 160 
Pteridophyta, XI, 93, 94 



Pterodactyls, VIII, 263, 264- 
268 

Pueblo, IV, 131 

Pueblos, dress of, IV, 1 1 1 
Houses of, IV, 112, 113 
Houses still in use, IV, 113 
Water jars of, IV, 12 

Puff-adder, VIII, 345-346 

Puffballs, spores of, XI, 40 

Pulvinus of insects, XI, 72-74 

Pupa, V, 250 

Changes in, V, 255-257 
Creamy pulp inside the, V, 

303-304 
Difference between larva 

and, V, 250 
Interior of, V, 116-117 
Self-feeding of, V, 260 

Pupae protection, V, 25 1 

Puparium, V, 344-345 

Pupin, XII, ill 

Pyrheliometer, II, 44-47 

Pyranometer, II, 91 

Pyrites, III, 278 

Pyramids, VII, 299 

Python, feeding of, VI, 266 
Habits of, VIII, 352-353 
Length of, VIII, 352 

Q 

Quagga, now extinct, VI, 212- 
213 

Quartz, III, 224-226 
Clear, III, 225-226 
Gems, III, 225, 227 
Optical, III, 226-227 

R 

Race, superceding Neander 
thal, VII, 198 

Races, extinction of, VII, 176 
Quality of ancient, VII, 196 

Radianf heat, earth's retention 
of, II, no-ill 



[447] 



INDEX 



Radiation, II, 302, 311, 312 
Output, solar and star, VII, 

.7, 

Radiations from heated bodies, 
XII, 57 

Radicle, XI, 59 

Radio beam, XII, 142 
Inventions, XII, 135 
Music quality, XII, 128 
Principles, XII, 114, 115 
Tube, XII, 60, 61 
Necessity for good vacuum 

in, XII, 61-62 
Parts of, XII, 60 
Principles of, XII, 59 
Tubes, glow of, XII, 59, 60 
Wave, discontinuous, XII, 

117, 118 

Wave efficiency, XII, 117 
Wave generation, XII, 116- 

117 
Wave, modulation of, XII, 

133 
Wave, relation of light to, 

XII, 113, 114 
Wave, transmission, XII, 

118, 121 

Wave, travelling around 

earth of, XII, 117 
Radioactive matter, decomposi 
tion of, VII, 3 

Radula, X, 281, 297-301, 334 
Rails, English, XII, 19 

U. S., XII, 193 
Railway brakes, XII, 33 
Couplings, XII, 199-200 
First motor power, XII, 

192 

Origin of, XII, 192 
Turns, XII, 193 
Rain, relationship of dust to, 

II, 103 

Particles, formation of, II, 
103 



Rainfall in deserts, XI, 253 
Rana goliath, VIII, 203 
Rats, IX, 335 

And mice, migrations of, 

IX, 335-338 
Kangaroo, IX, 334 
Rattlesnakes, Diamond - back, 

VIII, 349 

Fangs of, VIII, 341 
Habits of, VIII, 349-350 
Rattles, VIII, 350-351 
Species, VIII, 348 
Rays, beyond X-Rays, II, n 
Rays, emission of, II, 302 
Reaper, XII, 303-304, 305, 

307 

Recapitulation, VII, 31 
Records, early historical, VII, 

38 

Of the past, VII, 170 
Rectification, XII, 68-70 
Red-winged blackbirds, IX, 

129-130 

Reflection, II, 308 
Refraction, II, 115-116, 308- 

309 
In Einstein's Theory, II, 

285 
In gems, III, 181 

Refrigeration, absorption, XII, 
221 

Compression, XII, 245, 247, 
249 

Home, XII, 244 

Importance of, XII, 239 

By sun's heat, XII, 239 
Refrigerator, temperatures of, 

XII, 242-243 

Regeneration, XII, 123, 124 
Regrowth of arms and claws, 

^ X, 330 

Reindeer, use of, VI, 185 
Relay, XII, 81-82 
Religion, origin of, VII, 225 



[448] 



INDEX 



Representations, incomplete, 
VII, 204 

Reproduction : 
Algae, XI, 38 
Alligator, VIII, 303 
Aphfds, V, 161 
Apple-tree tent moth, V, 

262 

Bacteria, XI, 38 
Birds, XI, 71-73, 86-92 
Bivalves, X, 264-268 
Bowfin, VIII, 109-110 
Box turtle, VIII, 316-317 
Cells, VII, 27 
Chicken, VII, 23-24 
Cicadas, V, 186-199 
Corn aphids, V, 172-176 
Cow birds, IX, 89-90 
Crabs, X, 168-171 
Crocodiles, VIII, 2O2 
Crustaceans, X, 107-108 
Culex, V, 331 
Daphnia, X, 118-120 
Definition of, V, 102 
Dinosaurus, VIII, 217-219 
Duckbill, IX, 279 
Eels, VIII, 119, 120 
Fiddler crabs, X, 168, 171- 

172 

Fishes, VIII, 103, 105 
Flowers, XI, 41 
Germ cells, VII, 103 
Grasses, XI, 238-241 
Grasshoppers, V, 6-9 
Housefly, V, 342-345 
Ichthyosaurus, VIII, 252- 

253 

Kangaroo, IX, 280, 281 
Leatherback turtles, VIII, 

310-311 

Liver fluke, X, 316-318 
Man, VII, 23, 29, 31, 33- 

34, 35 
Mice, IX, 336-338 



Mollusks, X, 260, 305 
Mosquito, V, 331-336, 340- 

341 

Octopus, X, 341-342 
Ostracoda, X, 124 
Oyster, X, 264-265 
Plants, XI, 39-42 
Reptiles, VIII, 294 
Robber crab, X, 178 
Salamander, VIII, 187 
Salmon, VIII, 128 
Spotted salamander, VIII, 

185-186 

Termites, V, 132-135 
Reptiles, age of, X, 75 
Anatomical features of, 

VIII, 291-295 
Decadence of, VIII, 211- 

212 

Eggs of, VIII, 294 
Extinction of, X, 77 
Groups of, VIII, 211-212 
Origin of, VII, 17 
Prehistoric flying, VIII, 

263-268 
Rate of growth, VIII, 230- 

231 

Reptiles, relation to other ver 
tebrates, VIII, 291 
Reradiation, II, 109 
Resonance, XII, 119 
Respiration, V, 114 
Birds, IX, 68-78 
Breathing without lungs, V, 
113-114, 116; X, 258, 

295-297 

Caterpillar, V, 292 
Fishes, VIII, 86-87; IX, 

368 

Infants, VII, 35 
Insects, V, 114, 116 
Plants, II, 230 
Reverberatory furnace, XII, 

346 



[449] 



INDEX 



Rheas, IX, 145 

Rhinoceros, Dakota, IX, 199 

Horn of, VI, 208 

Uses of horn of, VI, 207 
Rhizomes, XI, 64, 65 
Rhodesia Man, VII, 154-158 

Skull, VII, 161 

Skull, age of, VII, 162 
Rhodonite, III, 274 
Rice, origin of cultivation of, 
XI, 209-210 

Place and time of first culti 
vation, XI, 209-210 
Rings, growth of tree, XI, 15 
Ripple flaking, VII, 208, 216 
River terraces, formation of, 

VII, 65 

Roaches, ancestry of, V, 84-90, 
97, 98 

Ancient, V, 89 

Common names of, V, 77" 

79 

Kinds of, V, 78-80 
Length of fossil, X, 70-71 
Life of, V, 80-82 
Origin of, V, 82 
Prehistoric, V, 85-89 
Reproduction of, V, 80-82 
Survival of, V, 98 
Roach, termite relationship, V, 

I45-H6 
Robber crab, life history of, 

X, 178 

Use of, X, 178 
Rock, definition of, III, 279, 

280 

Formation of, X, 234 
Formation of layers of, X, 

1-2 

Igneous, X, 9 
Name of first sedimentary, 

X, 41 
Rocks, record in the, IX, 188- 

206 



Past formation of sedimen 
tary, X, 9 

Sedimentary, meaning of, X, 
1-2 

Sedimentary, quantity of, X, 

2 
Rocky Mountains, when 

formed, X, 78 
Rodents, IX, 331 
Rodents, examples of, IX, 

333-335 

Habitats of, IX, 332 
Origin of, VII, 118 
Specialization among, IX, 

331-333 

Storage of food by, IX, 333 
Teeth of, IX, 249-250 
Variations in, IX, 332 

' Roebling, III, 297 
Roothairs, XI, 5 
Root pressure, XI, 5, 6 
Roots, adaptations of, XI, 6-7 
And air, XI, 28 
And darkness, XI, 301 
Damaging pavements, XI, 

6 

Direction of growth, XI, 32 
Effect of lack of air on, XI, 

9-1 1 

Growth of, XI, 4 
Length of, XI, 6 
Protection of young, XI, 4, 

5 

Stilt, XI, 10 
Work of, XI, 3 
Roses, origin of new varieties, 

XI, 53 

Rotary Hook, XII, 259 
Rotogravure, XII, 370-371 
Rubber articles, shaping of, 

XII, 320-321 
Artificial, XII, 317 
Extraction from latex, XII, 

316-317 



[450] 



INDEX 



Original uses, XII, 310 
Source of, XII, 315 
Rubies, artificial, III, 290 
Cause of color of, III, 203 
Geology of, III, 204, 205 
Primitive mining of, III, 

206 

Source of, III, 204, 205 
Ruby, relationship of spinel to, 

III, 209 

Ruffed grouse, IX, 112-113 
Ruminants, IX, 343 
Runners of plants, XI, 65-67 
Rye, place and time of first 
cultivation of, XI, 209- 
210 

Rye, origin of cultivation of, 
XI, 209, 210 



Saber-tooth tigers, VII, 18 
Safety railroad brakes, XII, 

33 
Sahara, cause of desert, VII, 

294 
Sail, importance of, VII, 277- 

2 7 8 

Inventors of, VII, 298 
Sailing Vessels, supremacy of, 

XII, 1 88 

Salamanders, VIII, 179 
As food for man, VIII, 186 
Breathing of, VIII, 182-183 
Cave, VIII, 189-190 
In dry season, VIII, 180 
Eye of in cave, VIII, 183 
Fire legend about, VIII, 

179 

Food of, VIII, i Si 
Food of red, VIII, 184 
Habitat of, VIII, 179-180 
Habits of, VIII, 182-183 
Largest in world, VIII, 182 



Life history of spotted, 

VIII, 185-186 
Marbled, VIII, 186 
Pets, VIII, 181-187 
Red, in captivity, VIII, 184 
Skin of, VIII, 1 80 
Spotted, VIII, 186 
Teeth of, VIII, 181 
Salmon, causes of migration of, 

VIII, 118, 123 
Death of, VIII, 123 
Growing scarcity of, VIII, 

126 

Life of, VIII, 124 
Migration of, VIII, 122- 

1^3 
Pacific Coast, VIII, 121- 

124 u 
Recognition of male, VIII, 

I O2 
Sense of direction in, VIII, 

121 

Spawning of, VIII, 123 
Salts, origin of ocean, X, 4 
Sand-box tree, XI, 56 
Sap, flow of, XI, 22-23 
Sapphires, artificial, III, 290 
Cats' eyes, III, 203 
Cause of color of, III, 203 
Geology of, III, 208 
Hardness of, III, 203 
Primitive mining of, III, 

206 

Sources of, III, 205, 206 
Star, III, 203 
U. S. sources, III, 207 
Sapsucker, IX, 133 
Saprophytes, XI, 89 
Sapwood, XI, 14 
Sardine, dependence on algae, 

XI, 191 

Sargassum Sea, XI, 88-89 
Saturn, temperature of, II, 
249 



INDEX 



Savannah, XII, 188 
Sawfish, VIII, 55 
Sayce, XII, 360 
Scales, fish, VIII, 34-35 

Purpose of fish, VIII, 34 
Scallop, eyes of, X, 257-258 
Scaphopods, basis for trade 

among Indians, X, 283 
Scorpions, ancestors of, X, 64 

Pre-historic, VII, 14 
Screen, Ben Day, XII, 374 
Screw propeller, XII, 183 

Effciency, XII, 189 
Sea animals, algae as food for, 

XI, 190-191 
Sea cows, IX, 365 
Sea-ears, X, 293 
Sea horse, VIII, 111-112 

Adaptations of, VIII, 31 
Sea level, changes in, VII, 62 
Sea over North America, X, 

77 
Sea plane, testing of, XII, 

233, 236 

Sea serpents, X, 348-349 
Seals, methods of hunting, IV, 
47-48 

West Indian, VI, 125 
Seas, effect of retreating, X, 

74 
Formation, VII, 65 

Seasons, effect of sun on, II, 5 

Seaweeds, XI, 167-180, 184- 

190 

Aids in bacteriology, XI, 89 
Length of, XI, 88 
Texture of, XI, 168-172 

Sedimentary rocks, X, 40-41 
Formation of, X, 8-9 
For lithographing, X, 59-60 
Quantity of, X, 2 

Seeds, XI, 40-41 

Dispersal, XI, 55-59 
Dispersal, animal, XI, 57-58 



Dispersal, mechanical, XI, 

55-56 

Dispersal, wind, XI, 56 
Embryos, nourishment of, 

XI, 59 

Food storage in, XI, 42-43 
Formation of, XI, 42 
Rest period of, XI, 54 
Structure of, XI, 42 
Viability of, XI, 54-55 
Selaginella, XI, 94 
Selden, XII, 214-225 
Selection, meaning of, XI, 54 
Self-pollination, XI, 43-44 
Semitic empire, VII, 305 
Sensitive plants, behavior of. 

XI, 72-74 

Separator, cream, XII, 31 
Sepia, formation of, X, 76, 

335 

Sequoia gigantea, XI, 15 
Serpentine, III, 284 
Serpents, sea, X, 348-349 
Sewing machine, XII, 247-252 
Sewing, Solutrean, VII, 209 
Sex cells, XI, 39 
Sex, determination of, in birds, 

VII, 28 
Determination of, in insects, 

V, 123 

Sex glands in fishes, VIII, 102 
Sex in plants, XI, 38-39 
Sex of birds, VII, 28 
Shark, bite of, VIII, 59-60 
Bullhead, VIII, 13-14 
Food of, VIII, 140-141 
Forerunner of modern fish, 

VIII, 12-13 

Size of ancient, VIII, 3 
Sucker, adaptations of, VIII, 

46-47 

Shelter, Chellean, VII, 185 
Original people to use, VII, 

195 



[452] 



INDEX 



Origin of, VII, 192 
Shepard, III, 301 
Shipworms, X, 269-273 
Boring of, X, 270 
Damage done by, X, 271 
Length of, X, 270 
Shrew, VI, 229 
Shrimp, as food, X, 232-233 
Body regions, X, IOO 
California, conservation of, 

X, 230 
California, depletion of, X, 

230 

Eggs of mantis, X, 183-184 
Fairy, X, 115-116 
Fisheries, X, 232 
Fishing, X, 233 
Food for man, X, 234-237 
Glass, X, 1 68 
Skeleton, X, 62-63 
Weight of large fresh water, 

X, 173 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, 

when formed, X, 76-77 
Silk, XII, 267 
Silver, light sensitivity of, 

XII, 356-357 

Silversmiths, Hopi, IV, 138 
Singer, XII, 247-264 
Single cylinder engines, effi 
ciency of, XII, 1 66 
Sioux Indians, culture of, IV, 

146-149 

Skeletons, development of car 
tilaginous, X, 326-327 
In fishes, VIII, 61 
Skidding, XII, 194 
Skins, origin of clothing from, 

VII, 173 
Skull, capacity of Neanderthal, 

VII, 88 

Heidelberg, VII, I44~H5 
Historical links between, 
VII, 96-102 



Intelligence and, VII, 46 
Modern, VII, 102 
Neanderthal, VII, IO2 
Of Dawn Man, VII, 136 
Posture relation to, VII, 46- 

47 
Reconstruction of, VII, 49- 

50 
Delation of intelligence to, 

VII, 46 

Size of, VII, 88 
Spy, VII, 102 

Vault of Spy, VII, 108 
Sky, blue, II, IO2 
Slavery, origin of, VII, 254 
Solutrean and Aurignacian, 

VII, 210 

Sled, Eskimo, IV, 45 

Sleeping sickness, V, 34^-349 

Sloths, IX, 362 

Slugs, bite of, X, 304 
Food of, X, 303-304 
Silvery trail of, X, 295 

Smuts, damage done by, XI, 
9i 

Snails, breathing of, X, 295- 

297 

Edible, X, 284, 312-313 
Habitats of, X, 284 
Injury to submarine cables 

due to, X, 219 
Land, X, 284-286 
Movement of, X, 292 
Sense of hearing, X, 311- 

312 

Sense of sight, X, 309-310 
Vision of, X, 309-310 

Snakes, VIII, 339-355 

Age when poisonous, VIII, 

343 

Burrowing, VIII, 345 
Countries that have no, 

VIII, 339 



[453] 



INDEX 



Food from poisonous, VIII, 

354-355 
Food of black, VIII, 344- 

345 

Garter, VIII, 346 
Glass, VIII, 335-336 
Hoop, VIII, 345 
In tropics, VIII, 339 
King, VIII, 344 
Mamba, VIII, 354. 
Marine, VIII, 354-355 
Method of locomotion of, 

VIII, 342-343 
Molting of skins of, VIII, 

343 
Poisonous, in the IL S., 

VIII, 346 
Range of size and shape, 

VIII, 339-340 
Senses of, VIII, 342 
Shed skins of, VIII, 343 
Sting of, ^ VIII, 345 
Superstitions about milk, 

VIII, 344 

Venom of, VIII, 354 
Sodalite, III, 262 

Color of, III, 262 
Sod house, XI, 230 
Sod, pioneer use of, XI, 230 
Soil, ancient fertilizing of, 

VII, 246 

Conservation, XII, 210-213 
Effect of Ice Age on, VII, 

61 

Lack of nitrogen in, XI, 8 
Plants grown without, XI, 

296 

Solar, boiler, II, 195-198 
Engines, II, 19-22 
Heat cooker, II, 195, 196, 

216, 217 
Heat, increase of, II, 65 



Radiation constants, II, 34, 

51 
Radiation constants, effect 

of sun spots, II, 149 
Radiation, effect due to, II, 

144-146 

Radiation, effect on, II, 146 
Radiation instruments, II, 

75-97 

Radiation output, VII, 7 

System, formation of, VII, 
6,8 

Origin, II, 299 
Originating, VII, 6 
Place of earth in, VII, I 

Variations and weather, II, 
157,, 158 

Variations in, II, 17, 65 

Solutions, XI, 297 
Solutrean, artistry of, VII, 

209 
Attitude toward the dead, 

VII, 211 

Climate, VII, 207 
Culture, VII, 211 
Culture, in Europe, VII, 

207 

Instruments, VII, 207 
Epoch, life of, VII, 74, 75 
Soma, V, 104, 304 
Somatic cells, origin of, V, 104 
Song of insects, V, 33-34 
Sound, in the telephone, XII,, 
99-1 12 

Sounder, origin of, XII, 96 
Sounds, origin of written, VII, 

290 

Space charge, XII, 5, 9, 63 
Sparrow, broods of song, IX, 

86 

Grasshopper, IX, 107 
Spawning seasons and fishing, 

VIII, 125-126 



[454] 



INDEX 



Species, continuation of, XI, 

38 

Modern, origin of, VII, 2O 
Number of insect, VII, 20 
Number of invertebrate, 

VII, 20 

Number of mammalian, 

VII, 20 

Of early man, VII, 167 
Origin of, VII, 20-21 
Permian period, VII, 16 
Success of modern, V, 125 
Unknown, VII, 20 

Spectral shift, II, 293 

Spectroscope, II, 311 

Spectrum, atomic difference 

controlling, VII, 6 
Iron, II, 9 

Spectrum of stars, VII, 7 

Spectrum rays, increase of, II, 

313 
Speculum, reflector metal, 

XII, 169 

Sperm cells, VII, 24 
Formation of, VII, 27 
Storage by female moth, V, 

3ii 

Sphenodon, VI, 261-262 
Ancient lineage of, VI, 

261-262 

Habits of, VIII, 296-298 
Spider crab, protection of, X, 

226 

Spine of fish, VIII, 61-62 
Spinel, relationship to ruby, 

III, 209 
Spines in plants, origin of, XI, 

271-273 

Spinning, XII, 265, 274 
Early, XII, 268, 273 
Wheel, XII, 273 
Spiracles, V, 13, 114-11 5 
Spiral Nebulae, laws of, VII, 
6 



Spirochetes, V, 340 
Spirogyra, XI, 88 
Spontaneous generation, XI, 

90 
Spores, XI, 39 

Function of, XI, 39 
Production of, XI, 39 
Spodumene, III, 250-252 
Squid, X, 345-352 
Ancestors of, X, 76 
As a mollusk, X, 25 1-252 
Eggs of, X, 340 
Length of, X, 349 
Shell of, X, 325 
Source of sepia, X, 76 
Squirrel cage, XII, 45 
Starlite, III, 254 
Stars, changes in density of 

new, VII, 7 

Color of hottest, II, 289 
Colors of old and new, VII, 

8 
Decrease in size of new, 

VII, 7 
Difficulty of photographing 

shooting, III, 6 
Distance of most, VII, I 
Double, II, 291, 292 
Formation of, VII, 7 
Matter, origin of, II, 297- 

298 
Measurement of variable, 

II, 293 

Origin of, II, 299-301 
Radiation, output of, VII, 

7 

Seen below horizon, II, 116 
Spectra of colored, II, 285 
Sun, place of among, II, 287 
Variable, II, 290 
Within IOO light years, VII, 

II 

Staurolite, III, 278 
Steam, XII, 158 



[455] 



INDEX 



Steam displacing soil, XII, 

188 

Steam, dry, XII, 155,. *57 
Steam gas engine, efficiency of, 

XII, 180 
Steam, energy conversion of, 

XII, 166 

Steam engines, XII, 159 
Efficiency of, XII, 158-159 
Mercury, XII, 47, 48 
Newcomen, XII, 159, 160 
Reciprocating, XII, 161, 

162 

Rotary, XII, 182 
Steam power, first installation 

of, XII, 183 
Steam pressure, temperature 

effect on, XII, 155 
Steam Turbine, Parson'-s, XII, 

170, 171 
Steamboat, Fitch, XII, 181, 

182, 184 

Fulton, XII, 187 
Origin of, XII, 187 
Steamships, safety device of, 

XII, 191, 192 
Steel Age, VII, 41 
Steel composition, XII, 336- 

338 

Manufacturing of high 
grade, XII, 346-348 

Shaping, XII, 348 

Ship, XII, 190 
Stegomyia, V, 338 
Stegosaurus, VIII, 243-244 
Stellite, II, 96 

Efficiency of, II, 97 
Stems, direction of growth in, 
XI, 32 

Time of growth of, XI, 13, 

305 

Stevens, XII, 182 
Stevens engine, XII, 182 
Stickleback, VIII, 110 



Nest of, VIII, no, iii 
Sticks, use of, VII, 166 
Stigma, XI, 41 
Stomata, XI, 24-25, 300 

Control of, XI, 300 

Night behavior of, XI, 300 
Stone Age, culture at origin 
of, VII, 166 

Use of wood by man of, 
VII, 194 

Present day, VII, 41 

Origin of, VII, 42, 166 

Recent, VII, 184 
Stone axe, attitude toward, 

VII, 235 
Stone tools, Neanderthal, VII, 

193 .. 
Stones, distinguishing natural, 

- 11 . 1 ' 1 V. 

Distinguishing synthetic 

stones, III, 177 
Indians' use of, IV, 21 
Instruments of Acheulian, 

VII, 193 
Use of, VII, 166 
Strata, VII, 8, 10 
Stratosphere, formation of, 

VII, 9 

Stream lining, XII, 235 

Structure, an aid in classifica 
tion, V, 26 

Accuracy of flesh and bone 
restorations of, VII, 198 

Sugar, XI, 26-29 

Sugar cane, cultivation of, XI, 
212 

Sugar, production of in corn, 

XI, 295 

Sulphur in iron, XII, 342 
Sumerian culture, VII, 303, 

304 
Sumerians, extinction of, VII, 

304 
House of, VII, 303 



[456] 



INDEX 



Summer, temperature of Arc 
tic, IV, 67 
Sun, atomic and molecular 

conditions of, II, 5-6 
Atoms of, II, 5, 6 
Barometer, II, 161 
Causing Ice Age, VII, 56- 

57 

Effect on climate of varia 
tions in intensity of, II, 

' 4 " 5 
Effect on compasses, II, 

260261 
Effect of different rays, II, 

3ii 
Effect on earth's surface, 

II, 138 

Colors of, II, 74 
Comparison with stars, VII, 

I 

Composition of, II, 250258 
Earth temperature, II, 153 
Effect on magnetism, II, 

259, 261 

Effect on seasons, II, 5 
Effect of variations of radia 
tion in the tropics, II, 157 
Effect of variations on wea 
ther, II, 4, 156 
Elements of, VII, 5 
Energy, extent of, VII, 4 
Energy received, VII, 4 
Engine, II, 212-215 
Engine, efficiency of, II, 

212-213 
Forms of matter in the, II, 

7 

Instrument measuring radia 
tion of, II, 12-15 

Iron in, II, 256 

Lack of compounds in, II, 7 

Measurement of tempera 
ture of, II, 121-125 



Meteorology and the, II, 10 
Quantity of heat radiation 

from the, II, 8 
Radiation, VII, 3 
Rays, qualities of, II, 316 
Reflectors, II, 197, 204, 205 
Refrigeration from, XII, 

239 

Rotation of, II, 262 
Seen below horizon, II, 116 
Source of energy of, VII, 4, 

296 

Storms in, II, 260-261, 263 
Temperature effect on earth, 

11,8, 16-17 
Temperature of, II, 254- 

258 

Star, II, 287 
Value of intensity of, II, 

1 60 

Sun dews, XI, 75-76 
Sunfish, VIII, 108 

Nests of, VIII, 108-109 
Sun glow, cause of, III, 83, 87 
Sunset, cause of, II, 115-116 
Sunshine, V, 104 
Sun spots, II, 5 

Atmospheric pressure and, 

II, 138, 152 
Atmospheric temperature 

and, II, 144, 145 
Cause of, II, 164 
Rotation of, II, 263 
Variations of, II, 259-260 
Superstitions concerning mi 
grations, IX, 6, 51-53 
Swallows, barn and cliff, IX, 

77 

Swan, XII, 135 
Swifts, IX, 77 
Swordfish, VIII, 55-56 
Symbiosis, XI, 92 
Syrinx, IX, 103 



[457] 



INDEX 



Tadpoles, breathing of, VIII, 

197 

Bullfrog, VIII, 203 
Environment of, VIII, 197 

Takia, used as fuel, VI, 157 

Talbot, XII, 358, 359 

Tasmanian Devil, IX, 298- 
303 

Tasmanian canoe, VII, 240 

Taureg, VII, 228 

Taxonomy, XI, 157 

Teeth, Heidelberg jawbone's, 

VII, 143 
Intelligence and, VII, 48 

Tegue, VI, 264 

Telegraph, cable, XII, 90 
Duplex, XII, 87 
English, XII, 79, 80 
First commercial, XII, 78, 

. 79 
First inter-city use in the 

U. S. of, XII, 8 1 
JFirst long distance message 

inU. S., XII, 8 1 
Henry's, XII, 73 
Morse, XII, 80 
Multiplex, XII, 88 
Principle of Morse, XII, 81 
Reception, XII, 81, 84, 85 
Wheatstone bridge, XII, 82 
Telegraphy and Edison, XII, 

137-138 
Telegraphy, reducing cost of, 

XII, 86 

Telephone, Bell, XII, 106-107 
Gray, XII, 106-107 
Long distance, XII, 112 
Operation of, XII, no, in 
Trans-oceanic, XII, 113, 

114 
Wire in use in U. S., XII, 

in 
Telescopes, types of, II, 310 



Teletype, XII, 89 
Temperate Zone plants, XI, 

360 
Temperature, altitude's effect 

upon, II, 68 
Temperature and wave length, 

II,9i 
Effect on cells of desert 

plants, XI, 259-262 
Effect on steam pressure, 

XII, 155 
Effect of sun spots on, II, 

144-145 

Of moon, II, 246 
Of Neptune, II, 249 
Of Saturn, II, 249 
Of Sun, II, 256 
Ranges for life, II, 244 
Tent caterpillar, V, 271-274 
Development of, V, 293-305 
Food of, V, 263 
Tent, construction of apple 

tree, V, 269-270 
Teredo, destruction by, X, 

269-272 

Termite, V, 137 
Castes, V, 134 
Colony, V, 140-141 
Damage done by, V, 129 
Digestion by, V, 137 
Economic importance of, V, 

129 

Termites, eggs of, V, 151 
Fate of swarming, V, 134- 

135 

Female, V, 133 
First brood of, V, 137 
Food of, V, 148 
Food of young, V, 136-137 
Home of, V, 128-129 
Homes of tropical, V, 146- 

148 

Kinds in nest, V, 131-135 
Life history of, V, 135-139 



[458] 



INDEX 



Mode of life of, V, 151 
Mound nests of, V, 148 
Production of king and 

queen, V, 139 
Queen, V,^33, 149 
Relationship to roach, V, 

145-146 

Reproduction of, V, 132-135 
Size of queen, V, 149 
Social behavior of, V, 125- 

I5i 

Soldier, V, 131-132 
Start of colony, V, i35-*36 
Swarming of, V, 134-135 
Treatment of Queen, V, 

144 

Where found, V, 128-129 
Winged, V, 132-133 
Workers, V, 131 
Terrapin, painted, VIII, 314, 

315 

Tesla, XII, 31 
Thallophyta, XI, 86-93 
Thigh bone, relation to height, 

VII, 49, 50 
Thomson, XII, 25 
Thomsonite, III, 275 
Thorns, XI, 18-19 

Origin of, XI, 19, 271-273 
Thread, manufacturing, XII, 

267, 268 
Three wire system, XII, 143- 

144 

Thunder bird, IV, 21 1 
Tiger, how captured, VI, 81- 

82 

Personality of, VI, 79-80 
Timberline, conditions of, XI, 

360361 

Time clock, geological, V, 6 
Time, prehistoric, IX, 255- 

259 
Titanite, III, 273 



Titanothere, IX, 181, 191, 

192 

Extinction of, IX, 194-195 
Skeleton of, IX, 181-187 
Titronite, III, 273 
Tlingit Indians, IV, 213 
Toadfish, VIII, 112 
Toads, VIII, 201 

Enemies of, VIII, 197-198 
Food of, VIII, 201 
Food of horned, VI, 263 
Horned, VI, 263 
Midwife, VIII, 202 
Warts from, VIII, 201 
Tobacco, origin and signifi 
cance of, IV, 26, 27 
Toltecs, culture of, VII, 337 

Houses, VII, 337 
Tongue muscle projection, 

VII, 47, 48 
Tool handles, origin of, VII, 

194 

Tools, bone, VII, 194 
Mounted by Mesolithic 

man, VII, 235 
Origin of, VII, 172 
Use of handles for, VII, 

194 
Wood, remains of, VII, 194 

Topaz, III, 236-237 

Tornado, II, 113 

Tortoise shell, VIII, 312 

Tourmaline, III, 239, 240 

Trachea, V, 115 

Track, curvature of Railroad, 

XII, 195 
Trains, brakes of early, VII, 

195 
Transformer, XII, 12, 37-39, 

75, 77 T . 

In distribution of electric 

current, XII, 35 
Faraday's, XII, 12 
Origin, XII, 27, 36 



[459] 



INDEX 



Transmission by different ma 
terials of ultra-violet 
light, II, 237 

Transmission of electric cur 
rent, XII, 37 
Transparency, impairment of 

crystal, III, 176 
In crystals, III, 176 
Of atmosphere and color, 

II, 112-117 

Transpiration current, XI, 23 
Transportation, Aryan, VII, 

315 

Inca, VII, 344 
Indus Valley, VII, 314 
Trap, cyclone mouse, IX, 238- 

240 

Travois, VII, 255 
Tree, age of, XI, 15 
Tree frogs, habits of, VIII, 

205-208 

Tree trunk, work of, XI, 3 
Fence wires and, XI, 17 
Rainy or dry seasons and, 

XI, 15-16 
Water control by, XI, 22- 

23 
Trees, ancient civilizations 

and, XI, 1 6 
Cenozoic, X, 79 
Death of city, XI, 9 
Hibernation of, XI, 21 
Origin of petrified, X, 74- 

75 
Petrified in Arizona, X, 74- 

75 

Triassic, X, 74-75 
Tribal stones in Bible, III, 

3i6, 317 

Triceratops, VII, 17 
Trilobites, X, 56 
Decline of, VII, 14 
Relation to shrimp and 
crabs, X, 56 



Triturus viridescens, VIII, 

187 

Tropics, effect of variations of 
sun radiations in the, II, 

157 
Plant collecting in, XI, 363- 

376 

Tropism, V, 12 1 
Troposphere, formation of, 

VII, 9 

Trypanosomes, damage done 
by, V, 349 

Tsetse fly, V, 348 

Tuatara, VI, 261-262 

Ancient lineage of, VI, 261- 

262 
Habits of, VIII, 296-297 

Tubers, potato, XI, 67 

Tuna, food of, X, 163 

Tungsten, XII, 145 

Filament, XII, 143-146 

Turbine and efficiency of steam 

engine, XII, 171 
Impulse, XII, 1 68 
Inward flow, XII, 153 
Reaction, XII, 169 
Vertical reaction, XII, 153 

Turkey, domestication of, VII, 
339 

Turquoise, III, 257-259 

Turtle shell, VIII, 308-309 

Turtles, box, VIII, 316-318 
Classification of, VIII, 307 
Galapagos, VIII, 313-314 
Green, VIII, 311-312 
Leatherback, VIII, 310-311 
Myths concerning, VIII, 

319 
Structural features, VIII, 

306-307 
Weight of ancient, VIII, 

262 
Twigs, XI, 19 

Growth of, XI, 14 



INDEX 



Increase in thickness of, XI, 

13-14 

Tyrannosaurus Rex, VIII, 224 
Tyrian purple, X, 314-315 

U 

Ultra-violet light and disease, 

II, 233-241 
Radiation, effect of solar 

variations on, II, 146 
Ungulates, IX, 340-362; X, 

79 

Food of, IX, 340341 
United States, fossil sources in, 

IX, 235-236 
Universe, VII, 4 

External to, II, 294-295 
Uranium, rate of disintegra 
tion of, X, 5 



Vacuum tube, XII, 59-62 
Vampire bats, IX, 318 
Variscite, III, 256, 257, 259- 

260 

Vegetables, origin of, VII, 3 
Vegetation, effect of glacier on, 

VII, 60 

Vegetative propogation, XI, 

63, 64 

Venus, life on, II, 252-253 
Venus' flytrap, adaptations of, 

XI, 74 

Verdolite, III, 285 
Vertebrates, cold-blooded, 

VIII, 161 

Number of species of, VII, 

20 

Origin of land, X, 22 
Use of backbone of, VIII, I 

Vesuvianite, III, 274 

Vines, phototropism of, XI, 

33-34 
Vipers, pit, VIII, 347 



Vision, snail's, X, 309, 310 
Viviparous fishes, VIII, 103- 

104 

Volcanic pipes, III, 196 
Volts, no, XII, 143 
Vulcanization, XII, 318 
Vultures IX, 142 

Bearded, IX, 140 

Food of, IX, 142 

W 

Walcott's fossils, X, 58, 59 

Walking Stick, V, 71 

Wampum, source of Indian, 
X, 275-276 

War, effect on ancient life, 

VII, 180, 181 

Effect on present civiliza 
tion, VII, 181 

Wart hog embryo, VI, 58 

Wart hogs, habitat of, VI, 158 

Water, ascent in plants of, II, 

227 
Effect of glacier on sea, 

VII, 62 
Effect on frogs of salt, VIII, 

195 
Flow pyrheliometer, II, 88, 

89 

Forms of, XII, 49 
Horse, VI, 146 
In the body, II, 244 
Light transmission in atmos 
pheric, II, 314 
Magmatic, III, i?5 
Plant's need of, II, 224 
Plants, oxygen from, XI, 27 
Power, low pressure, XII, 

151-152 
Power, Niagara Falls, XII, 

36 . t 

Pressure, conversion of, 

XII, 151 
Source in desert, XI, 280 



[461] 



INDEX 



Transportation, early means 

of, VII, 240, 241 
Transportation, origin of, 

VII, 239, 240 
Transportation, Sumatran, 

VII, 304 

Tube boiler, XII, 157 
Turbine, U. S., XII, 153 
Vapor, control of, in plants, 

II, 226 
Water vapor, movement of, in 

atmosphere, II, 106 
Wheel buckets, XII, 151 
Watercraft, early, VII, 276 
Watt condenser, XII, 160 
Watt's engine, operation of, 

XII, 160 
Wavelength and temperature, 

II )9 i 
Weather and solar variations, 

II, 157-158 
Effect of solar variations on, 

II, 4, 156 
Ice Age, VII, 59-61 
Proterozoic, X, 45-46 

Sun and, II, 67, 68, 155, 

159 

Weaver bird, nest of, IX, 78 
Weaving, XII, 265 

Early mechanical, XII, 299 
Jacquard, XII, 290-298 
Origin, XII, 265, 266 
Origin of cloth, VII, 261 
Origin of power, XII, 300 
Pattern, XII, 281-286 
Process, XII, 271 
Weed seeds eaten by birds, IX, 

129 

Weeds, spread of, XI, 58 
Welding, electric, XII, 27 
Whale, IX, 243, 366-375 
Activities of killer, IX, 372 
Adaptations of, IX, 253, 
254 



Copepod parasites in, X, 

132 

Food for baby, IX, 242 
Head of Sperm, IX, 371- 

372 

Kinds of, IX, 370-371 
Method of hunting, IV, 64 
"Spout", IX, 367 
Wheat, XI, 323-324 

Old World, XI, 323 
Wheatstone, XII, 79, 80 
Wheel, origin of, VII, 256 
Religious association of, 

VII, 257 
Wheeled cart, early uses of, 

VII, 257 

Whitefish, food of, X, 125 
Whitney, XII, 301 
Wichita Grass Lodge, IV, 161 
Wigglers, V, 333 
Wilting, XI, 25-26 
Wind, effect of Ice Age on, 

VII, 61 

Resistance, XII, 235-236 
Tunnel, XII, 232 
Wings, structure of insect, V, 

83-84 

Window, Eskimo, IV, 42 
Winter eggs of crustaceans, X, 

1 2O 
Wire, electrons in a, XII, 56, 

58 
Wireless, foreshadowing of, 

XII, 78 
Wolverine, cleverness of, VI, 

226-227 

Relatives of, VI, 226 
Women in Iroquois life, IV, 

73 

Wood cuts, XII, 353-356 
Production in trees, XI, 13- 



Production of, XI, 295, 296 



[462] 



INDEX 



Woodpeckers, IX, 77, 136 
Woody stem, support of, XI, 

12 

Worm, screw, V, 352 
Worship of ruler, VII, 305 
Wright Brothers, XII, 225, 

228, 232 
Writing achievement, VII, 

289 
Development of, VII, 288, 

293 
Origin of, VII, 167 

X 

Xerophytes, XI, 78 

X-ray, behavior in a magnetic 

field of, XII, 67 
Defined, XII, 65 
Discovery of, XII, 65-68 
Penetration of, XII, 66 
Production of, XII, 66 
Rays related to, XII, 65 
Speed, II, 303 
Tube, structure, XII, 64, 

67 
Tubes, operating voltage of, 

XII, 68 
Tubes, operating effects of, 

XII, 68 
Visualizing effects of, XII, 

66 

Wavelength, II, 303 
Xylem, II, 227, 228 



Yak, VI, 174 

Year, Egyptian, VII, 298 

Yeasts, reproduction of, XI, 

38, 90 
Yellow fever, carrier of, V, 

338-339 

Cause of, V, 340 
Yucca, XI, 50-51 

Flower, pollination of, XI, 

50-51 
Larvae consumption of seeds 

of, XI, 51 
Moth, XI, 50-51 
Yumas, dress of, IV, 175 

Lodge, IV, 175 _ 
Yurak, artistic abilities of, IV, 

196, 197 
Boat, IV, 1 88 
Culture of, IV, 191-196, 

198, 199 

Dress of, IV, 191 
House, IV, 191, 192 
Indians, woodwork of, IV, 
197 

Z 
Zebra, hybrids between ass 

and, VI, 213 
Mountain, VI, 213 
Zircon, III, 253-254 
Color of, III, 253 
Zonal, development of crystals, 

III, 176 
Zunis, IV, 115, 130 



[463] 



=" 



110131